Hangzhou (Mandarin: [xǎŋ.ʈʂóu] ( listen); local
dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the
capital and most populous city of
Zhejiang Province in east China.
It sits at the head of
Hangzhou Bay, which separates
Hangzhou grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the
Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous
China for much of the last millennium. The city's West Lake,
UNESCO World Heritage Site, immediately west of the city, is amongst
its best-known attractions.
Hangzhou is classified as a sub-provincial city and forms the core
Hangzhou metropolitan area, the fourth-largest in China.
During the 2010 Chinese census, the metropolitan area held 21.102
million people over an area of 34,585 km2
(13,353 sq mi).
Hangzhou prefecture had a registered
population of 9,018,000 in 2015.
In September 2015,
Hangzhou was awarded the 2022 Asian Games. It will
be the third Chinese city to play host to the
Asian Games after
Beijing 1990 and
Guangzhou 2010. Hangzhou, an emerging technology
hub and home to the e-commerce giant Alibaba, also hosted the eleventh
G-20 summit in 2016.
1.1 Early history
1.2 Tang dynasty
1.3 Song dynasty
1.5 Republican and Communist China
3 Administrative divisions
5.1 Economic and Technological Development Zones
7.1 Scenic places near West Lake
7.2 Other religious buildings
9.5 Public transportation
10.2 Primary and secondary schools
11 Twin towns – sister cities
12 Chinese sayings
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
See also: Timeline of
A ceremonial jade bi of the Liangzhu culture
Xiangji Temple was built in 978 AD during the Northern Song Dynasty
Su Shi at the end of Su
Causeway at the West Lake
The celebrated neolithic culture of Hemudu is known to have inhabited
Yuyao, 100 km (62 mi) north-east of Ulumuqi, as far back as
seven thousand years ago. It was during this time that rice was
first cultivated in southeast China. Excavations have established
that the jade-carving
Liangzhu culture (named for its type site just
northwest of Hangzhou) inhabited the area immediately around the
present city around five thousand years ago. The first of
Hangzhou's present neighborhoods to appear in written records was
Yuhang, which probably preserves an old
Hangzhou was made the seat of the zhou (very roughly, "county") of
Hang in AD 589, entitling it to a city wall which was constructed two
years later. By a longstanding convention also seen in other cities
Guangzhou and Fuzhou, the city took on the name of the area it
administered and became known as Hangzhou.
Hangzhou was at the
southern end of China's Grand Canal which extends to Beijing. The
canal evolved over centuries but reached its full length by 609.
In the Tang dynasty,
Bai Juyi was appointed governor of Hangzhou.
Already an accomplished and famous poet, his deeds at
led to his being praised as a great governor. He noticed that the
farmland nearby depended on the water of West Lake, but due to the
negligence of previous governors, the old dyke had collapsed, and the
lake so dried out that the local farmers were suffering from severe
drought. He ordered the construction of a stronger and taller dyke,
with a dam to control the flow of water, thus providing water for
irrigation and mitigating the drought problem. The livelihood of local
Hangzhou improved over the following years.
Bai Juyi used
his leisure time to enjoy the beauty of West Lake, visiting it almost
daily. He also ordered the construction of a causeway connecting
Broken Bridge with Solitary Hill to allow walking, instead of
requiring a boat. He then had willows and other trees planted along
the dyke, making it a beautiful landmark. This causeway was later
named "Bai Causeway", in his honor.
It is listed as one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China. It was
first the capital of the
Wuyue Kingdom from 907 to 978 during the Five
Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. Named Xifu at the time, it was
one of the three great bastions of culture in southern
the tenth century, along with
Nanjing and Chengdu. Leaders of
Wuyue were noted patrons of the arts, particularly of Buddhist temple
architecture and artwork.
Hangzhou also became a cosmopolitan center,
drawing scholars from throughout
China and conducting diplomacy with
neighboring Chinese states, and also with Japan, Goryeo, and the
Khitan Liao dynasty.
In 1089, while another renowned poet
Su Shi (Su Dongpo) was the city's
governor, he used 200,000 workers to construct a 2.8 km
(1.7 mi) long causeway across West Lake, which the Qianlong
Emperor considered particularly attractive in the early morning of the
spring time. The lake was once a lagoon tens of thousands of years
Silt then blocked the way to the sea and the lake was formed. A
drill in the lake-bed in 1975 found the sediment of the sea, which
confirmed its origin. Artificial preservation prevented the lake from
evolving into a marshland. The Su
Causeway built by Su Shi, and the
Causeway built by Bai Juyi, a
Tang dynasty poet who was once the
governor of Hangzhou, were both built out of mud dredged from the lake
bottom. The lake is surrounded by hills on the northern and western
Baochu Pagoda sits on the Baoshi Hill to the north of the
Hangzhou depicted in a French illumination from 1412
Arab merchants lived in
Hangzhou during the Song dynasty, due to the
fact that the oceangoing trade passages took precedence over land
trade during this time. There were also Arabic inscriptions from
the 13th century and 14th century. During the later period of the Yuan
dynasty, Muslims were persecuted through the banning of their
traditions, and they participated in revolts against the Mongols.
The Fenghuangshi mosque was constructed by an Egyptian trader who
moved to Hangzhou.
Ibn Battuta is known to have visited the city
Hangzhou in 1345; he noted its charm and described how the city sat
on a beautiful lake and was surrounded by gentle green hills.
