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Hanja
Hanja
(Hangul: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: [ha(ː)nt͈ɕa]) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters (Chinese: 漢字; pinyin: hànzì).[1] More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters
Chinese characters
borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation. Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏.[2] Only a small number of Hanja
Hanja
characters are modified or unique to Korean. By contrast, many of the Chinese characters currently in use in Japan and Mainland China have been simplified, and contain fewer strokes than the corresponding Hanja characters. Although a phonetic Korean alphabet, now known as Hangul, had been created by Sejong the Great,[3] it did not come into widespread official use until the late 19th and early 20th century.[4] Thus, until that time it was necessary to be fluent in reading and writing Hanja
Hanja
in order to be literate in Korean, as the vast majority of Korean literature and most other Korean documents were written in Literary Chinese, using Hanja
Hanja
as its primary script. Today, a good working knowledge of Chinese characters
Chinese characters
is still important for anyone who wishes to study older texts (up to about the 1990s), or anyone who wishes to read scholarly texts in the humanities. Learning a certain number of Hanja
Hanja
is very helpful for understanding the etymology of Sino-Korean words, and for enlarging one's Korean vocabulary. Today, Hanja
Hanja
are not used to write native Korean words, which are always rendered in Hangul, and even words of Chinese origin—Hanja-eo (한자어, 漢字語)—are written with the Hangul
Hangul
alphabet most of the time.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Character formation 3 Eumhun 4 Education

