The Info List - Hanbali

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The Hanbali
school (Arabic: المذهب الحنبلي‎) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).[1] It is named after the Iraqi scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
(d. 855), and was institutionalized by his students. The Hanbali
madhhab is the smallest of four major Sunni schools, the others being the Hanafi, Maliki
and Shafi`i.[2][3] Hanbali
school derives Sharia
predominantly from the Quran, the Hadiths (sayings and customs of Muhammad), and the views of Sahabah (Muhammad's companions).[1] In cases where there is no clear answer in sacred texts of Islam, the Hanbali
school does not accept jurist discretion or customs of a community as a sound basis to derive Islamic law, a method that Hanafi
and Maliki
Sunni fiqhs accept. Hanbali
school is the strict traditionalist school of jurisprudence in Sunni Islam.[4] It is found primarily in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Qatar, where it is the official fiqh.[5][6] Hanbali
followers are the demographic majority in four emirates of UAE
(Sharjah, Umm al-Quwain, Ras al-Khaimah and Ajman).[7] Large minorities of Hanbali
followers are also found in Bahrain, Oman
and Yemen
and among Iraqi and Jordanian bedouins.[5][8] The Hanbali
school experienced a reformation in the Wahhabi-Salafist movement.[9] Historically the school was small; during the 18th to early-20th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
and Al Saud
Al Saud
greatly aided its propagation around the world by way of their interpretation of the school's teachings.[9] As a result of this, the school's name has become a controversial one in certain quarters of the Islamic world due to the influence he is believed by some to have had upon these teachings, which cites Ibn Hanbal as a principal influence along with the thirteenth-century Hanbali
reformer Ibn Taymiyyah. However, it has been argued by certain scholars that Ibn Hanbal's own beliefs actually played "no real part in the establishment of the central doctrines of Wahhabism,"[10] as there is evidence, according to the same authors, that "the older Hanbalite authorities had doctrinal concerns very different from those of the Wahhabis,"[10] rich as medieval Hanbali
literature is in references to saints, grave visitation, miracles, and relics.[11] Historically, the Hanbali
school was treated as simply another valid interpretation of Islamic law, and many prominent medieval Sufis, such as Abdul Qadir Gilani, were Hanbali
jurists and mystics at the same time.[11]


1 History 2 Principles

2.1 Sources of law 2.2 Theology

3 Distinct rulings 4 Reception 5 Differences with other Sunni schools 6 Relationship with Sufism 7 Revival efforts 8 List of Hanbali
scholars 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links


Map of the Muslim world. Hanbali
(dark green) is the predominant Sunni school in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and Qatar.[5]

Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the founder of Hanbali
school, was a disciple of Al-Shafi‘i. Like Shafi'i
and al-Zahiri, he was deeply concerned with the extreme elasticity being deployed by many jurists of his time, who used their discretion to reinterpret the doctrines of Quran
and Hadiths to suit the demands of Caliphs and wealthy.[12] Ibn Hanbal advocated return to literal interpretation of Quran
and Hadiths. Influenced by the debates of his time, he was known for rejecting religious rulings (Ijtihad) from the consensus of jurists of his time, which he considered to be speculative theology (Kalam). He associated them with the Mu'tazilis, whom he despised. Ibn Hanbal was also hostile to the discretionary principles of rulings in jurisprudence (Usul al-fiqh) mainly championed by the people of opinion, which was established by Abu Hanifa, although he did adopt al-Shafi'i's method in usul al-fiqh. He linked these discretionary principles with kalam. His guiding principle was that the Quran
and Sunnah
are the only proper sources of Islamic jurisprudence, and are of equal authority and should be interpreted literally in line with the Athari
creed. He also believed that there can be no true consensus (Ijma) among jurists (mujtahids) of his time,[12] and preferred the consensus of Muhammad's companions (Sahaba) and weaker hadiths. Imam Hanbal himself compiled Al-Musnad, a text with over 30,000 saying, actions and customs of Muhammad.[1] Ibn Hanbal never composed an actual systematic legal theory on his own, though his followers established a systemic method after his death.[13][self-published source] Much of the work of preserving the school based on Ibn Hanbal's method was laid by his student Abu Bakr al-Khallal; his documentation on the founder's views eventually reached twenty volumes.[14] The original copy of the work, which was contained in the House of Wisdom, was burned along with many other works of literature during the Mongol siege of Baghdad. The book was only preserved in a summarized form by the Hanbali
jurist al-Khiraqi, who had access to written copies of al-Khallal's book before the siege.[14] Relations with the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
were rocky for the Hanbalites. Led by the Hanbalite scholar Al-Hasan ibn ' Ali
al-Barbahari, the school often formed mobs of followers in 10th-century Baghdad who would engage in violence against fellow Sunnis suspected of committing sins and all Shi'ites.[15] During al-Barbahari's leadership of the school in Baghdad, shops were looted,[16] female entertainers were attacked in the streets,[16] popular grievances among the lower classes were agitated as a source of mobilization,[17] and public chaos in general ensued.[18] Their efforts would be their own undoing in 935, when a series of home invasions and mob violence on the part of al-Barbahari's followers in addition to perceived deviant views led to the Caliph Ar-Radi
publicly condemning the school in its entirety and ending its official patronage by state religious bodies.[18] Principles[edit] Sources of law[edit] Like all other schools of Sunni Islam, the Hanbali
school holds that the two primary sources of Islamic law are the Qur'an
and the Sunnah found in Hadiths (compilation of sayings, actions and customs of Muhammad). Where these texts did not provide guidance, Imam Hanbal recommended guidance from established consensus of Muhammad's companions (Sahabah), then individual opinion of Muhammad's companions, followed in order of preference by weaker hadiths, and in rare cases qiyas (analogy).[1] The Hanbali
school, unlike Hanafi
and Maliki
schools, rejected that a source of Islamic law can be jurists personal discretionary opinion or consensus of later generation Muslims on matters that serve the interest of Islam
and community. Hanbalis hold that this is impossible and leads to abuse.[12] Ibn Hanbal rejected the possibility of religiously binding consensus (Ijma), as it was impossible to verify once later generations of Muslims spread throughout the world,[12] going as far as declaring anyone who claimed as such to be a liar. Ibn Hanbal did, however, accept the possibility and validity of the consensus of the Sahaba. the first generation of Muslims.[19][20] Later followers of the school, however, expanded on the types of consensus accepted as valid, and the prominent Hanbalite Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
expanded legal consensus to later generations while at the same time restricting it only to the religiously learned.[20] Analogical reasoning (Qiyas), was likewise rejected as a valid source of law by Ibn Hanbal himself,[12][21][22] with a near-unanimous majority of later Hanbalite jurists not only accepting analogical reasoning as valid but also borrowing from the works of Shafi'ite jurists on the subject. Ibn Hanbal's strict standards of acceptance regarding the sources of Islamic law were probably due to his suspicion regarding the field of Usul al-Fiqh, which he equated with speculative theology (kalam).[23] In the modern era, Hanbalites have branched out and even delved into matters regarding the upholding (Istislah) of public interest (Maslaha) and even juristic preference (Istihsan), anathema to the earlier Hanbalites as valid methods of determining religious law. Theology[edit] Ibn Hanbal taught that the Qur'an
is uncreated due to Muslim belief that it is the word of God, and the word of God is not created. The Mu'tazilites taught that the Qur'an, which is readable and touchable, is created like other creatures and created objects. Ibn Hanbal viewed this as heresy, replying that there are things which are not touchable but are created, such as the Throne of God.[24] Unlike the other three schools of Islamic jurisprudence (Hanafi, Maliki, and Shafi), the Hanbali
madhab remained largely traditionalist or Athari
in theology[25] and it was primarily Hanbali
scholars who codified the Athari
school of thought. Distinct rulings[edit]