During his stay at Hangzhou, he was particularly impressed by the
large number of well-crafted and well-painted Chinese wooden ships
with colored sails and silk awnings in the canals. He attended a
banquet held by Qurtai, the Yuan
Mongol administrator of the city, who
according to Ibn Battuta, was fond of the skills of local Chinese
Hupao ("Dreaming of the Tiger") Spring in Hangzhou
Cuiguang Pavilion by the West Lake
"Lotus in the Breeze at the Winding Courtyard", one of the Ten Scenes
of the West Lake
Hangzhou was chosen as the new capital of the Southern
Song dynasty in
1132, when most of northern
China had been conquered by the
Jurchens in the Jin–Song wars. The Song court had retreated
south from its original capital in
Kaifeng after it was captured by
the Jurchens in the
Jingkang Incident of 1127, moving to
Nanjing, then to modern Shangqiu, then to
Yangzhou in 1128, and
Hangzhou in 1129. The Song government intended it to be
a temporary capital, but over the decades
Hangzhou grew into a major
commercial and cultural center of the Song dynasty, rising from being
a middling city of no special importance to being one of the world's
largest and most prosperous. Once the prospect of retaking
China had diminished, government buildings in
extended and renovated to better befit its status as a permanent
imperial capital. The imperial palace in Hangzhou, modest in size, was
expanded in 1133 with new roofed alleyways, and in 1148 with an
extension of the palace walls.
From the early 12th century until the
Mongol invasion of 1276,
Hangzhou remained the capital and was known as Lin'an (臨安). It
served as the seat of the imperial government, a center of trade and
entertainment, and the nexus of the main branches of the civil
service. During that time the city was a gravitational center of
Chinese civilization: what used to be considered "central China" in
the north was taken by the Jin, an ethnic minority dynasty ruled by
Numerous philosophers, politicians, and men of literature, including
some of the most celebrated poets in Chinese history such as Su Shi,
Lu You, and
Xin Qiji came here to live and die.
Hangzhou is also the
birthplace and final resting place of the scientist Shen Kuo
(1031–1095 AD), his tomb being located in the
Southern Song dynasty, commercial expansion, an influx of
refugees from the conquered north, and the growth of the official and
military establishments, led to a corresponding population increase
and the city developed well outside its 9th-century ramparts.
According to the Encyclopædia Britannica,
Hangzhou had a population
of over 2 million at that time, while historian
Jacques Gernet has
estimated that the population of
Hangzhou numbered well over one
million by 1276. (Official Chinese census figures from the year 1270
listed some 186,330 families in residence and probably failed to count
non-residents and soldiers.) It is believed that
Hangzhou was the
largest city in the world from 1180 to 1315 and from 1348 to
Because of the large population and densely crowded (often
multi-story) wooden buildings,
Hangzhou was particularly vulnerable to
fires. Major conflagrations destroyed large sections of the city in
1132, 1137, 1208, 1229, 1237, and 1275 while smaller fires occurred
nearly every year. The 1237 fire alone was recorded to have destroyed
30,000 dwellings. To combat this threat, the government established an
elaborate system for fighting fires, erected watchtowers, devised a
system of lantern and flag signals to identify the source of the
flames and direct the response, and charged more than 3,000 soldiers
with the task of putting out fire.
Jingdezhen Green-and-white-glazed Porcelain Statue of Goddess of
Mercy. Yuan Dynasty. Unearthed near Wensan Street,
Hangzhou in 1987.
The city of
Hangzhou was besieged and captured by the advancing Mongol
Kublai Khan in 1276, three years before the final collapse
of the empire. The capital of the new
Yuan Dynasty was established
in the city of Dadu (Beijing).
The Venetian merchant
Marco Polo supposedly visited
Hangzhou in the
late 13th century. In his book, he records that the city was "greater
than any in the world". He called the city Quinsai, a name
that—like Odoric of Pordenone's Cansay—derived from its Southern
Song nickname Xingzai, meaning "Temporary Residence".
Marco Polo wrote
of the city: "The number and wealth of the merchants, and the amount
of goods that passed through their hands, was so enormous that no man
could form a just estimate thereof." Polo may have exaggerated,
describing the city as over one hundred miles in diameter (although if
he had meant Chinese mile it would be smaller at 3/8 of the
measurement in Italian mile and more plausible), and had 12,000
stone bridges, although some argued that this may have been a mistake
and exaggeration by a copyist who turned the "12 gates" of the city
into "12,000 bridges". The renowned 14th-century Moroccan explorer
Ibn Battuta said it was "the biggest city I have ever seen on the face
of the earth."
The city remained an important port until the middle of the Ming
dynasty era, when its harbor slowly silted up. Under the Qing, it was
the site of an imperial army garrison.
An area map of
Hangzhou in 1867
In 1856 and 1860, the
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom
Taiping Heavenly Kingdom occupied
caused heavy damage to the city.
Republican and Communist China
Hangzhou was ruled by the Republic of
China government under the
Kuomintang from 1927-37，1945-49. On May 3, 1949, the People's
Liberation Army entered
Hangzhou and the city came under Communist
control. After Deng Xiaoping's reformist policies began in the end of
Hangzhou took advantage of being situated in the Yangtze River
Delta to bolster its development. It is now one of China's most
prosperous major cities.
Climate chart (explanation)
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
China Meteorological Administration
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Hangzhou Bay from the
Hangzhou Bay Bridge
Tidal bore at the
Qiantang River in Hangzhou
Hangzhou is located in northwestern
Zhejiang province, at the southern
end of the Grand Canal of China, which runs to Beijing, in the
south-central portion of the Yangtze River Delta. Its administrative
area (sub-provincial city) extends west to the mountainous parts of
Anhui province, and east to the coastal plain near
Hangzhou Bay. The
city center is built around the eastern and northern sides of the West
Lake, just north of the Qiantang River.