4.1 South 4.2 North

5 Uses

5.1 Print media 5.2 Dictionaries 5.3 Personal names 5.4 Toponymy 5.5 Academia 5.6 Popular usage

6 Gukja

6.1 Yakja

7 Pronunciation 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Sources

History[edit] A major motivation for the introduction of Chinese characters
Chinese characters
into Korea
Korea
was the spread of Buddhism. The major Chinese text that introduced Hanja
Hanja
to Koreans, however, was not a religious text but the Chinese text Cheonjamun (천자문; 千字文; Thousand Character Classic).[citation needed] Although Koreans had to learn Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
to be properly literate for the most part, some additional systems were developed which used simplified forms of Chinese characters
Chinese characters
that phonetically transcribe Korean, including hyangchal (향찰; 鄕札), gugyeol (구결; 口訣), and idu (이두; 吏讀).[citation needed] One way of adapting Hanja
Hanja
to write Korean in such systems (such as Gugyeol) was to represent native Korean grammatical particles and other words solely according to their pronunciation. For example, Gugyeol
Gugyeol
uses the characters 爲尼 to transcribe the Korean word "hăni", which in modern Korean means "does, and so". In Chinese, however, the same characters are read as the expression "wéi ní", meaning "becoming a nun". This is a typical example of Gugyeol
Gugyeol
words where the radical (爲) is read in Korean for its meaning (hă—"to do"), whereas the suffix 尼, ni (meaning "nun"), is used phonetically.[citation needed] Hanja
Hanja
were the sole means of writing Korean until King Sejong the Great promoted the invention of Hangul
Hangul
in the 15th century. Even after the invention of Hangul, however, most Korean scholars continued to write in hanmun.[citation needed] Hangul
Hangul
effectively replaced Hanja
Hanja
only in the 20th century. Since June 1949, Hanja
Hanja
have not officially been used in North Korea, and, in addition, all texts are now written horizontally instead of vertically.[citation needed] Many words borrowed from Chinese have also been replaced in the North with native Korean words. Nevertheless, a large number of Chinese-borrowed words are still widely used in the North (although written in Hangul), and Hanja
Hanja
still appear in special contexts, such as recent North Korean dictionaries.[5][original research?][dubious – discuss] The replacement has been less total in South Korea
Korea
where, although usage has declined over time, some Hanja
Hanja
remain in common usage in some contexts.[citation needed] Character formation[edit] Each Hanja
Hanja
is composed of one of 214 radicals plus in most cases one or more additional elements. The vast majority of Hanja
Hanja
use the additional elements to indicate the sound of the character, but a few Hanja
Hanja
are purely pictographic, and some were formed in other ways. Eumhun[edit] To aid in understanding the meaning of a character, or to describe it orally to distinguish it from other characters with the same pronunciation, character dictionaries and school textbooks refer to each character with a combination of its sound and a word indicating its meaning. This dual meaning-sound reading of a character is called eumhun (음훈; 音訓; from 音 "sound" + 訓 "meaning," "teaching"). The word or words used to denote the meaning are often—though hardly always—words of native Korean (i.e., non-Chinese) origin, and are sometimes archaic words no longer commonly used. Education[edit] South[edit] South Korean primary schools abandoned the teaching of Hanja
Hanja
in 1971, although they are still taught as part of the mandatory curriculum in 6th grade. They are taught in separate courses in South Korean high schools, separately from the normal Korean-language curriculum. Formal Hanja
Hanja
education begins in grade 7 (junior high school) and continues until graduation from senior high school in grade 12. A total of 1,800 Hanja
Hanja
are taught: 900 for junior high, and 900 for senior high (starting in grade 10).[6] Post-secondary Hanja
Hanja
education continues in some liberal-arts universities.[7] The 1972 promulgation of basic Hanja
Hanja
for educational purposes changed on December 31, 2000, to replace 44 Hanja
Hanja
with 44 others.[8] Debate flared again in 2013 after a move by South Korean authorities to encourage primary and secondary schools to offer Hanja
Hanja
classes. Officials said that learning Chinese characters
Chinese characters
could enhance students' Korean-language proficiency; protesters called the program "old-fashioned and unnecessary".[9] North[edit] Though North Korea
Korea
rapidly abandoned the general use of Hanja
Hanja
soon after independence,[10] the number of Hanja
Hanja
taught in primary and secondary schools is actually greater than the 1,800 taught in South Korea.[11] Kim Il-sung
Kim Il-sung
had earlier called for a gradual elimination of the use of Hanja,[12] but by the 1960s, he had reversed his stance; he was quoted as saying in 1966, "While we should use as few Sinitic terms as possible, students must be exposed to the necessary Chinese characters and taught how to write them."[13] As a result, a Chinese-character textbook was designed for North Korean schools for use in grades 5–9, teaching 1,500 characters, with another 500 for high school students.[14] College students are exposed to another 1,000, bringing the total to 3,000.[15] Uses[edit] Because many different Hanja—and thus, many different words written using Hanja—often share the same sounds, two distinct Hanja
Hanja
words (Hanjaeo) may be spelled identically in the phonetic Hangul
Hangul
alphabet. Hanja's language of origin, Chinese, has many homophones, and Hanja words became even more homophonic when they came into Korean, since Korean lacks a tonal system, which is how Chinese distinguishes many words that would otherwise be homophonic. For example, while 道, 刀, and 島 are all phonetically distinct in Mandarin (pronounced dào, dāo, and dǎo respectively), they are all pronounced do (도) in Korean. For this reason, Hanja
Hanja
are often used to clarify meaning, either on their own without the equivalent Hangul
Hangul
spelling or in parentheses after the Hangul
Hangul
spelling as a kind of gloss. Hanja
Hanja
are often also used as a form of shorthand in newspaper headlines, advertisements, and on signs, for example the banner at the funeral for the sailors lost in the sinking of ROKS Cheonan (PCC-772).[16] Print media[edit] In South Korea, Hanja
Hanja
are used most frequently in ancient literature, legal documents, and scholarly monographs, where they often appear without the equivalent Hangul
Hangul
spelling.[citation needed] Usually, only those words with a specialized or ambiguous meaning are printed in Hanja.[citation needed] In mass-circulation books and magazines, Hanja are generally used rarely, and only to gloss words already spelled in Hangul
Hangul
when the meaning is ambiguous.[citation needed] Hanja
Hanja
are also often used in newspaper headlines as abbreviations or to eliminate ambiguity.[17] In formal publications, personal names are also usually glossed in Hanja
Hanja
in parentheses next to the Hangul. In contrast, North Korea
Korea
eliminated the use of Hanja
Hanja
even in academic publications by 1949, a situation that has since remained unchanged.[13] Hanja
Hanja
are often used for advertising or decorative purposes, and appear frequently in athletic events and cultural parades, dictionaries and atlases. For example, the Hanja
Hanja
辛 (sin or shin, meaning sour or hot) appears prominently on packages of Shin Ramyun
Shin Ramyun
noodles. Dictionaries[edit] In modern Korean dictionaries, all entry words of Sino-Korean origin are printed in Hangul
Hangul
and listed in Hangul
Hangul
order, with the Hanja
Hanja
given in parentheses immediately following the entry word. This practice helps to eliminate ambiguity, and it also serves as a sort of shorthand etymology, since the meaning of the Hanja
Hanja
and the fact that the word is composed of Hanja
Hanja
often help to illustrate the word's origin. As an example of how Hanja
Hanja
can help to clear up ambiguity, many homophones are written in Hangul
Hangul
as 수도 (sudo), including:[18]

