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Hedeby
Hedeby
(Danish pronunciation: [ˈheːð̩byːˀ], Old Norse Heiðabýr, German Haithabu) was an important Viking Age
Viking Age
(8th to the 11th centuries) trading settlement near the southern end of the Jutland Peninsula, now in the Schleswig-Flensburg
Schleswig-Flensburg
district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the most important archaeological site in Schleswig-Holstein. The settlement developed as a trading centre at the head of a narrow, navigable inlet known as the Schlei, which connects to the Baltic Sea. The location was favorable because there is a short portage of less than 15 km to the Treene River, which flows into the Eider with its North Sea
North Sea
estuary, making it a convenient place where goods and ships could be pulled on a corduroy road overland for an almost uninterrupted seaway between the Baltic and the North Sea
North Sea
and avoid a dangerous and time-consuming circumnavigation of Jutland, providing Hedeby
Hedeby
with a role similar to later Lübeck. Hedeby
Hedeby
was the second largest Nordic town during the Viking Age, after Uppåkra
Uppåkra
in present-day southern Sweden,[1] The city of Schleswig was later founded on the other side of the Schlei. Hedeby
Hedeby
was abandoned after its destruction in 1066. Hedeby
Hedeby
was rediscovered in the late 19th century and excavations began in 1900. The Haithabu Museum was opened next to the site in 1985.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 Timeline 2.3 Rise 2.4 Lifestyle 2.5 Destruction

3 Archaeology

3.1 20th-century excavations 3.2 21st-century reconstructions

4 See also 5 Notes 6 Bibliography and media 7 External links

Name[edit] The Old Norse
Old Norse
name Heiða-býr simply translates to "heath-settlement" (heiðr "heath" and býr = "yard; settlement, village, town"). The name is recorded in numerous spelling variants.[2]

Heiðabýr is the reconstructed name in standard Old Norse, also anglicized as Heithabyr The Stone of Eric, a 10th-century Danish runestone with an inscription mentioning ᚼᛅᛁᚦᛅ᛭ᛒᚢ (haiþa bu), found in 1796.[3] Old English aet Haethe, mentioned by Alfred the Great[citation needed] Hedeby, the modern Danish spelling, also most commonly used in English. Haddeby is the Low German
Low German
form, also the name of the administrative district formed in 1949 and named for the site; in 1985, the district introduced a coat of arms featuring a bell with a runic inscription reading ᚼᛁᚦᛅ᛬ᛒᚢ (hiþa:bu).[4] Haithabu is the modern German spelling used when referring to the historical settlement; this spelling represents the transliteration of the name as found in the Stone of Eric
Stone of Eric
inscription; it was introduced among other variants in antiquarian literature in the 19th century and has since become the standard German name of the settlement.[5]

The old name of the nearby town of Schleswig is Sliesthorp (later Sliaswich, c.f. -thorp vs. -wich). It is possible that the two names were used interchangeably for the same settlement, depending on which language was being used (Old Saxon vs. Old Norse).[citation needed] History[edit]

Two reconstructed houses at Hedeby

Origins[edit] Hedeby
Hedeby
is first mentioned in the Frankish chronicles of Einhard
Einhard
(804) who was in the service of Charlemagne, but was probably founded around 770. In 808 the Danish king Godfred (Lat. Godofredus) destroyed a competing Slav trade centre named Reric, and it is recorded in the Frankish chronicles that he moved the merchants from there to Hedeby. This may have provided the initial impetus for the town to develop. The same sources record that Godfred strengthened the Danevirke, an earthen wall that stretched across the south of the Jutland peninsula. The Danevirke
Danevirke
joined the defensive walls of Hedeby
Hedeby
to form an east-west barrier across the peninsula, from the marshes in the west to the Schlei
Schlei
inlet leading into the Baltic in the east. The town itself was surrounded on its three landward sides (north, west, and south) by earthworks. At the end of the 9th century the northern and southern parts of the town were abandoned for the central section. Later a 9-metre (29-ft) high semi-circular wall was erected to guard the western approaches to the town. On the eastern side, the town was bordered by the innermost part of the Schlei
Schlei
inlet and the bay of Haddebyer Noor. Timeline[edit]

based on Elsner[6]