Hangzhou's climate is humid subtropical (Köppen Cfa) with four
distinctive seasons, characterised by long, very hot, humid summers
and chilly, cloudy and drier winters (with occasional snow). The mean
annual temperature is 17.0 °C (62.6 °F), with monthly
daily averages ranging from 4.6 °C (40.3 °F) in January to
28.9 °C (84.0 °F) in July. The city receives an average
annual rainfall of 1,438.0 mm (56.6 in) and is affected by
the plum rains of the Asian monsoon in June. In late summer (August to
Hangzhou suffers typhoon storms, but typhoons seldom
strike it directly. Generally they make landfall along the southern
coast of Zhejiang, and affect the area with strong winds and stormy
rains. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −9.6 °C
(15 °F) on 6 February 1969 up to 41.6 °C (107 °F) on
9 August 2013; unofficial readings have reached −10.5 °C
(13 °F), set on 29 December 1912 and 24 January 1916, up to
42.1 °C (108 °F), set on 10 August 1930. With monthly
percent possible sunshine ranging from 30% in March to 51% in August,
the city receives 1,709.4 hours of sunshine annually.
Climate data for
Hangzhou (1981–2010 normals, extremes
Record high °C (°F)
Mean maximum °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Mean minimum °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System
The sub-provincial city of
Hangzhou comprises 10 districts, 1
county-level city, and 2 counties. The six central urban districts
occupy 683 km2 (264 sq mi) and have 3,560,400 people.
The four suburban districts occupy 7,319 km2
(2,826 sq mi) and have 3,965,965 people.
In the early 90s,
Hangzhou only comprises Shangcheng, Xiacheng,
On December 12, 1996, Bingjiang District was established.
On March 12, the City of Xiaoshan and the City of
Yuhang was included
into the City of
Hangzhou as two districts.
On December 13, 2014 and in July, 2017, the City of Fuyang and Lin'an
were included into the City of Hanghzou as two districts.
Hangzhou city had a population of 5,162,039 (including Xiaoshan and
Yuhang) at the 2010 census, an increase of 4.8% per year since the
2000 census. The most recent estimates of the city's urban area
population are between 6,658,000 and 6,820,000.
The entire province had a population of 8,700,373 at the 2010
census, and the encompassing urban agglomeration (including
Shaoxing) is estimated to have population of 8,450,000.
The encompassing metropolitan area was estimated by the OECD
(Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) to have, as
of 2010[update], a population of 13.4 million, although other
sources put the figure at over 21 million. The
area includes the major cities of Shaoxing,
Jiaxing and Huzhou.
Qianjiang CBD in Hangzhou
View of the night time
Hangzhou skyline from the West Lake
Alibaba's Binjiang Campus in Hangzhou, headquarters for Alibaba's B2B
Hangzhou International Conference Center
Hangzhou's economy has rapidly developed since its opening up in 1992.
It is an industrial city with many diverse sectors such as light
industry, agriculture, and textiles. It is considered an important
manufacturing base and logistics hub for coastal China.
The 2001 GDP of
Hangzhou was RMB ¥156.8 billion, which ranked second
among all of the provincial capitals after Guangzhou. The city has
more than tripled its GDP since then, increasing from RMB ¥156.8
billion in 2001 to RMB ¥1.105 trillion in 2016 and GDP per capita
increasing from US$3,025 to US$18,282.
The city has developed many new industries, including medicine,
information technology, heavy equipment, automotive components,
household electrical appliances, electronics, telecommunication, fine
chemicals, chemical fibre and food processing.
Economic and Technological Development Zones
Hangzhou Economic & Technological Development Zone was established
and approved as a national development zone by the State Council in
1993. It covers an area of 104.7 km2 (40.4 sq mi).
Encouraged industries include electronic information, biological
medicine, machinery and household appliances manufacturing, and food
Hangzhou Export Processing Zone was established on April 27, 2000 upon
approval of the State Council. It was one of the first zones and the
only one in
Zhejiang Province to be approved by the government. Its
total planned area is 2.92 km2. It is located close to Hangzhou
Xiaoshan International Airport and
Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone was set up with approval
from the State Council as a state level Hi-tech Industrial Development
Zone in March 1991. The HHTZ is composed of three parts, with the main
regions being the Zhijiang Sci-Tech Industrial Park and Xiasha
Sci-Tech Industrial Park. HHTZ has become one of the most influential
hi-tech innovation and hi-tech industry bases in
Zhejiang Province. As
of 2013[update], HHTZ hosts more than 1,100 software developers and
BPO enterprises. Major companies such as Motorola,
Nokia and Siemens
have established R&D centers in the zone. In 2011, the GDP of the
zone rose by 13.1 percent, amounting to RMB 41.63 billion. This
accounted for 5.9 percent of Hangzhou's total GDP. The HHTZ positions
itself as the "Silicon Valley" of China. The Alibaba Group, the
world's largest online B2B portal and China's largest website in terms
of market value, is headquartered in the zone.
In 2016, G20
Hangzhou Summit was held in the City of Hangzhou, see
more in 2016 G20
Hangzhou city gate in 1906
West Lake and Leifeng Pagoda
Hu Xueyan Residence, a historic mansion in Hangzhou
West Lake at night
Hangzhou Sunset Over the Qiantang River
Hangzhou is renowned for its historic relics and natural beauty. It is
known as one of the most beautiful cities in China, also ranking as
one of the most scenic cities. Although
been through many recent urban developments, it still retains its
historical and cultural heritage. Today, tourism remains an important
factor for Hangzhou's economy. One of Hangzhou's most popular
sights is West Lake, a
UNESCO World Heritage Site. The West Lake
Cultural Landscape covers an area of 3,323 ha (8,210 acres) and
includes some of Hangzhou's most notable historic and scenic places.