修道: spiritual discipline 囚徒: prisoner 水都: "city of water" (e.g. Venice or Suzhou) 水稻: paddy rice 水道: drain, rivers, path of surface water 隧道: tunnel 首都: capital (city)

Hanja
Hanja
dictionaries (Jajeon (자전, 字典) or Okpyeon (옥편, 玉篇)) are organized by radical (the traditional Chinese method of classifying characters). Personal names[edit] Korean personal names are generally based on Hanja, although some exceptions exist. On business cards, the use of Hanja
Hanja
is slowly fading away, with most older people displaying their names in Hanja
Hanja
while most of the younger generation uses Hangul. Korean personal names usually consist of a one-character family name (seong, 성, 姓) followed by a two-character given name (ireum, 이름). There are a few two-character family names (e.g. 남궁, 南宮, Namgung), and the holders of such names—but not only them—tend to have one-syllable given names. Traditionally, the given name in turn consists of one character unique to the individual and one character shared by all people in a family of the same sex and generation (see Generation name). During the Japanese administration of Korea
Korea
(1910–1945), Koreans were encouraged to adopt Japanese-style names, including polysyllabic readings of the Hanja, but this practice was reversed by post-independence governments in Korea. Since the 1970s, some parents have given their children given names that break the Chinese generation style, and are simply native Korean words. Popular ones include Haneul—meaning "sky"—and Iseul—meaning "morning dew". Nevertheless, on official documents, people's names are still recorded in both Hangul
Hangul
and in Hanja
Hanja
(if the name is composed of Hanja). Toponymy[edit] Due to standardization efforts during Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon eras, native Korean placenames were converted to Hanja, and most names used today are Hanja-based. The most notable exception is the name of the capital, Seoul, a native Korean word meaning "capital" with no direct Hanja
Hanja
conversion; the Hanja
Hanja
gyeong (경, 京, "capital") is sometimes used as a back-rendering. For example, disyllabic names of railway lines, freeways, and provinces are often formed by taking one character from each of the two locales' names; thus,

The Gyeongbu
Gyeongbu
(경부, 京釜) corridor connects Seoul
Seoul
(gyeong, 京) and Busan
Busan
(bu, 釜); The Gyeongin (경인, 京仁) corridor connects Seoul
Seoul
and Incheon
Incheon
(in, 仁); The former Jeolla
Jeolla
(전라, 全羅) Province took its name from the first characters in the city names Jeonju
Jeonju
(전주, 全州) and Naju (나주, 羅州) ("Naju" is originally "Raju," but the initial "r/l" sound in South Korean is simplified to "n").

Most atlases of Korea
Korea
today are published in two versions: one in Hangul
Hangul
(sometimes with some English as well), and one in Hanja. Subway and railway station signs give the station's name in Hangul, Hanja, and English, both to assist visitors (including Chinese or Japanese who may rely on the Hanja
Hanja
spellings) and to disambiguate the name. Academia[edit] Hanja
Hanja
are still required for certain disciplines in academia, such as Oriental Studies
Oriental Studies
and other disciplines studying Chinese, Japanese or historic Korean literature and culture, since the vast majority of primary source text material are written in Hanzi, Kanji, Hanja, etc. Popular usage[edit] See also: Korean mixed script

This Korean War
Korean War
propaganda leaflet created by the US Army as part of Operation Moolah
Operation Moolah
uses Hangul– Hanja
Hanja
mixed script.

Opinion surveys in South Korea
Korea
regarding the issue of Hanja
Hanja
use have had mixed responses in the past. Hanja
Hanja
terms are also expressed through Hangul, the standard script in the Korean language. Hanja
Hanja
use within general Korean literature has declined significantly since the 1980s because formal Hanja
Hanja
education in South Korea
Korea
does not begin until the seventh year of schooling, due to changes in government policy during the time. In 1956, one study found mixed-script Korean text (in which Sino-Korean nouns are written using Hanja, and other words using Hangul) were read faster than texts written purely in Hangul; however, by 1977, the situation had reversed.[19] In 1988, 80% of one sample of people without a college education "evinced no reading comprehension of any but the simplest, most common hanja" when reading mixed-script passages.[20] Gukja[edit] See also: Kokuji A small number of characters were invented by Koreans themselves. These characters are called gukja (국자, 國字, literally "national characters"). Most of them are for proper names (place-names and people's names) but some refer to Korean-specific concepts and materials. They include 畓 (답; dap; "paddyfield"), 欌 (장; jang, "wardrobe"), 乭 (돌; Dol, a character only used in given names), 㸴 (소; So, a rare surname from Seongju), and 怾 (기; Gi, an old name referring to Kumgangsan). Further examples include 巭 (부 bu), 頉 (탈 tal), 䭏 (편 pyeon), and 哛 (뿐 ppun),椧 (명 myeong). Compare to the parallel development in Japan of kokuji (国字), of which there are hundreds, many rarely used—these were often developed for native Japanese plants and animals. Yakja[edit]

