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Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I (Ge'ez: ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,[nb 1] Amharic
Amharic
pronunciation: [ˈhaɪlə sɨlˈlase] ( listen);[nb 2] 23 July 1892 – 27 August 1975), born Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael,[4] was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974. He also served as Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 25 May 1963 to 17 July 1964 and 5 November 1966 to 11 September 1967. He was a member of the Solomonic Dynasty. At the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1936, the emperor condemned the use of chemical weapons by Italy
Italy
against his people during the Second Italo–Ethiopian War.[5] His internationalist views led to Ethiopia becoming a charter member of the United Nations, and his political thought and experience in promoting multilateralism and collective security have proved seminal and enduring.[6] His suppression of rebellions among the landed aristocracy (the mesafint), which consistently opposed his reforms, as well as what some critics perceived to be Ethiopia's failure to modernize rapidly enough,[7] earned him criticism among some contemporaries and historians.[8] During his rule the Harari people
Harari people
were ethnically cleansed from the Harari Region.[9][10] His regime was also criticized by human rights groups, such as Human Rights Watch, as autocratic and illiberal.[8][11] Among the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement, whose followers are estimated to number between 700,000 and one million, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
is revered as the returned messiah of the Bible, God incarnate.[12][13] Beginning in Jamaica
Jamaica
in the 1930s, the Rastafari movement
Rastafari movement
perceives Haile Selassie as a messianic figure who will lead a future golden age of eternal peace, righteousness, and prosperity.[14] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was an Ethiopian Orthodox Christian
Ethiopian Orthodox Christian
throughout his life. He is a defining figure in Ethiopian history.[15][16] The 1973 famine in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
led to Haile Selassie's eventual removal from the throne.[17] He died on 27 August 1975 at the age of 83, following a coup d'état.[18]

Contents

1 Name 2 Biography

2.1 Early life 2.2 Governorship 2.3 Regency

2.3.1 Travel abroad

2.4 King and emperor 2.5 Conflict with Italy

2.5.1 Mobilization 2.5.2 Progress of the war 2.5.3 Exile debate 2.5.4 Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936 2.5.5 Exile

2.6 1940s and 1950s 2.7 Charitable gesture 2.8 1960s 2.9 1970s

2.9.1 Wollo
Wollo
famine 2.9.2 Revolution 2.9.3 Imprisonment 2.9.4 Death and interment

3 Descendants 4 Rastafari
Rastafari
messiah

4.1 Selassie's position

5 Titles and styles 6 Honours

6.1 National orders 6.2 Foreign orders

7 Ancestry 8 Military ranks 9 Popular culture 10 See also 11 Notes

11.1 Footnotes 11.2 Citations

12 Bibliography 13 Further reading 14 External links

Name[edit]

Lij Tafari Makonnen at age 3

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was known as a child as Lij Tafari Makonnen (Amharic ልጅ ተፈሪ መኮንን; lij teferī mekōnnin). Lij is translated as "child", and serves to indicate that a youth is of noble blood. His given name, Tafari, means "one who is respected or feared". Like most Ethiopians, his personal name Tafari is followed by that of his father Makonnen and rarely that of his grandfather Woldemikael. His Ge'ez name Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was given to him at his infant baptism and adopted again as part of his regnal name in 1930. As Governor of Harar, he became known as Ras Tafari Makonnen  listen (help·info). Ras is translated as "head"[19] and is a rank of nobility equivalent to Duke;[20] though it is often rendered in translation as "prince". In 1916, Empress Zewditu
Zewditu
I appointed him to the position of Balemulu Silt'an Enderase
Enderase
( Regent
Regent
Plenipotentiary). In 1928, she granted him the throne of Shewa, elevating his title to Negus
Negus
or "King".[21] On 2 November 1930, after the death of Empress Zewditu, Tafari was crowned Negusa Nagast, literally King of Kings, rendered in English as "Emperor".[22] Upon his ascension, he took as his regnal name Haile Selassie I. Haile means in Ge'ez "Power of" and Selassie means trinity—therefore Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
roughly translates to "Power of the Trinity".[23] Haile Selassie's full title in office was "By the Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, King of Kings
King of Kings
of Ethiopia, Elect of God".[24][nb 3] This title reflects Ethiopian dynastic traditions, which hold that all monarchs must trace their lineage to Menelik I, who was the offspring of King Solomon
King Solomon
and the Queen of Sheba.[25] To Ethiopians, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, and Abba Tekel.[26] The Rastafari
Rastafari
movement employs many of these appellations, also referring to him as Jah, Jah Jah, Jah
Jah
Rastafari, and HIM (the abbreviation of "His Imperial Majesty").[26] Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