Adjacent to the lake is a scenic area which includes historical
pagodas, cultural sites, as well as the natural beauty of the lake and
hills, including Phoenix Mountain. There are two causeways across the
Other places of interest
The world's largest tidal bore races up the
Qiantang River through
Hangzhou reaching up to 12 m (39 ft) in height.
The residence of
Hu Xueyan (胡雪岩故居) located on Yuanbao Street
was built in 1872 by Hu Xueyan, a native of Anhui, a very successful
businessman. It was restored and opened to the public in 2001.
Xixi National Wetland Park. Established with the aim of preserving the
wetland ecological system, it covers an area of about 10 km2
(4 sq mi). Fish ponds and reed beds have been restored and
it is home to many types of birds. It holds a temple and several
historic rural houses.
Hangzhou Botanical Garden
China Street on He Fang Street (He Fang Jie or Qing He
Fang，literally 'neighbourhood along the river'), which offers
Jade Springs (Yu Quan)
West Lake Cultural Square is one of the tallest buildings in the city
centre (about 160 m (520 ft)) and houses the Zhejiang
Natural History Museum and
Zhejiang Museum of Science and Technology.
Qiandao Lake is a man-made lake with the largest number of islands in
Chun'an County, an administrative area of
Hangzhou government. These
islands are different in size and shape, and have distinctive scene.
Longjing tea fields, west of the lake.
Euro Street, Hubin Road
In March 2013 the
Hangzhou Tourism Commission started an online
campaign via Facebook, the 'Modern Marco Polo' campaign. Over the next
year nearly 26,000 participants applied from around the globe, in the
hopes of becoming Hangzhou's first foreign tourism ambassador. In
a press conference in
Hangzhou on 20 May 2014,
Liam Bates was
announced as the successful winner and won a €40,000 contract, being
the first foreigner ever to be appointed by China's government in such
an official role.
View of the Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) area
Liuhe Pagoda of Hangzhou, built in 1165, during the Song dynasty
Scenic places near West Lake
Jingci Temple is located just south of West Lake.
Lingyin Temple (Soul's Retreat) is located about 2 km
(1.2 mi) west of West Lake. This is believed to be the oldest
Buddhist temple in the city, which has gone through numerous
destruction and reconstruction cycles.
Baochu Pagoda is located just north of
West Lake on Precious Stone
Yue-Wang Temple (King Yue's Temple) or
Yue Fei Miao is on the
northwest shore of West Lake. It was originally constructed in 1221 in
memory of General Yue Fei, who lost his life due to political
Leifeng Pagoda, located on Sunset Hill south of West Lake.
Other religious buildings
Liuhe Pagoda or six harmonies pagoda is located on Yuelun Hill on the
north bank of Qiantang River
Chenghuangmiao (City God Pavilion) located on Wushan (Wu Hill)
Dreaming of the Tiger Spring
Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou
Immaculate Conception Cathedral of Hangzhou is one of the oldest
Catholic churches in China, dating back 400 years to the Ming dynasty.
Fenghuang Temple (凤凰清真寺) is one of the oldest mosques in
China, the current construction at the intersection of Xihu Avenue
(西湖大道) and the Central
Zhongshan Road (中山中路) dates
back 700 years to the Yuan dynasty.
In 1848, during the Qing dynasty,
Hangzhou was described as the
"stronghold" of Islam in China, the city containing several mosques
with Arabic inscriptions. A Hui from
Ningbo also told an
Hangzhou was the "stronghold" of Islam in Zhejiang
province, containing multiple mosques, compared to his small
congregation of around 30 families in
Ningbo for his mosque.
Within the city of
Hangzhou are two notable mosques: the Great Mosque
Hangzhou and the Phoenix Mosque.
As late as the latter part of the 16th and early 17th centuries, the
city was an important center of Chinese Jewry, and may have been the
original home of the better-known
Kaifeng Jewish community.
There was formerly a Jewish synagogue in Ningbo, as well as one in
Hangzhou, but no traces of them are now discoverable, and the only
Jews known to exist in
China were in Kaifeng.
Two of the
Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism were from Hangzhou.
There was persecution of Christians in the early 21st century in the
Longjing (Dragon Well Spring) in Hangzhou, famous for the Longjing tea
cultivated in the surrounding plantations
Large statue of
Guanyin and carved images of 150 Buddhist
personalities in the Grand Hall of the Great Sage in Lingyin Temple
The native residents of Hangzhou, like those of
Zhejiang and southern
Hangzhou dialect, which is a Wu dialect. However, Wu
Chinese varies throughout the area where it is spoken, hence,
Hangzhou's dialect differs from regions in southern
southern Jiangsu. As the official language defined by China's central
government, Mandarin is the dominant spoken language.
There are several museums located in
Hangzhou with regional and
(中国丝绸博物馆), located near the West Lake, is one of the
first state-level museums in
China and the largest silk museum in the
China National Tea Museum (中国茶叶博物馆) is a national
museum with special subjects as tea and its culture. Zhejiang
Provincial Museum (浙江博物馆) features collection of integrated
human studies, exhibition and research with its over 100,000 collected
Hangzhou's local cuisine is often considered to be representative of
Zhejiang provincial cuisine, which is claimed as one of China's eight
fundamental cuisines. The locally accepted consensus among Hangzhou's
natives defines dishes prepared in this style to be "fresh, tender,
soft, and smooth, with a mellow fragrance."