– One of the seven things which nullifies the minor purification includes, touching a woman for the purpose of carnal desire.[26] This ruling is similar to the Maliki
opinion, however the Shafi'i
opinion is that merely touching a woman will break the wudu, while the Hanafi
opinion is that merely touching a woman does not break the wudu. Al-Qayyam – One position of the school according to Kashshaf al-Qina` of al-Buhuti, and al-Mughni of Ibn Qudama
Ibn Qudama
is the same as that of Imam Abu Hanifa
Abu Hanifa
and his students; to place one’s hands below the navel. Another position is that hands are positioned above the navel or on the chest while standing in prayer,[26] not similar to the Hanafis, though others state a person has a choice i.e. either above the navel or near the chest Ruku
– The hands are to be raised (Rafa al-Yadayn) before going to ruku, and standing up from ruku,[26] similar to the Shafi'i
school. While standing up after ruku, a person has a choice to place their hands back to the position as they were before.[27] Other madh'habs state the hands should be left on their sides. Tashahhud
– The finger should be pointed and not moved, upon mentioning the name of Allah.[26][28][29] Tasleem – Is considered obligatory by the Madh'hab.[30] Salat-ul- Witr
– Hanbalis pray Two Rak'ats consecutively then perform Tasleem, and then One Rak'at is performed separately. Dua Qunoot
is recited after the Ruku'
during Witr, and Hands are raised during the Dua.[30] In the absence of a valid excuse, it is obligatory (at least for adult men) to pray in congregation rather than individually.[31] The majority of the Hanbali
school considers admission in a court of law to be indivisible; that is, a plaintiff may not accept some parts of a defendant's testimony while rejecting other parts. This position is also held by the Zahiri
school, though it is opposed by the Hanafi and Maliki

Reception[edit] The Hanbali
school is now accepted as the fourth of the mainstream Sunni schools of law. It has traditionally enjoyed a smaller following than the other schools. In the earlier period, Sunni jurisprudence was based on four other schools: Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i
and Zahiri; later on, the Hanbali
school supplanted the Zahiri
school's spot as the fourth mainstream school.[33] Hanbalism
essentially formed as a traditionalist reaction to what they viewed as speculative innovations on the part of the earlier established schools.[34] Historically, the school's legitimacy was not always accepted. Muslim exegete Muhammad
ibn Jarir al-Tabari, founder of the now extinct Jariri
school of law, was noted for ignoring the Hanbali
school entirely when weighing the views of jurists; this was due to his view that the founder, Ibn Hanbal, was merely a scholar of prophetic tradition and was not a jurist at all.[35] The Hanbalites, led by al-Barbahari, reacted by stoning Tabari's home several times, inciting riots so violent that Abbasid authorities had to subdue them by force.[36] Upon Tabari's death, the Hanbalites formed a violent mob large enough that Abbasid officials buried him in secret for fear of further riots were Tabari buried publicly in a Muslim graveyard.[15] Similarly, the Andalusian theologian Ibn 'Abd al-Barr
Ibn 'Abd al-Barr
made a point to exclude Ibn Hanbal's views from the books on Sunni Muslim jurisprudence.[37] In al-Muqaddimah, Ibn Khaldun—himself a Qadi
in Egypt
during the Mamluk-era—also noted that the following of this school was rare and stated that this is due to the fact that they largely reject Ijtihad as a whole. Eventually, the Mamluk
Sultanate and later the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
codified Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