Yakja (약자, 略字) simplification of 無

Some Hanja
Hanja
characters have simplified forms (약자, 略字, yakja) that can be seen in casual use. An example is , which is a cursive form of 無 (meaning "nothing"). Pronunciation[edit] Each Hanja
Hanja
character is pronounced as a single syllable, corresponding to a single composite character in Hangul. The pronunciation of Hanja in Korean is by no means identical to the way they are pronounced in modern Chinese, particularly Mandarin, although some Chinese dialects and Korean share similar pronunciations for some characters. For example, 印刷 "print" is yìnshuā in Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
and inswae (인쇄) in Korean, but it is pronounced insue in Shanghainese
Shanghainese
(a Wu Chinese dialect). One obvious difference is the complete loss[dubious – discuss] of tone from Korean while most Chinese dialects retain tone. In other aspects, the pronunciation of Hanja
Hanja
is more conservative than most northern and central Chinese dialects, for example in the retention of labial consonant codas in characters with labial consonant onsets, such as the characters 法 (법 beop) and 凡 (범 beom); labial codas existed in Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
but do not survive intact in most northern and central Chinese varieties today, and even in many southern Chinese varieties that still retain labial codas, including Cantonese
Cantonese
and Hokkien, labial codas in characters with labial onsets are replaced by their dental counterparts. Due to divergence in pronunciation since the time of borrowing, sometimes the pronunciation of a Hanja
Hanja
and its corresponding hanzi may differ considerably. For example, 女 ("woman") is nǚ in Mandarin Chinese and nyeo (녀) in Korean. However, in most modern Korean dialects (especially South Korean ones), 女 is pronounced as yeo (여) when used in an initial position, due to a systematic elision of initial n when followed by y or i. Additionally, sometimes a Hanja-derived word will have altered pronunciation of a character to reflect Korean pronunciation shifts, for example mogwa 모과 木瓜 "quince" from mokgwa 목과, and moran 모란 牡丹 "Paeonia suffruticosa" from mokdan 모단. There are some pronunciation correspondence between the onset, rhyme, and coda between Cantonese
Cantonese
and Korean.[21] When learning how to write Hanja, students are taught to memorize the native Korean pronunciation for the Hanja's meaning and the Sino-Korean pronunciations (the pronunciation based on the Chinese pronunciation of the characters) for each Hanja
Hanja
respectively so that students know what the syllable and meaning is for a particular Hanja. For example, the name for the Hanja
Hanja
水 is 물 수 (mul-su) in which 물 (mul) is the native Korean pronunciation for "water", while 수 (su) is the Sino-Korean pronunciation of the character. The naming of Hanja
Hanja
is similar to if "water" were named "water-aqua", "horse-equus", or "gold-aurum" based on a hybridization of both the English and the Latin names. Other examples include 사람 인 (saram-in) for 人 "person/people", 큰 대 (keun-dae) for 大 "big/large//great", 작을 소 (jakeul-so) for 小 "small/little", 아래 하 (arae-ha) for 下 "underneath/below/low", 아비 부 (abi-bu) for 父 "father", and 나라이름 한 (naraireum-han) for 韓 "Han/Korea". See also[edit]

Korea
Korea
portal Language portal

Sino-Korean vocabulary Korean mixed script Han-Nom
Han-Nom
(Vietnamese equivalent) Kanji
Kanji
(Japanese equivalent) McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization of Korean Revised Romanization New Korean Orthography List of Korea-related topics