Dishes such as Pian Er Chuan Noodles (片儿川),
West Lake Vinegar
Fish (西湖醋鱼), Dongpo Pork (东坡肉), Longjing Shrimp
Beggar's Chicken (叫化鸡), Steamed Rice and Pork
Wrapped by Lotus Leaves(荷叶粉蒸肉), Braised Bamboo Shoots
(油焖笋), Lotus Root Pudding (藕粉) and Sister Song's Fish Soup
(宋嫂鱼羹) are some of the better-known examples of Hangzhou's
There are lots of theaters in
Hangzhou showing performance of opera
Shaoxing opera, originated from Shengzhou,
is the second-largest opera form in China. Also, there are several big
shows themed with the history and culture of
Hangzhou like Impression
West Lake and the Romance of Song Dynasty.
Hangzhou hs historically been an important hub for artists and
scholars. In modern times,
Hangzhou was home to the
China Art Academy
and prominent painters such as
Lin Fengmian and Fang Ganmin.
Tea is an important part of Hangzhou's economy and culture. Hangzhou
is best known for originating Longjing, a notable variety of green
tea, the most notable type being
Xi Hu Long Jing. Known as the
best type of Long Jing tea,
Xi Hu Long Jing
Xi Hu Long Jing is grown in Longjing
Xi Hu in Hangzhou, hence its name.
The local government of
Hangzhou heavily invests in promoting tourism
and the arts, with emphasis placed upon silk production, umbrellas,
and Chinese hand-held folding fans.
Hangzhou Railway Station
High-speed rail line in Hangzhou
Hangzhou city bus
Buses and taxi on
Bicycles for rent
Qiantang River Bridge
The Port of
Hangzhou is a small river port with a cargo throughput
that exceeds 100 million tons annually.
Hangzhou is served by the
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport,
which provides direct service to many international destinations such
as Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, Taiwan,
Portugal and the United States. Regional
Hong Kong and Macau. It has an extensive domestic route
network within the PRC and is consistently ranked top 10 in passenger
traffic among Chinese airports.
Hangzhou Xiaoshan International
Airport has two terminals, Terminal A and Terminal B. The smaller
Terminal A serves all international and regional flights while the
larger Terminal B solely handles domestic traffic. The airport is
located just outside the city in the
Xiaoshan District with direct bus
service linking the airport with Downtown Hangzhou. The ambitious
expansion project will see the addition of a second runway and a third
terminal which will dramatically increase capacity of the fast-growing
airport that serves as a secondary hub of Air China. A new elevated
airport express highway is under construction on top of the existing
highway between the airport and downtown Hangzhou. The second phase of
Hangzhou Metro Line 1 has a planned extension to the airport.
Hangzhou sits on the intersecting point of some of the busiest rail
corridors in China. The city's main station is
Hangzhou East Railway
Station (colloquially "East Station" 东站). It is one of the biggest
rail traffic hubs in China, consisting of 15 platforms that house the
High Speed CRH service to Shanghai, Nanjing, Changsha, Ningbo, and
beyond. The subway station beneath the rail complex building is a stop
Hangzhou Metro Line 1 and Line 4. There are frequent
Shanghai with approximately 20-minute headways from
6:00 to 21:00. Non-stop CRH high-speed service between
Shanghai takes 50 minutes and leaves every hour (excluding a few early
morning/late night departures) from both directions. Other CRH
high-speed trains that stop at one or more stations along the route
complete the trip in 59 to 75 minutes. Most other major cities in
China can also be reached by direct train service from Hangzhou. The
Hangzhou Railway Station
Hangzhou Railway Station (colloquially the "City Station" Chinese:
城站) was closed for renovation in mid 2013 but has recently opened
Direct trains link
Hangzhou with more than 50 main cities, including
12 daily services to
Beijing and more than 100 daily services to
Shanghai; they reach as far as Ürümqi. The
China Railway High-Speed
service inaugurated on October 26, 2010. The service is operated by
the CRH 380A(L), CRH 380B(L) and CRH380CL train sets which travel at a
maximum speed of 350 km/h (220 mph), shortening the duration
of the 202 km (126 mi) trip to only 45 minutes.
Central (to the east of the city centre, taking the place of the
former east station), north, south, and west long-distance bus
stations offer frequent coach service to nearby cities/towns within
Zhejiang province, as well as surrounding provinces.
Hangzhou has an efficient public transportation network, consisting of
a modern fleet of regular diesel bus, trolley bus, hybrid
diesel-electric bus and taxi. The first subway line entered into
service in late 2012.
Hangzhou is known for its extensive
Transit network expanding from downtown to many suburban areas through
dedicated bus lanes on some of the busiest streets in the city.
Bicycles and electric scooters are very popular, and major streets
have dedicated bike lanes throughout the city.
Hangzhou has an
extensive free public bike rental system, the
Hangzhou Public Bicycle
Hangzhou Metro began construction in March 2006, and the first
line opened on November 24, 2012. Line 1 connects downtown Hangzhou
with suburban areas of the city from Xianghu to Wenze Road and
Linping. By June 2015, the southeast part of Line 2 (starts in
Xiaoshan District, ends to the south of the city centre) and a short
part of Line 4 (fewer than 10 stations, connecting Line 1 & Line
2) were completed. The system is expected to have 10 lines upon
completion; most lines are still under construction. The extensions of
Line 2 (Xihu District) and Line 4 (east of Bingjiang) are expected to
be finished in 2016.