Ras Makonnen Woldemikael
Makonnen Woldemikael
and his son Lij Tafari Makonnen

Haile Selassie's royal line (through his father's mother) originated from the Amhara people,[27] He was born on 23 July 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar
Harar
province of Ethiopia. His mother was Woizero ("Lady") Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar, daughter of the renowned Oromo ruler of Wollo
Wollo
province Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Ali Abba Jifar.[28] His maternal grandmother was of Gurage heritage.[29] Tafari's father was Ras Makonnen Woldemikael
Makonnen Woldemikael
Gudessa, the governor of Harar. Ras Makonnen served as a general in the First Italo–Ethiopian War, playing a key role at the Battle of Adwa;[28] he too was paternally Oromo but maternally Amhara.[29] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was thus able to ascend to the imperial throne through his paternal grandmother, Woizero Tenagnework Sahle Selassie, who was an aunt of Emperor
Emperor
Menelik II and daughter of Negus
Negus
Sahle Selassie
Sahle Selassie
of Shewa. As such, Haile Selassie claimed direct descent from Makeda, the Queen of Sheba, and King Solomon
King Solomon
of ancient Israel.[30] Ras Makonnen arranged for Tafari as well as his first cousin, Imru Haile Selassie, to receive instruction in Harar
Harar
from Abba Samuel Wolde Kahin, an Ethiopian capuchin monk, and from Dr. Vitalien, a surgeon from Guadeloupe. Tafari was named Dejazmach
Dejazmach
(literally "commander of the gate", roughly equivalent to "count")[31] at the age of 13, on 1 November 1905.[32] Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi, in 1906.[33] Governorship[edit]

Dejazmatch Tafari, as governor of Harar

Tafari assumed the titular governorship of Selale in 1906, a realm of marginal importance,[34] but one that enabled him to continue his studies.[32] In 1907, he was appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo. It is alleged that during his late teens, Haile Selassie was married to Woizero Altayech, and that from this union, his daughter Princess Romanework was born.[35] Following the death of his brother Yelma in 1907, the governorate of Harar
Harar
was left vacant,[34] and its administration was left to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Balcha Safo. Balcha Safo's administration of Harar
Harar
was ineffective, and so during the last illness of Menelik II, and the brief reign of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari was made governor of Harar
Harar
in 1910[33] or 1911.[36] On 3 August, he married Menen Asfaw
Menen Asfaw
of Ambassel, niece of the heir to the throne Lij Iyasu. Regency[edit] The extent to which Tafari Makonnen contributed to the movement that would come to depose Iyasu V
Iyasu V
has been discussed extensively, particularly in Haile Selassie's own detailed account of the matter. Iyasu V, or Lij Iyasu, was the designated but uncrowned emperor of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
from 1913 to 1916. Iyasu's reputation for scandalous behavior and a disrespectful attitude towards the nobles at the court of his grandfather, Menelik II,[37] damaged his reputation. Iyasu's flirtation with Islam was considered treasonous among the Ethiopian Orthodox Christian leadership of the empire. On 27 September 1916, Iyasu was deposed.[38] Contributing to the movement that deposed Iyasu were conservatives such as Fitawrari
Fitawrari
Habte Giyorgis, Menelik II's longtime Minister of War. The movement to depose Iyasu preferred Tafari, as he attracted support from both progressive and conservative factions. Ultimately, Iyasu was deposed on the grounds of conversion to Islam.[19][38] In his place, the daughter of Menelik II
Menelik II
(the aunt of Iyasu) was named Empress Zewditu, while Tafari was elevated to the rank of Ras and was made heir apparent and Crown Prince. In the power arrangement that followed, Tafari accepted the role of Regent
Regent
Plenipotentiary (Balemulu 'Inderase)[nb 4] and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire (Mangista Ityop'p'ya). Zewditu
Zewditu
would govern while Tafari would administer.[39]