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Coulmas, Florian (1991). The writing systems of the world. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-631-18028-9.  ^ "Korean Hanja
Hanja
Characters » SayJack". www.sayjack.com. Retrieved 2017-11-04.  ^ "알고 싶은 한글". 국립국어원. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 22 March 2018.  ^ Fischer, Stephen Roger (2004-04-04). A History of Writing. Globalities. London: Reaktion Books. pp. 189–194. ISBN 1-86189-101-6. Retrieved 2009-04-03.  ^ "New Korean-English Dictionary published". Korean Central News Agency. 2003-05-28. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12.  ^ Hannas 1997: 71. "A balance was struck in August 1976, when the Ministry of Education agreed to keep Chinese characters
Chinese characters
out of the elementary schools and teach the 1,800 characters in special courses, not as part of Korean language
Korean language
or any other substantive curricula. This is where things stand at present" ^ Hannas 1997: 68-69 ^ 한문 교육용 기초 한자 (2000), page 15 (추가자: characters added, 제외자: characters removed) ^ "Hangeul advocates oppose Hanja
Hanja
classes", The Korea
Korea
Herald, 2013-07-03. ^ Hannas 1997: 67. "By the end of 1946 and the beginning of 1947, the major newspaper Nodong sinmun, mass circulation magazine Kulloja, and similar publications began appearing in all-hangul. School textbooks and literary materials converted to all-hangul at the same time or possibly earlier (So 1989:31)." ^ Hannas 1997: 68. "Although North Korea
Korea
has removed Chinese characters from its written materials, it has, paradoxically, ended up with an educational program that teachers more characters than either South Korea
Korea
or Japan, as Table 2 shows." ^ Hannas 1997: 67. "According to Ko Yong-kun, Kim went on record as early as February 1949, when Chinese characters
Chinese characters
had already been removed from most DPRK publications, as advocating their gradual abandonment (1989:25)." ^ a b Hannas 1997: 67 ^ Hannas 1997: 67. "Between 1968 and 1969, a four-volume textbook appeared for use in grades 5 through 9 designed to teach 1,500 characters, confirming the applicability of the new policy to the general student population. Another five hundred were added for grades 10 through 12 (Yi Yun-p'yo 1989: 372)." ^ Hannas 2003: 188-189 ^ Yang, Lina (2010-04-29). "S. Korea
Korea
bids farewell to warship victims". Xinhua. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.  ^ Brown 1990: 120 ^ (in Korean) Naver Hanja
Hanja
Dictionary query of sudo ^ Taylor and Taylor 1983: 90 ^ Brown 1990: 119 ^ Patrick Chun Kau Chu. (2008). Onset, Rhyme and Coda Corresponding Rules of the Sino-Korean Characters between Cantonese
Cantonese
and Korean. Paper presented at the 5th Postgraduate Research Forum on Linguistics (PRFL), Hong Kong, China, March 15–16.

Sources[edit]

Brown, R. A. (1990). "Korean Sociolinguistic Attitudes in Japanese Comparative Perspective". Journal of Asia Pacific Communication. 1: 117–134.  DeFrancis, John (1990). The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1068-6.  Hannas, William C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1842-3.  Hannas, William C. (2003). The Writing on the Wall: How Asian Orthography Curbs Creativity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3711-0.  Taylor, Insup; Taylor, Martin M. (1983). The psychology of reading. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-684080-6. 

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Eight-dot scripts

Luxembourgish Kanji Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8)

Symbols in braille

Braille
Braille
music Canadian currency marks Computer Braille
Braille
Code Gardner–Salinas braille codes (GS8/GS6) International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) Nemeth braille code

Braille
Braille
technology

Braille
Braille
e-book Braille
Braille
embosser Braille
Braille
translator Braille
Braille
watch Mountbatten Brailler Optical braille recognition Perforation Perkins Brailler Refreshable braille display Slate and stylus Braigo

Persons

Louis Braille Charles Barbier Valentin Haüy Thakur Vishva Narain Singh Sabriye Tenberken William Bell Wait

Organisations

Braille
Braille
Institute of America Braille
Braille
Without Borders Japan Braille
Braille
Library National Braille
Braille
Association Blindness organizations Schools for the blind American Printing House for the Blind

Other tactile alphabets

Decapoint Moon type New York Point Night writing Vibratese

Related topics

Accessible publishing Braille
Braille
literacy RoboBraille

v t e

Electronic writing systems

Emoticons Emoji iConji Leet Unicode

v t e

Internet slang
Internet slang
dialects

3arabizi Alay (Indonesia) Denglisch Doge Fingilish (Persian) Greeklish Gyaru-moji (Japan) Jejemon (Philippines) Leet
Leet
("1337") Lolspeak / LOLspeak / Kitteh Martian language (Chinese) Miguxês (Portuguese) Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon
(Russian) Translit Volapuk

See also English internet slang (at Wiktionary)

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