Taxis are also popular in the city, with the newest line of Hyundai
Sonatas and Volkswagen Passats, and tight regulations. In early 2011,
30 electric taxis were deployed in Hangzhou; 15 were
and the other 15 were Haima Freemas. In April, however, one Zoyte
Langyue caught fire, and all of the electric taxis were taken off the
roads later that day. The city still intends to have a fleet of 200
electric taxis by the end of 2011. In 2014, a large number of new
electric taxis produced by Xihu-BYD (Xihu (westlake) is a local
company which is famous for television it produced in the past) were
See also: List of universities in China
Hangzhou has a large student population with many higher education
institutions based in the city. Public universities include Zhejiang
Zhejiang University of Technology, and
University etc. Xiasha, located near the east end of the city, and
Xiaoheshan, located near the west end of the city, are college towns
with a cluster of several universities and colleges.
China Academy of Art (founded in 1928)
Hangzhou Dianzi University
Hangzhou Normal University
Hangzhou Normal University (founded in 1908)
Zhejiang Chinese Medical University
Zhejiang Forestry University
Zhejiang Gongshang University (founded in 1911, the earliest business
school in China)
Zhejiang University of Science and Technology
Zhejiang International Studies University (also known as Zhejiang
Education Institute, founded in 1955 and started enrolling full-time
undergraduates in 1994, got its present name in 2010)
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University
Zhejiang Shuren University
Zhejiang University (founded in 1897), one of the top universities in
China. (Project 985, Project 211, C9 League)
Zhejiang University City College
Zhejiang University of Technology (1953)
Zhejiang University of Media and Communications (1984)
Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.
Primary and secondary schools
The most famous high schools in
Hangzhou west lake High School
Hangzhou High School (formerly
Hangzhou No. 1 Senior High School)
Hangzhou Foreign Language School
High School Attached to
Zhejiang University (formerly
Hangzhou No. 15
Senior High School)
High School attached to
Hangzhou Normal university (formerly Hangzhou
No. 13 Senior High School)
Hangzhou No. 2 High School
Hangzhou No. 4 High School (formerly Yangzheng School, established in
1899 by Lin Qi)
Hangzhou No. 7 High School
Hangzhou Xuejun High School
Hangzhou No. 9 High School
Hangzhou No. 11 High School
Hangzhou No. 14 High School
Hangzhou International School and the
Hangzhou Japanese School
(杭州日本人学校) (nihonjin gakko) serve the local expat
population in Hangzhou.
Twin towns – sister cities
Hangzhou is twinned with:
Fishers, Indiana is in the exploration process of becoming sister
cities with Hangzhou.
A typical Chinese garden's window in Hangzhou. It is a common
technique for the view to resemble a Chinese painting.
A typical Chinese style architecture in Hangzhou
A common Chinese saying about
Hangzhou below." (simplified Chinese:
上有天堂, 下有苏杭; traditional Chinese: 上有天堂,
This phrase has a similar meaning to the English phrases "Heaven on
Marco Polo in his accounts described
Suzhou as "the city of
the earth" while
Hangzhou is "the city of heaven". The city
presented itself as "Paradise on Earth" during the G20 summit held in
the city in 2016.
Another popular saying about
"Be born in Suzhou, live in Hangzhou, eat in Guangzhou, die in
Liuzhou." (simplified Chinese: 生在苏州, 活在杭州,
吃在广州, 死在柳州; traditional Chinese: 生在蘇州,
活在杭州, 吃在廣州, 死在柳州)
The meaning here lies in the fact that
Suzhou was renowned for its
beautiful and highly civilized and educated citizens,
Hangzhou for its
Guangzhou for its food, and
Liuzhou (of Guangxi) for its
wooden coffins which supposedly halted the decay of the body (likely
made from the camphor tree).
Historical capitals of China
List of cities in the People's Republic of
China by population
Suzhou numerals – in the
Unicode standard version 3.0, these
characters are incorrectly named
Hangzhou style numerals
^ a b c d e Economic and Social Development Report of Hangzhou
Metropolitan Circles (2007–2012) (in Chinese). Social Sciences
Academic Press(China). October 1, 2012. Archived from the original on
November 8, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous
Region". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved
中编发5号". 豆丁网. February 19, 1995. Archived from the
original on May 29, 2014. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
^ "2012中国都市圈评价指数今年7月发布" (in Chinese).
上海交通大学. 2012-07-02. Archived from the original on 28
February 2013. Retrieved 2013-02-20.
www.zj.stats.gov.cn. Retrieved 2016-04-10.
China selected to host 2022 Asian Games". Xinhua.
2015-09-16. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
China to host 2016 G20 summit in Hangzhou". PRC Central Government
Official Website. 2015. Retrieved 2015-12-20.
^ Yan Wenming. "The Beginning of Farming", p. 36, in The
Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective,
pp. 27–42. Yale University Press (New Haven), 2005.
^ Fuller, Dorian; et al. (2009). "The Domestication Process and
Domestication Rate in Rice: Spikelet bases from the Lower Yangtze".
Science. 323: 1607–1610. doi:10.1126/science.1166605.
Shanghai Qingpu Museum.
Migration of the Tribe and Integration into the Han Chinese]".
Accessed 24 July 2014.
^ Zhongguo lishi diming dacidian 中國歷史地名大詞典,
Shanghai cishu chubanshe): 1516.
^ Ebrey, Cambridge Illustrated History of China, 114: "[…] the Grand
Canal, dug between 605 and 609 by means of enormous levies of
^ Waley (1941), 131
^ 周, 峰 (1997). 吴越首府杭州: 及北宋东南第一州 (in
Chinese). University of California: 浙江人民出版社. p. 32.