as four schools, including the Hanbalite school at the expense of the Zahirites.[38][39] The Hanafis, Shafi'is and Malikis agreed on important matters and recognized each other's systems as equally valid; this was not the case with the Hanbalites, who were recognized as legitimate by the older three schools but refused to return the favor.[34] Differences with other Sunni schools[edit] In comparison to the Hanafis and the Malikis, in the absence of a consensus, the opinion of a Sahabi
is given priority over Qiyas (which early Hanbalis rejected) or al-'urf, which is completely rejected by Hanbalis. Where Hanbalis require a unanimous consensus, Hanafis tend to follow the consensus of Kufa
and Malikis that of al-Madina. Zahiris, a less mainstream school, is sometimes seen as the closest to Hanbalis and Hanafis. However the similarities are only true for early Zahiris who followed the Athari
creed. The branch that was largely instigated by Ibn Hazm
Ibn Hazm
which developed in al-Andalus, al-Qarawiyyin and later became the official school of the state under the Almohads, differed significantly from Hanbalism. It did not follow the Athari and Taqlid schools and opted for "logical Istidlal" (deductive demonstration) as a way to interpret scripture that wasn't clear literally. Hanbalis rejected kalam as a whole and believed in the supremacy of the text over the mind and did not engage in dialectic debates with the Mu'tazila. Ibn Hazm, on the other hand, engaged in these debates and believed in logical reasoning rejecting most of Mu'tazila
claims as sophists and absurd. Ibn Hazm, also scrutinised hadith more severely. He adopted an attitude where he'd reject hadiths if he discovered something suspicious about the lives of those who reported it, or in the case where a person in the Sanad is not a widely known figure. In doing so, he was aided by his vast historical knowledge.[citation needed] Relationship with Sufism[edit] Sufism, often described as the inner mystical dimension of Islam, is not a separate "school" or "sect" of the religion, but, rather, is considered by its adherents to be an "inward" way of approaching Islam which complements the regular outward practice of the five pillars; Sufism
became immensely popular during the medieval period in practically all parts of the Sunni world and continues to remain so in many parts of the world today. As Christopher Melchert has pointed out, both Hanbalism
and classical Sufism
took concrete shapes in the ninth and early tenth-centuries CE, with both soon becoming "essential components of the high-medieval Sunni synthesis."[40] Although many Hanbali
scholars today, identifying themselves with the Salafi
and Wahhabi
contemporary movements within Hanbalism, shun Sufi practices such as the veneration of saints at their tombs, which they deem heretical innovations in the religion, it is important to recognize that the Hanabali school of Sunni law has, in fact, had a very intimate relationship with Sufism
throughout history,[40] with such controversies only manifesting themselves after the eighteenth-century, once the movement of Wahhabism
became the primary form of Islam
practiced in Saudi Arabia. There is evidence that many medieval Hanbali
scholars were very close to the Sufi martyr and saint Hallaj, whose mystical piety seems to have influenced many regular jurists in the school.[41] Many later Hanbalis, meanwhile, were often Sufis themselves, including figures not normally associated with Sufism, such as Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah.[42] Both these men, sometimes considered to be completely anti-Sufi in their leanings, were actually initiated into the Qadiriyya
order of the celebrated mystic and saint Abdul Qadir Gilani,[42] who was himself a renowned Hanbali
jurist. As the Qadiriyya
order is often considered to be the largest and most widespread Sufi order in the world, with many branches spanning from Turkey to Pakistan, one of the largest Sufi branches is effectively founded on Hanbali
fiqh.[41] Revival efforts[edit]