Empress Zewditu
Zewditu
with one of her trusted priests

While Iyasu had been deposed on 27 September 1916, on 8 October he managed to escape into the Ogaden Desert
Ogaden Desert
and his father, Negus
Negus
Mikael of Wollo, had time to come to his aid.[40] On 27 October, Negus
Negus
Mikael and his army met an army under Fitawrari
Fitawrari
Habte Giyorgis
Habte Giyorgis
loyal to Zewditu
Zewditu
and Tafari. During the Battle of Segale, Negus
Negus
Mikael was defeated and captured. Any chance that Iyasu would regain the throne was ended and he went into hiding. On 11 January 1921, after avoiding capture for about five years, Iyasu was taken into custody by Gugsa Araya Selassie. On 11 February 1917, the coronation for Zewditu
Zewditu
took place. She pledged to rule justly through her Regent, Tafari. While Tafari was the more visible of the two, Zewditu
Zewditu
was far from an honorary ruler. Her position required that she arbitrate the claims of competing factions. In other words, she had the last word. Tafari carried the burden of daily administration but, because his position was relatively weak, this was often an exercise in futility for him. Initially his personal army was poorly equipped, his finances were limited, and he had little leverage to withstand the combined influence of the Empress, the Minister of War, or the provincial governors.[40] During his Regency, the new Crown Prince
Crown Prince
developed the policy of cautious modernization initiated by Menelik II. Also, during this time, he survived the 1918 flu pandemic, having come down with the illness.[41] He secured Ethiopia's admission to the League of Nations in 1923 by promising to eradicate slavery; each emperor since Tewodros II had issued proclamations to halt slavery,[42] but without effect: the internationally scorned practice persisted well into Haile Selassie's reign with an estimated 2 million slaves in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the early 1930s.[43][44] Travel abroad[edit] In 1924, Ras Tafari toured Europe and the Middle East visiting Jerusalem, Alexandria, Paris, Brussels, Amsterdam, Stockholm, London, Geneva, and Athens. With him on his tour was a group that included Ras Seyum Mangasha
Seyum Mangasha
of western Tigray Province; Ras Hailu Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam
Gojjam
province; Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu
Mulugeta Yeggazu
of Illubabor Province; Ras Makonnen Endelkachew; and Blattengeta Heruy Welde Sellase. The primary goal of the trip to Europe was for Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to gain access to the sea. In Paris, Tafari was to find out from the French Foreign Ministry (Quai d'Orsay) that this goal would not be realized.[45] However, failing this, he and his retinue inspected schools, hospitals, factories, and churches. Although patterning many reforms after European models, Tafari remained wary of European pressure. To guard against economic imperialism, Tafari required that all enterprises have at least partial local ownership.[46] Of his modernization campaign, he remarked, "We need European progress only because we are surrounded by it. That is at once a benefit and a misfortune."[47] Throughout Tafari's travels in Europe, the Levant, and Egypt, he and his entourage were greeted with enthusiasm and fascination. He was accompanied by Seyum Mangasha
Seyum Mangasha
and Hailu Tekle Haymanot who, like Tafari, were sons of generals who contributed to the victorious war against Italy
Italy
a quarter-century earlier at the Battle of Adwa.[48] Another member of his entourage, Mulugeta Yeggazu, actually fought at Adwa as a young man. The "Oriental Dignity" of the Ethiopians[49] and their "rich, picturesque court dress"[50] were sensationalized in the media; among his entourage he even included a pride of lions, which he distributed as gifts to President Alexandre Millerand
Alexandre Millerand
and Prime Minister Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré
of France, to King George V of the United Kingdom, and to the Zoological Garden (Jardin Zoologique) of Paris.[48] As one historian noted, "Rarely can a tour have inspired so many anecdotes".[48] In return for two lions, the United Kingdom presented Tafari with the imperial crown of Emperor
Emperor
Tewodros II
Tewodros II
for its safe return to Empress Zewditu. The crown had been taken by Robert Napier during the 1868 Expedition to Abyssinia.[51] In this period, the Crown Prince
Crown Prince
visited the Armenian monastery of Jerusalem. There, he adopted 40 Armenian orphans (አርባ ልጆች Arba Lijoch, "forty children"), who had lost their parents in Ottoman massacres. Tafari arranged for the musical education of the youths, and they came to form the imperial brass band.[52] King and emperor[edit] See also: Modernisation of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
under Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I

Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
standing in front of throne c.1965

Tafari's authority was challenged in 1928 when Dejazmatch Balcha Safo went to Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
with a sizeable armed force. When Tafari consolidated his hold over the provinces, many of Menelik's appointees refused to abide by the new regulations. Balcha Safo, the governor (Shum) of coffee-rich Sidamo Province, was particularly troublesome. The revenues he remitted to the central government did not reflect the accrued profits and Tafari recalled him to Addis Ababa. The old man came in high dudgeon and, insultingly, with a large army.[nb 5] The Dejazmatch paid homage to Empress Zewditu, but snubbed Tafari.[53][54] On 18 February, while Balcha Safo
Balcha Safo
and his personal bodyguard[nb 6] were in Addis Ababa, Tafari had Ras Kassa Haile Darge
Kassa Haile Darge
buy off his army and arranged to have him displaced as the Shum of Sidamo Province[55] by Birru Wolde Gabriel who himself was replaced by Desta Damtew.[40] Even so, the gesture of Balcha Safo
Balcha Safo
empowered Empress Zewditu politically and she attempted to have Tafari tried for treason. He was tried for his benevolent dealings with Italy
Italy
including a 20-year peace accord which was signed on 2 August.[32] In September, a group of palace reactionaries including some courtiers of the empress, made a final bid to get rid of Tafari. The attempted coup d'état was tragic in its origins and comic in its end. When confronted by Tafari and a company of his troops, the ringleaders of the coup took refuge on the palace grounds in Menelik's mausoleum. Tafari and his men surrounded them only to be surrounded themselves by the personal guard of Zewditu. More of Tafari's khaki clad soldiers arrived and, with superiority of arms, decided the outcome in his favor.[56] Popular support, as well as the support of the police,[53] remained with Tafari. Ultimately, the Empress relented and, on 7 October 1928, she crowned Tafari as Negus
Negus
(Amharic: "King"). The crowning of Tafari as King was controversial. He occupied the same territory as the empress rather than going off to a regional kingdom of the empire. Two monarchs, even with one being the vassal and the other the emperor (in this case empress), had never occupied the same location as their seat in Ethiopian history. Conservatives agitated to redress this perceived insult to the dignity of the crown, leading to the rebellion of Ras Gugsa Welle. Gugsa Welle was the husband of the empress and the Shum of Begemder
Begemder
Province. In early 1930, he raised an army and marched it from his governorate at Gondar
Gondar
towards Addis Ababa. On 31 March 1930, Gugsa Welle was met by forces loyal to Negus Tafari and was defeated at the Battle of Anchem. Gugsa Welle was killed in action.[57] News of Gugsa Welle's defeat and death had hardly spread through Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
when the empress died suddenly on 2 April 1930. Although it was long rumored that the empress was poisoned upon the defeat of her husband,[58] or alternately that she died from shock upon hearing of the death of her estranged yet beloved husband,[59] it has since been documented that the Empress succumbed to a flu-like fever and complications from diabetes.[60]