Retrieved 22 July 2014.
^ Worthy 1983, p. 19.
^ Piper Rae Gaubatz (1996). Beyond the Great Wall: urban form and
transformation on the Chinese frontiers (illustrated ed.). Stanford
University Press. p. 210. ISBN 0-8047-2399-0. Retrieved 17
^ Greville Stewart Parker Freeman-Grenville, Stuart C. Munro-Hay
(2006). Islam: an illustrated history (illustrated, revised ed.).
Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 228.
ISBN 0-8264-1837-6. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
^ Zhongguo guo ji mao yi cu jin wei yuan hui (1991). China's foreign
trade. the University of California:
China Council for the Promotion
of International Trade. p. 98. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
^ The Enduring Message of Hangzhou
^ The Travels of
Ibn Battuta Volume 4 pp. 904, 967 (The Hakluyt
Society 1994, British Library)
^ Coblin, Weldon South (2002). "Migration History and Dialect
Development in the Lower Yangtze Watershed". Bulletin of the School of
Oriental and African Studies. 65 (3): 533.
^ Holcombe, Charles (2011). A History of East Asia: From the Origins
of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge University
Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-521-51595-5.
^ a b Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China: 900–1800. Harvard
University Press. pp. 292–3. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
^ Franke, Herbert (1994). Denis C. Twitchett; Herbert Franke; John
King Fairbank, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Volume 6, Alien
Regimes and Border States, 710–1368. Cambridge University Press.
p. 229. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
^ a b Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China: 900–1800. Harvard
University Press. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-674-01212-7.
^ Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in China, on the Eve of the
Mongol Invasion, 1250–1276. Stanford University Press. p. 25.
Yuhang Cultural Network (October 2003). Shen Kuo's Tomb Archived May
2, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The
Yuhang District of Hangzhou
Cultural Broadcasting Press and Publications Bureau. Retrieved on
^ "Largest Cities Through History". Geography.about.com. 2011-03-02.
^ Janet L. Abu-Lughod, Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D.
1250–1350, "All the Silks of China" (Oxford University Press US)
1991, p. 337
^ Gernet, 15.
^ The New
Encyclopædia Britannica (Encyclopædia Britannica, Chicago
University of, William Benton, Encyclopædia Britannica), p. 2
^ J.M. Dent (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City
of Kin-Sai", The travels of
Marco Polo the Venetian,
^ Diana Childress. Marco Polo's Journey to China.
^ Dunn 2005, p. 260
^ Elliott, Michael (2011-07-21). "The Enduring Message of Hangzhou".
Time.com. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
^ Cassel, Pär (2003), "Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial
Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai", Late
Imperial China, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 156–182 .
Hangzhou Archived August 26, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.. China
Today. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013.
Retrieved January 15, 2015.
^ "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Retrieved 2013-02-21.
China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System.
December 2013. Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved
January 1, 2014.
^ "China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps,
Charts, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved
8 December 2017.
^ "The World's Cities in 2016" (PDF). United Nations. 2016.
^ "Demographia World Urban Areas, 13th Annual Edition" (PDF). April
2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 November 2017.
^ "Hángzhōu Shì (Sub-provincial City, China) - Population
Statistics, Charts, Map and Location". www.citypopulation.de.
Retrieved 8 December 2017.
^ "Major Agglomerations of the World - Population Statistics and
Maps". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 8 December 2017.
OECD Urban Policy Reviews:
OECD READ edition. OECD
iLibrary. OECD. 18 April 2015. p. 37.
doi:10.1787/9789264230040-en. ISBN 9789264230033.
ISSN 2306-9341. Linked from the
Hangzhou City Profile 2017" (PDF). Jones Lang LaSalle IP, Inc.
^ a b "Industries of Hangzhou". Hzindus.gov.cn. Archived from the
original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
Hangzhou Economy". China-window.com. Retrieved 2011-03-16.
Hangzhou Economic & Technological Development ZoneChina
Industrial Space. Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
Hangzhou Export Processing Zone
China Industrial Space.
Rightsite.asia (2000-04-27). Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
Hangzhou Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone
China Industrial Space.
Rightsite.asia. Retrieved on 2011-08-28.
Hangzhou Development Zones".
China Briefing. Retrieved 9 May
^ a b
Hangzhou Today: Tourism.
China Pages. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
Archived March 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b "the tea fields of Longjing". Minor Sights. Retrieved 9 December
Marco Polo for Hangzhou, China". NBC NEWS. Retrieved
^ "Briton appointed by Chinese government to promote the country on
Facebook (but locals are still banned from the site)". Daily Mail. 21
May 2014. Retrieved 2014-11-26.
^ Samuel Wells Williams (1848). The Middle kingdom: a survey of the
... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ... (3 ed.). Wiley &
Putnam. p. 98. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
^ The Chinese repository, Volume 13. Printed for the proprietors.
1844. p. 32. Retrieved 2011-05-08.
^ "The Lost Jews of Kaifeng". Jewish-holiday.com. Archived from the
original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved March 16, 2011.
^ Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian church in the U.S.A. Board of
foreign missions (1854). Memoirs of the Rev. Walter M. Lowrie:
missionary to China. Presbyterian board of publication. p. 256.
Retrieved 17 July 2011.
^ Fan, Maureen (October 1, 2006). "In China, Churches Challenge the
Rules". Washington Post.
^ Cummings, Joe and Robert Storey (1991). China, Volume 10. Lonely
Planets Publications. p. 345. ISBN 0-86442-123-0.