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Since the Al Saud
Al Saud
succeeded in annexing Mecca
in 1926 and the discovery of oil, Hanbali
school of theology has benefited from the sponsorship of the Saudi state. Theology students from all over the world are educated in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
following this school of theology and Saudi-funded Dawah
succeeded in attracting new followers all over the world. Since the beginning of the 20th-century, the school has therefore gained more acceptance and diffusion in the Islamic world. List of Hanbali

Abu Dawood
Abu Dawood
(d. 275 A.H.) Famous compiler of Sunan Abu Dawood Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Khallal – Jurist responsible for the school's early codification. Al-Hasan ibn ' Ali
al-Barbahari (d. 329 A.H.), an Iraqi traditionist and a jurist, author of the book Sharh al-Sunnah. Ibn Battah al-Ukbari (d. 387 A.H.), an Iraqi theologian and jurisconsult, author of the book Al-Ibaanah. Al- Qadi
Abu Ya'la (d. 458 A.H.) Ibn Aqil (d. 488 A.H.) Awn ad-Din ibn Hubayra (d. 560 A.H.) Abdul Qadir Gilani
Abdul Qadir Gilani
(d. 561 A.H.) Abu-al-Faraj Ibn Al-Jawzi
Abu-al-Faraj Ibn Al-Jawzi
(d. 597 A.H.) – A famous jurist, exegete, critic, preacher and a prolific author, with works on nearly all subjects. Hammad al-Harrani
Hammad al-Harrani
(d. 598A.H.) – A jurist, critic and preacher who lived in Alexandria under the reign of Salahudin. Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi
Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi
(d. 600 A.H.) – A prominent hadith master from Damascus and the nephew of Ibn Qudamah. Ibn Qudamah
Ibn Qudamah
(d. 620A.H.) – One of the major Hanbali
authorities and the author of the profound and voluminous book on Law, al-Mughni, which became popular amongst researchers from all juristic backgrounds. One of two individuals referred to as Shaykh al-Islām within the Hanbali
school.[14] Diya al-Din al-Maqdisi (d. 643 A.H.) Ibn Hamdan, Ahmad al-Harrani (d. 695 A.H.) - A jurist and judge born and raised in Harran
and later practiced in Cairo Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyah
Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyah
(d. 728 A.H.) – A well-known figure in the Islamic history, known by his friends and foes for his expertise in all Islamic sciences. The second of two people referred to as "Shaykh al-Islām" within the school.[14] Ibn Muflih al Maqdisi (d. 763 A.H.) Ibn al-Qayyim
Ibn al-Qayyim
(d. 751 A.H.) – The closest companion and a student of Ibn Taymiyah, also a respected jurist in his own right. Ibn Rajab (d. 795 A.H.) – A prominent jurist, traditionist, ascetic and preacher, who authored several important works, largely commenting upon famous collections of traditions. al-Bahūtī (d. 1051 A.H.) Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab
Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab
– A leading Hanbali
jurist and traditionist, patronym of the Wahhabi
movement. Ibn Humaid (d. 1295 A.H.) – A Hanbali
jurist, traditionist, historian. Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz
(d. 1419 A.H.) – Former Grand Mufti
Grand Mufti
of Saudi Arabia. Ibn al-Uthaymeen (d. 1421 A.H.) – A leading jurist, grammarian, linguist, and a popular preacher. Abdullah Ibn Jibreen – A leading scholar of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and was a former member of the Permanent Committee for Islamic Research and Fataawa in Saudi Arabia. Saleh Al-Fawzan – A well known scholar in Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
and prolific author. He is currently a member of the Permanent Committee. Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais
Abdul Rahman Al-Sudais
– The leading imam and khateeb of the Grand mosque chief of presidency of Haramain Committee, Saudi Arabia. Saud Al-Shuraim
Saud Al-Shuraim
– The Imam and khateeb of the Grand Mosque
and a professor of Islamic law at Umm al-Qura University.