793 Viking raid on Lindisfarne
Lindisfarne
- traditional date for the beginning of the Viking Age.

804 First mention of Hedeby

808 Destruction of Reric
Reric
and migration of tradespeople to Hedeby

c. 850 Construction of a church at Hedeby

886 The Danelaw
Danelaw
is established in England, following Viking invasion

911 The Vikings
Vikings
settle in Normandy

948 Hedeby
Hedeby
becomes a bishopric

965 Visit of Al-Tartushi to Hedeby

974 Hedeby
Hedeby
falls to the Holy Roman Empire

983 Hedeby
Hedeby
returns to Danish control

c. 1000 The Viking Leif Erikson
Leif Erikson
explores Vinland, probably in Newfoundland

1016-1042 Danish kings rule in England

1050 The Norwegian King Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
destroys Hedeby

1066 Final destruction of Hedeby
Hedeby
by a Slavic army.

1066 Traditional end of the Viking Age

Rise[edit] Hedeby
Hedeby
became a principal marketplace because of its geographical location on the major trade routes between the Frankish Empire
Frankish Empire
and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
(north-south), and between the Baltic and the North Sea (east-west). Between 800 and 1000 the growing economic power of the Vikings
Vikings
led to its dramatic expansion as a major trading centre. The following indicate the importance achieved by the town:

The town was described by visitors from England
England
(Wulfstan - 9th century) and the Mediterranean (Al-Tartushi - 10th century). Hedeby
Hedeby
became the seat of a bishop (948) and belonged to the Archbishopric of Hamburg
Hamburg
and Bremen. The town minted its own coins (from 825?). Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
(11th century) reports that ships were sent from this portus maritimus to Slavic lands, to Sweden, Samland (Semlant) and even Greece.

A Swedish dynasty founded by Olof the Brash is said to have ruled Hedeby
Hedeby
during the last decades of the 9th century and the first part of the 10th century. This was told to Adam of Bremen
Adam of Bremen
by the Danish king Sweyn Estridsson, and it is supported by three runestones found in Denmark. Two of them were raised by the mother of Olof's grandson Sigtrygg Gnupasson. The third runestone, discovered in 1796, is from Hedeby, the Stone of Eric
Stone of Eric
(Swedish: Erikstenen). It is inscribed with Norwegian-Swedish runes. It is, however, possible that Danes also occasionally wrote with this version of the younger futhark. Lifestyle[edit] Life was short and crowded in Hedeby. The small houses were clustered tightly together in a grid, with the east-west streets leading down to jetties in the harbour. People rarely lived beyond 30 or 40, and archaeological research shows that their later years were often painful due to crippling diseases such as tuberculosis.[7] Yet make-up for men and rights for women provide surprises to the modern understanding. Al-Tartushi, a late 10th-century traveller from al-Andalus, provides one of the most colourful and often quoted descriptions of life in Hedeby. Al-Tartushi was from Cordoba in Spain, which had a significantly more wealthy and comfortable lifestyle than Hedeby. While Hedeby
Hedeby
may have been significant by Scandinavian standards, Al-Tartushi was unimpressed:

"Slesvig (Hedeby) is a very large town at the extreme end of the world ocean.... The inhabitants worship Sirius, except for a minority of Christians who have a church of their own there.... He who slaughters a sacrificial animal puts up poles at the door to his courtyard and impales the animal on them, be it a piece of cattle, a ram, billygoat or a pig so that his neighbors will be aware that he is making a sacrifice in honor of his god. The town is poor in goods and riches. People eat mainly fish which exist in abundance. Babies are thrown into the sea for reasons of economy. The right to divorce belongs to the women.... Artificial eye make-up is another peculiarity; when they wear it their beauty never disappears, indeed it is enhanced in both men and women. Further: Never did I hear singing fouler than that of these people, it is a rumbling emanating from their throats, similar to that of a dog but even more bestial."[8]

Destruction[edit] The town was sacked in 1050 by King Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
of Norway during a conflict with King Sweyn II of Denmark. He set the town on fire by sending several burning ships into the harbour, the charred remains of which were found at the bottom of the Schlei
Schlei
during recent excavations. A Norwegian skald, quoted by Snorri Sturluson, describes the sack as follows:

Burnt in anger from end to end was Hedeby
Hedeby
[..] High rose the flames from the houses when, before dawn, I stood upon the stronghold's arm[9]

In 1066 the town was sacked and burned by East Slavs.[10] Following the destruction, Hedeby
Hedeby
was slowly abandoned. People moved across the Schlei
Schlei
inlet, which separates the two peninsulas of Angeln
Angeln
and Schwansen, and founded the town of Schleswig. Archaeology[edit] 20th-century excavations[edit] After the settlement was abandoned, rising waters contributed to the complete disappearance of all visible structures on the site. It was even forgotten where the settlement had been. This proved to be fortunate for later archaeological work at the site.