Hangzhou Port cargo throughput exceeds 100 mln tons". Hangzhou
Weekly. October 26, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2014.
^ KLM launched its first flight to
China Archived October
9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Schiphol (2010-05-08). Retrieved on
^ xinhuanet (2010-10-26). "
China unveils Shanghai-
railway; eyes network extension". Retrieved 2010-10-26.
Hangzhou Halts All Electric Taxis as a
Zotye Langyue (Multipla) EV
Catches Fire". ChinaAutoWeb. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
^ "Introducing ZISU". zisu.edu. Archived from the original on March
13, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
Zhejiang University surpasses Tsinghua as top university of China".
China.org.cn. Retrieved 17 November 2014.
^ home page.
Hangzhou Japanese School.
^ "Kota Kinabalu,
Hangzhou to ink MoU to enhance friendship ties". The
Borneo Post. November 12, 2016. Archived from the original on March
16, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
^ "Remarks by Consul-General CHEN Peijie At the National Day
Reception". Consulate General of the People's Republic of
Kota Kinabalu. September 23, 2016. Archived from the original on March
16, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
^ J.M. Dent (1908), "Chapter LXVIII: On the Noble and Magnificent City
of Kin-Sai", The travels of
Marco Polo the Venetian, p. 289
^ Hannah Beech (September 2, 2016). "China's Hanghzou Clears Out
Pests—and People—as It Prepares to Host the G20 Summit".
This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey
of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells
Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the
This article incorporates text from The middle kingdom: a survey
of the geography, government, education, social life, arts, religion,
etc. of the Chinese empire and its inhabitants, Volume 2, by Samuel
Wells Williams, John William Orr, a publication from 1848 now in the
public domain in the United States.
This article incorporates text from The Chinese repository,
Volume 13, a publication from 1844 now in the public domain in the
This article incorporates text from The Baptist missionary
magazine, Volume 29, by American Baptist Missionary Union. Executive
Committee, Baptist General Convention. Board of Managers, a
publication from 1849 now in the public domain in the United States.
This article incorporates text from My holidays in China: An
account of three houseboat tours, from
Shanghai to Hangehow and back
via Ningpo; from
Shanghai to Le Yang via Soochow and the Tah Hu; and
from Kiukiang to Wuhu; with twenty-six illustrations (from
photographs), by William R. Kahler, a publication from 1895 now in the
public domain in the United States.
This article incorporates text from Reports from the consuls of
the United States, Issues 124–127, by United States. Bureau of
Foreign Commerce, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in
the United States.
This article incorporates text from Memoirs of the Rev. Walter
M. Lowrie: missionary to China, by Walter Macon Lowrie, Presbyterian
church in the U.S.A. Board of foreign missions, a publication from
1854 now in the public domain in the United States.
This article incorporates text from Darkness in the flowery
land: or, Religious notions and popular superstitions in north China,
by Michael Simpson Culbertson, a publication from 1857 now in the
public domain in the United States.
Economic profile for
Hangzhou at HKTDC
See also: Bibliography of the history of Hangzhou
Cotterell, Arthur (2007). The Imperial Capitals of
China – An Inside
View of the Celestial Empire. London: Pimlico. p. 304.
Gernet, Jacques (1962). Daily Life in
China on the Eve of the Mongol
Invasion, 1250–1276. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia
Hangzhou travel guide from Wikivoyage
Hangzhou Government website
Arts Crafts Museum
Hangzhou in Google Cultural Institute
EN.GOTOHZ.COM – The Official Website of
Hangzhou Tourism Commission
TRAVELWESTLAKE – The Official Travel Guide of Hangzhou
TRAVELZHEJIANG – The Official Travel Guide of
Geographic data related to
Hangzhou at OpenStreetMap
China (as Lin'an)
Dadu (present Beijing)
Grand Canal of China
Zhejiang University of Technology
Zhejiang Normal University
Tomb of Yu the Great
County-level divisions of
Jingning Autonomous County
Major regions and cities of China
(Inner) Bohai Economic Rim
Yangtze River Delta
Pearl River Delta/
Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River/
Yangtze River Valley
(North) Bohai Economic Rim
(South) Bohai Economic Rim
By GDP per capita
By Human Development Index
List of cities in China
by GDP per capita
Current and former capitals
Metropolitan cities of China
Major Metropolitan regions
Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta (PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area
Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta (YRD)
Central Plain (Zhongyuan)
Cross-Strait Western Coast
Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)
National Central Cities
Special Administrative Regions
Regional Central Cities
Autonomous regional capitals
Comparatively large cities
Prefecture-level cities by Province
Other cities (partly shown below)
(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot
Xinjiang - XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi
Former Prefecture-level cities
Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia
Erenhot, Inner Mongolia
County-level cities by Province
* Indicates this city has already occurred above.
aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as
provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special
Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities.
3Prefecture capital status established by
Heilongjiang Province and
not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen
Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir,
Inner Mongolia as part of it.
4Only administers islands and waters in South
China Sea and have no
urban core comparable to typical cities in China.
5The claimed province of
Taiwan no longer have any internal division
announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual
jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of
All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by
Provincial capitals of China
Hohhot (Inner Mongolia)
Taiwan is claimed by the People's Republic of
administered by the Republic of
China (see Political status of
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China
World's fifty most-populous urban areas
Manila (Metro Manila)
New York City
Mexico City (Valley of Mexico)
Greater Buenos Aires
Rio de Janeiro
Ho Chi Minh City
Kuala Lumpur (Klang Valley)
Host cities of Asian Games
BNF: cb119737437 (d