Cover of Time magazine, 3 November 1930

With the passing of Zewditu, Tafari himself rose to emperor and was proclaimed Neguse Negest ze-'Ityopp'ya, " King of Kings
King of Kings
of Ethiopia". He was crowned on 2 November 1930, at Addis Ababa's Cathedral of St. George. The coronation was by all accounts "a most splendid affair",[61] and it was attended by royals and dignitaries from all over the world. Among those in attendance were George V's son the Duke of Gloucester, Marshal Franchet d'Esperey of France, and the Prince of Udine
Udine
representing the King of Italy. Emissaries from the United States,[62] Egypt, Turkey, Sweden, Belgium, and Japan
Japan
were also present.[61] British author Evelyn Waugh
Evelyn Waugh
was also present, penning a contemporary report on the event, and American travel lecturer Burton Holmes shot the only known film footage of the event.[63] One newspaper report suggested that the celebration may have incurred a cost in excess of $3,000,000.[64] Many of those in attendance received lavish gifts;[65] in one instance, the Christian emperor even sent a gold-encased Bible
Bible
to an American bishop who had not attended the coronation, but who had dedicated a prayer to the emperor on the day of the coronation.[66] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
introduced Ethiopia's first written constitution on 16 July 1931,[67] providing for a bicameral legislature.[68] The constitution kept power in the hands of the nobility, but it did establish democratic standards among the nobility, envisaging a transition to democratic rule: it would prevail "until the people are in a position to elect themselves."[69] The constitution limited the succession to the throne to the descendants of Haile Selassie, a point that met with the disapprobation of other dynastic princes, including the princes of Tigrai and even the emperor's loyal cousin, Ras Kassa Haile Darge. In 1932, the Sultanate of Jimma
Jimma
was formally absorbed into Ethiopia following the death of Sultan Abba Jifar II of Jimma. Conflict with Italy[edit] See also: Abyssinia Crisis and Second Italo-Abyssinian War Ethiopia
Ethiopia
became the target of renewed Italian imperialist designs in the 1930s. Benito Mussolini's Fascist
Fascist
regime was keen to avenge the military defeats Italy
Italy
had suffered to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the First Italo-Abyssinian War, and to efface the failed attempt by "liberal" Italy
Italy
to conquer the country, as epitomised by the defeat at Adwa.[70][71][72] A conquest of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
could also empower the cause of fascism and embolden its rhetoric of empire.[72] Ethiopia
Ethiopia
would also provide a bridge between Italy's Eritrean and Italian Somaliland possessions. Ethiopia's position in the League of Nations
League of Nations
did not dissuade the Italians from invading in 1935; the "collective security" envisaged by the League proved useless, and a scandal erupted when the Hoare-Laval Pact revealed that Ethiopia's League allies were scheming to appease Italy.[73] Mobilization[edit] Following the 5 December 1934 Italian invasion of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
at Walwal, Ogeden Province, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
joined his northern armies and set up headquarters at Desse in Wollo
Wollo
province. He issued his mobilization order on 3 October 1935:

If you withhold from your country Ethiopia
Ethiopia
the death from cough or head-cold of which you would otherwise die, refusing to resist (in your district, in your patrimony, and in your home) our enemy who is coming from a distant country to attack us, and if you persist in not shedding your blood, you will be rebuked for it by your Creator and will be cursed by your offspring. Hence, without cooling your heart of accustomed valour, there emerges your decision to fight fiercely, mindful of your history that will last far into the future… If on your march you touch any property inside houses or cattle and crops outside, not even grass, straw, and dung excluded, it is like killing your brother who is dying with you… You, countryman, living at the various access routes, set up a market for the army at the places where it is camping and on the day your district-governor will indicate to you, lest the soldiers campaigning for Ethiopia's liberty should experience difficulty. You will not be charged excise duty, until the end of the campaign, for anything you are marketing at the military camps: I have granted you remission… After you have been ordered to go to war, but are then idly missing from the campaign, and when you are seized by the local chief or by an accuser, you will have punishment inflicted upon your inherited land, your property, and your body; to the accuser I shall grant a third of your property…

On 19 October 1935, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
gave more precise orders for his army to his Commander-in-Chief, Ras Kassa:

When you set up tents, it is to be in caves and by trees and in a wood, if the place happens to be adjoining to these―and separated in the various platoons. Tents are to be set up at a distance of 30 cubits from each other. When an aeroplane is sighted, one should leave large open roads and wide meadows and march in valleys and trenches and by zigzag routes, along places which have trees and woods. When an aeroplane comes to drop bombs, it will not suit it to do so unless it comes down to about 100 metres; hence when it flies low for such action, one should fire a volley with a good and very long gun and then quickly disperse. When three or four bullets have hit it, the aeroplane is bound to fall down. But let only those fire who have been ordered to shoot with a weapon that has been selected for such firing, for if everyone shoots who possesses a gun, there is no advantage in this except to waste bullets and to disclose the men's whereabouts. Lest the aeroplane, when rising again, should detect the whereabouts of those who are dispersed, it is well to remain cautiously scattered as long as it is still fairly close. In time of war it suits the enemy to aim his guns at adorned shields, ornaments, silver and gold cloaks, silk shirts and all similar things. Whether one possesses a jacket or not, it is best to wear a narrow-sleeved shirt with faded colours. When we return, with God's help, you can wear your gold and silver decorations then. Now it is time to go and fight. We offer you all these words of advice in the hope that no great harm should befall you through lack of caution. At the same time, We are glad to assure you that in time of war We are ready to shed Our blood in your midst for the sake of Ethiopia's freedom…"[74]

