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HANS-ADOLF PRüTZMANN (31 August 1901 – 21 May 1945, Lüneburg ) was a high-ranking SS official of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. From June to November 1941, he served as the Higher SS and Police Leader in the Army Group North Rear Area in the occupied Soviet Union. In this capacity, he oversaw the activities of the Einsatzgruppen detachments that perpetrated The Holocaust in the Baltic States
Baltic States
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Nazi career

* 3 World War II

* 3.1 Role in the Latvia Holocaust * 3.2 Later career

* 4 Arrest and suicide * 5 Notes * 6 References

EARLY LIFE

After completing his studies at the Gymnasium , Prützmann studied agriculture in Göttingen , before he became a member of various Freikorps between 1918 and 1921. Despite being a member, he nevertheless avoided military and typical Freikorps-related aggressive situations. This, however, changed in 1923, when he interrupted his studies to accompany a Freikorps involved in the Upper Silesian uprisings . Afterwards he worked for seven years as an agricultural official in Pomerania , Brandenburg , and East Prussia .

NAZI CAREER

He joined the SA in 1929. Prützmann had become quite a radical soldier as a result of his Freikorps experiences. Since his own personal goals did not match the milder thinking found in the SA, he left the organization in 1930 and transferred to the SS; one of his first command assignments was as the Führer of the 18th SS-Standarte . As of this point in time, Prützmann's career began a steep rise. While a member of the Reichstag , he was appointed SS-Brigadeführer in November 1933, and in February 1934 he was promoted to the rank of SS- Gruppenführer . At the same time, Prützmann was appointed Leader of the SS Upper Division Southwest in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
. From March 1937 until May 1941, Prützmann led the SS Upper Division Northeast whose headquarters were in Königsberg (now Kaliningrad ).

WORLD WAR II

By April 1941, Prützmann had been appointed Generalleutnant (Lieutenant General) of the Police. From June until October 1941, he was Höherer S.S. und Polizeiführer ( Higher SS and Police Leader ) of Russia-North, the post being responsible for internal security and combatting partisans. He held the same position in Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia-South until the summer of 1944. He also commanded Kampfgruppe "Prützmann" in Ukraine
Ukraine
during the early summer of 1944, and was awarded with the German Cross
German Cross
in Gold for his actions.

ROLE IN THE LATVIA HOLOCAUST

The Riga Ghetto in 1942. Prützmann was responsible for setting up this ghetto. Thousands of Jews were killed here.

From June to November 1941, Prützmann held the post of Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) for Latvia. Effectively this gave him control of Latvia , shared with Hinrich Lohse
Hinrich Lohse
. In Latvia killing of Jews and other persons began almost immediately, and at first they were primarily conducted by a mobile killing group (Einsatzgruppe A ). In late July 1941, Einsatzgruppe A moved out of Latvia, and primary responsibility for organizing the murder of Jews then moved to the Latvian office of the SD ( Sicherheitsdienst , or Security Service.) As HSSPF Latvia, Prützmann was in charge of the SD and the person responsible for implementing the Final Solution in Latvia.

After the departure of Einsatzgruppe A, a dispute arose among the Nazi rulers of Latvia about their so-called "Jewish problem". One group, headed by Lohse, who was backed by Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
, wanted to confine the Jews to ghettos, steal all their property, and work them as slave laborers in support of Germany's war effort. Heinrich Himmler , the overall head of the SD, and Prützmann's ultimate boss, wanted the Jews of Latvia murdered right away. Up until November, 1941, the Lohse/Rosenberg faction had somewhat prevailed, and as a result "only" about 30,000 of Latvia's approximately 70,000 Jews had been killed by then. Unhappy with pace at which the SD was murdering people in Latvia, Himmler replaced Prützmann in mid-November 1941 with Friedrich Jeckeln
Friedrich Jeckeln
, an experienced murderer who in Ukraine
Ukraine
had developed his own "Jeckeln system" of killing 10,000 or more people in a single day. Prützmann was assigned to Ukraine.

Prützmann's precise role as HSSPF Latvia in the murders of Jews and other war crimes in Latvia has never been fully explained. He appears to have been something of a weakling in the struggles the Nazis were having between themselves. It is known that Prützmann was responsible for forcing the Jews of Latvia into ghettos, which allowed them to be later more readily killed by Jeckeln and others. It is also known that when Jeckeln took over as HSSPF Latvia, Prützmann among others reported to him that large numbers of Jews had already been killed.