See also[edit]


Islamic schools and branches Salat Wudu Adhan Islamic views on sin


^ a b c d Hisham M. Ramadan (2006), Understanding Islamic Law: From Classical to Contemporary, Rowman Altamira, ISBN 978-0759109919, p. 24-29 ^ Gregory Mack, Jurisprudence, in Gerhard Böwering et al (2012), The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691134840, p. 289 ^ Sunnite Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ Ziauddin Sardar (2014), Mecca: The Sacred City, Bloomsbury, ISBN 978-1620402665, p. 100 ^ a b c Daryl Champion (2002), The Paradoxical Kingdom: Saudi Arabia and the Momentum of Reform, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231128148, p. 23 footnote 7 ^ State of Qatar
School of Law, Emory University ^ Barry Rubin (2009), Guide to Islamist Movements, Volume 2, ME Sharpe, ISBN 978-0765617477, p. 310 ^ Mohammad Hashim Kamali (2008), Shari'ah Law: An Introduction, ISBN 978-1851685653, Chapter 4 ^ a b Zaman, Muhammad
(2012). Modern Islamic thought in a radical age. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15–17, 62–95. ISBN 978-1-107-09645-5.  ^ a b Michael Cook, “On the Origins of Wahhābism,” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Jul., 1992), p. 198 ^ a b Christopher Melchert, The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis, Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (Brill, 2001); cf. Ibn al-Jawzī, Manāqib al-imām Aḥmad, ed. ʿĀdil Nuwayhiḍ, Beirut 1393/1973 ^ a b c d e Chiragh Ali, The Proposed Political, Legal and Social Reforms, in Modernist Islam
1840-1940: A Sourcebook, pp. 281-282 Edited by Charles Kurzman, Oxford
University Press, (2002) ^ I. M. Al-Jubouri, Islamic Thought: From Mohammed to September 11, 2001, pg. 122. Bloomington: Xlibris, 2010. ISBN 9781453595855 ^ a b c d Abu Zayd Bakr bin Abdullah, Madkhal al-mufassal ila fiqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal
Ahmad ibn Hanbal
wa-takhrijat al-ashab. Riyadh: Dar al 'Aminah, 2007. ^ a b Joel L. Kraemer, Humanism in the Renaissance of Islam: The Cultural Revival During the Buyid Age, pg. 61. Volume 7 of Studies in Islamic culture
Islamic culture
and history. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1992. ISBN 9789004097360 ^ a b Christopher Melchert, Studies in Islamic Law and Society, vol. 4, pg. 151. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ^ Ira M. Lapidus, Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History, pg. 192. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN 9780521514415 ^ a b Joel L. Kraemer, pg. 62. ^ Muhammad
Muslehuddin, "Philosophy of Islamic Law and Orientalists," Kazi Publications, 1985, p. 81 ^ a b Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq, "The Doctrine of Ijma: Is there a consensus?," June 2006 ^ Mansoor Moaddel, Islamic Modernism, Nationalism, and Fundamentalism: Episode and Discourse, pg. 32. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press, 2005. ^ Christopher Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 185. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ^ Christopher Melchert, The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law: 9th-10th Centuries C.E., pg. 182. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 1997. ^ "Al-Ghazali, The Alchemy of Happiness, Chapter 2". Retrieved 2006-04-09.  ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam: The Muslim Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 34. The Hanbalite madhhab, in contrast, largely maintained the traditionalist of Athari
position.  ^ a b c d Imam Muwaffaq ibn Qudama. The Mainstay Concerning Jurisprudence (Al Umda fi 'l Fiqh). ^ Shaikh Tuwaijiri. pp. 18–19. ^ Al-Buhuti, Al-Raud al-murbi, p. 72. ^ Al-Mughni (1/524). ^ a b " Salat
According to Five Islamic Schools of Law" from Al-Islam.org ^ Marion Holmes Katz, Prayer in Islamic Thought and Practice, p. 128, 2013 ^ hi Mahmasani, Falsafat al-tashri fi al-Islam, p. 175. Trns. Farhat Jacob Ziadeh. Leiden: Brill Archive, 1961. ^ Mohammad Sharif Khan and Mohammad Anwar Saleem, Muslim Philosophy And Philosophers, pg. 34. New Delhi: Ashish Publishing House, 1994. ^ a b Francis Robinson, Atlas of the Islamic World Since 1500, pg. 29. New York: Facts on File, 1984. ISBN 0871966298 ^ Yaqut al-Hamawi, Irshad, vol. 18, pg. 57-58. ^ History of the Prophets and Kings, General Introduction, And, From the Creation to the Flood, pg. 73. Trsn. Franz Rosenthal. SUNY Press, 1989. ISBN 9781438417837 ^ Camilla Adang, This Day I have Perfected Your Religion For You: A Zahiri
Conception of Religious Authority, pg. 20. Taken from Speaking for Islam: Religious Authorities in Muslim Societies. Ed. Gudrun Krämer and Sabine Schmidtke. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2006. ^ "Law, Islamic". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ Chibli Mallat, Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, pg. 116. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2007. ISBN 9780199230495 ^ a b Christopher Melchert, "The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis," Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (2001), pp. 352-367 ^ a b Christopher Melchert, "The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis," Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (2001), p. 352 ^ a b Christopher Melchert, "The Ḥanābila and the Early Sufis," Arabica, T. 48, Fasc. 3 (2001), p. 353

Further reading[edit]

Abd al-Halim al-Jundi, Ahmad bin Hanbal Imam Ahl al-Sunnah, published in Cairo
by Dar al-Ma'arif Dr. ' Ali
Sami al-Nashshar, Nash'ah al-fikr al-falsafi fi al-islam, vol. 1, published by Dar al-Ma'arif, seventh edition, 1977 Makdisi, George. "Hanābilah." Encyclopedia of Religion. Ed. Lindsay Jones. Vol. 6. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 3759-3769. 15 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Thomson Gale. (Accessed December 14, 2005) Dar Irfan Jameel. "Introduction to Hanbali
School of Jurisprudence."https://www.academia.edu/6790702/Introduction_to_Hanbali_School_of_Jurisprudence. Vishanoff, David. "Nazzām, Al-." Ibid. Iqbal, Muzzafar. Chapter 1, "The Beginning", Islam
and Science, Ashgate Press, 2002. Leaman, Oliver, "Islamic Philosophy". Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, v. 5, p. 13-16.

External links[edit]

Hanabilah.com Hanbali
Madhhab Hanbali-forum Files Hanbali
by Shaykh Musa Furber Hanbaliyyah at Overview of World Religions

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Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur



Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism




Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk



Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam



Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism


Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes


Hafizi Taiyabi


Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw

Imami Twelver

Theology of Twelvers


Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli


Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order


al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion



ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd


Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya


Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra


Abu Yazi