View of the Viking Museum

Archaeological work began at the site in 1900 after the rediscovery of the settlement. Excavations were conducted for the next 15 years. Further excavations were carried out between 1930 and 1939. Archaeological work on the site was productive for two main reasons: that the site had never been built on since its destruction some 840 years earlier, and that the permanently waterlogged ground had preserved wood and other perishable materials. After the Second World War, in 1959, archaeological work was started again and has continued intermittently ever since. The embankments surrounding the settlement were excavated, and the harbour was partially dredged, during which the wreck of a Viking ship
Viking ship
was discovered. Despite all this work, only 5% of the settlement (and only 1% of the harbour) has as yet been investigated. The most important finds resulting from the excavations are now on display in the adjoining Haithabu Museum.

Reconstructed houses

21st-century reconstructions[edit] In 2005 an ambitious archaeological reconstruction program was initiated on the original site. Based on the results of archaeological analyses, exact copies of some of the original Viking houses have been built. See also[edit]

Hedeby
Hedeby
Viking Museum Hedeby
Hedeby
stones, Schlei People: Wulfstan of Hedeby, Al-Tartushi, Adam of Bremen, Harold Hardrada, Rurik, Godfred (Danish King), Olof the Brash Towns: Jelling, Birka, Ribe, Schleswig, Reric Viking Age

Notes[edit]

^ Sveriges riksdag, Motion 2009/10:Kr327 Fornlämningen Uppåkra 2009-10-05 ^ Elsner, Hildegard (1989). Wikinger Museum Haithabu: Schaufenster einer frühen Stadt. Neumünster: Wachholtz. , p. 13 ^ Project Samnordisk Runtextdatabas Svensk - Rundata entry for DR 1.[1] ^ Unser Amt (haddeby.de) ^ "Haddeby, vormals Heidabu, Haithabu, Heidebo, Hethäbye" Heinrich Karl Wilhelm Berghaus, Schweden, Norwegen u. Dänemark die 3 skandinavischen Reiche Hasselberg (1858), p. 890. ^ Elsner, Hildegard (1989). Wikinger Museum Haithabu: Schaufenster einer frühen Stadt. Neumünster: Wachholtz.  ^ Consulate General of Denmark in New York. "Factsheet". Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2006.  ^ Consulate General of Denmark in New York. "Factsheet". Archived from the original on January 13, 2006. Retrieved January 14, 2006.  ^ http://heimskringla.no/wiki/Sagan_af_Haraldi_har%C3%B0r%C3%A1%C3%B0a ^ Nancy Marie Brown. "The Far Traveler: Voyages of a Viking Woman". p. 95. Retrieved 6 March 2016. 

Bibliography and media[edit]

A number of short archaeological films relating to Hedeby
Hedeby
and produced by researchers during the 1980s are available on DVD from the University of Kiel's Archaeological Film Project. Most publications on Hedeby
Hedeby
are in German. See's German-language article on Hedeby. Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole (1997). Viking-Age Ships and Shipbuilding in Hedeby/ Haithabu and Schleswig. Ships and Boats of the North 2. Schleswig and Roskilde: Archaeologisches Landesmuseum der Christian-Albrechts-Universitat, Wikinger Museum Haithabu, The National Museum of Denmark, and The Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haithabu.

Website of the Haithabu Viking Museum Pictures from the Haithabu Viking Museum Flickr Photo Gallery: Viking houses and museum

v t e

Trade emporia of the Viking Age
Viking Age
(Baltic Sea)

Alaborg Aldeigja Arkona Bardy-Świelubie Birka Dierkow Dorestad Gnezdovo Grobin Hedeby Holmgard Kaup Kaupang Köpingsvik Lindholm Menzlin Ralswiek Reric Ribe Sarskoye Sigtuna Timerevo Truso Vanaja Wolin

Coordinates: 54°29′28″N 9°33′55″E / 54.49111°N 9.56528°E / 54.49111; 9.56528

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237709

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