LATER CAREER

One of his last promotions came in September 1944 when Prützmann was appointed by Heinrich Himmler as Generalinspekteur für Spezialabwehr (General Inspector of Special Defense) and assigned the task of setting up the Werwolf
Werwolf
force's headquarters in Berlin and organizing and instructing the force. Prützmann had studied the guerrilla tactics used by Russian partisans while stationed in the occupied territories of Ukraine
Ukraine
and the idea was to teach these tactics to the members of Operation Werwolf. As originally conceived, the Werwolf units were intended to be legitimate uniformed military formations trained to engage in clandestine operations behind enemy lines in the same manner as Allied Special Forces such as Commandos .

In early 1945, under orders from Himmler, he directed the assassination of the Allied-appointed mayor of Aachen
Aachen
, Franz Oppenhoff .

ARREST AND SUICIDE

Shortly before the war ended, Prützmann was captured by the Allies . He committed suicide while in custody, on 21 May 1945.

NOTES

Wikimedia Commons has media related to THE HOLOCAUST IN LATVIA .

* ^ A B C Ezergailis, Andrew, The Holocaust in Latvia 1941-1944 -- The Missing Center, pp. xix, 6, 153, 206, 208, 225, 240, 264,347, Historical Institute of Latvia (in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) Riga 1996 ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 * ^ Biddiscombe, Perry (1998). Werwolf!: The History of the National Socialist Guerrilla Movement, 1944-1946. University of Toronto Press . p. 464. ISBN 978-0-8020-0862-6 . * ^ Klemperer, Victor 077348681X; Roderick H. Watt (1997). An Annotated Edition of Victor Klemperer's LTI, Notizbuch eines Philologen. E. Mellen Press. p. 305. * ^ Reitlinger, SS - Alibi of a Nation, pp. 148n and 445.

REFERENCES

* Ezergailis, Andrew , The Holocaust in Latvia 1941-1944—The Missing Center, Historical Institute of Latvia (in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) Riga 1996 ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 * Reitlinger, Gerald , The SS: Alibi of a Nation 1922-1945. Viking (Da Capo reprint), New York 1957 ISBN 0-306-80351-8

* v * t * e

The Holocaust in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine
Ukraine

CRIMES

* Burning of the Riga synagogues
Burning of the Riga synagogues
* Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

VICTIMS

* Jewish people of Latvia * Gypsies * Joseph Carlebach * Simon Dubnow
Simon Dubnow
* Else Hirsch

PERPETRATORS

* Alois Brunner * Rudolf Batz * Fritz Dietrich * Otto-Heinrich Drechsler * Erich Ehrlinger * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln
Friedrich Jeckeln
* Heinz Jost * Konrāds Kalējs * Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Wolfgang Kügler * Rudolf Lange * Hinrich Lohse
Hinrich Lohse
* Friedrich Panzinger * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Eduard Roschmann
Eduard Roschmann
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Martin Sandberger
Martin Sandberger
* Albert Sauer * Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Reichskommissariat Ostland * Rollkommando Hamann

COLLABORATORS Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

GHETTOS AND CAMPS

* Daugavpils Ghetto
Daugavpils Ghetto
* Jungfernhof concentration camp * Kaiserwald concentration camp * Riga Ghetto * Salaspils concentration camp
Salaspils concentration camp

DOCUMENTATION

* Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report
Jäger Report

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Jānis Lipke * Roberts Sedols

MEMORIALS

* Bikernieki Memorial

RELATED ARTICLES

* The Holocaust * Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich * Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger * Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost * Erich Naumann
Erich Naumann
* Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf
Otto Ohlendorf
* Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski
* Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein
Ernst Biberstein
* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln
Friedrich Jeckeln
* Waldemar Klingelhöfer * Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske
Gustav Adolf Nosske
* Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff
Walter Rauff
* Martin Sandberger
Martin Sandberger
* Hermann Schaper * Karl Eberhard Schöngarth * Erwin Schulz * Franz Six * Eugen Steimle
Eugen Steimle
* Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker
August Becker
* Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst
Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando * Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto * Minsk Ghetto * Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues
Burning of the Riga synagogues
* Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
* Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg * Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino * Zmievskaya Balka
Zmievskaya Balka
* Lokot Autonomy
Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto * Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order * Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report
Jäger Report
* Korherr Report * Special Prosecution Book-Poland (Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

* v * t * e

Army Group Rear Areas during the German–Soviet War , 1941–45

ARMY GROUP REAR AREA

* North * Centre * South

COMMANDING ORGANISATIONS

* Army High Command * Kommandostab Reichsführer-SS * Army Group North * Army Group Centre * Army Group South

COMMANDERS

* Erich Friderici * Ludwig Kübler * Franz von Roques * Karl von Roques * Edwin von Rothkirch * Max von Schenckendorff * Joachim Witthöft

SECURITY DIVISIONS

* 201st * 203rd * 207th * 213th * 221st * 281st * 285th * 286th * 403rd * 444th * 454th * 707th

HSS-PF

*