Compared to the Ethiopians, the Italians had an advanced, modern military which included a large air force. The Italians would also come to employ chemical weapons extensively throughout the conflict, even targeting Red Cross
Red Cross
field hospitals in violation of the Geneva Conventions.[75] Progress of the war[edit] Starting in early October 1935, the Italians invaded Ethiopia. But, by November, the pace of invasion had slowed appreciably and Haile Selassie's northern armies were able to launch what was known as the "Christmas Offensive". During this offensive, the Italians were forced back in places and put on the defensive. In early 1936, the First Battle of Tembien stopped the progress of the Ethiopian offensive and the Italians were ready to continue their offensive. Following the defeat and destruction of the northern Ethiopian armies at the Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, and the Battle of Shire, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
took the field with the last Ethiopian army on the northern front. On 31 March 1936, he launched a counterattack against the Italians himself at the Battle of Maychew in southern Tigray. The emperor's army was defeated and retreated in disarray. As Haile Selassie's army withdrew, the Italians attacked from the air along with rebellious Raya and Azebo tribesmen on the ground, who were armed and paid by the Italians.[76]

When the struggle to resist Italy
Italy
appeared doomed, Haile Selassie traveled to the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela
Lalibela
for fasting and prayer.[77]

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
made a solitary pilgrimage to the churches at Lalibela, at considerable risk of capture, before returning to his capital.[78] After a stormy session of the council of state, it was agreed that because Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
could not be defended, the government would relocate to the southern town of Gore, and that in the interest of preserving the Imperial house, the emperor's wife Menen Asfaw
Menen Asfaw
and the rest of the imperial family should immediately depart for French Somaliland, and from there continue on to Jerusalem. Exile debate[edit]

The emperor arrives in Jerusalem. May 1936

After further debate as to whether Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
should go to Gore or accompany his family into exile, it was agreed that he should leave Ethiopia
Ethiopia
with his family and present the case of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to the League of Nations
League of Nations
at Geneva. The decision was not unanimous and several participants, including the nobleman Blatta Tekle Wolde Hawariat, strenuously objected to the idea of an Ethiopian monarch fleeing before an invading force.[79] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
appointed his cousin Ras Imru Haile Selassie
Imru Haile Selassie
as Prince Regent
Regent
in his absence, departing with his family for French Somaliland
French Somaliland
on 2 May 1936. On 5 May, Marshal Pietro Badoglio
Pietro Badoglio
led Italian troops into Addis Ababa, and Mussolini declared Ethiopia
Ethiopia
an Italian province. Victor Emanuel III was proclaimed as the new Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia. On the previous day, the Ethiopian exiles had left French Somaliland
French Somaliland
aboard the British cruiser HMS Enterprise. They were bound for Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the British Mandate of Palestine, where the Ethiopian royal family maintained a residence. The Imperial family disembarked at Haifa
Haifa
and then went on to Jerusalem. Once there, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
and his retinue prepared to make their case at Geneva. The choice of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was highly symbolic, since the Solomonic Dynasty
Dynasty
claimed descent from the House of David. Leaving the Holy Land, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
and his entourage sailed aboard the British cruiser HMS Capetown for Gibraltar, where he stayed at the Rock Hotel. From Gibraltar, the exiles were transferred to an ordinary liner. By doing this, the government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was spared the expense of a state reception.[80] Collective security and the League of Nations, 1936[edit] Mussolini, upon invading Ethiopia, had promptly declared his own "Italian Empire." Because the League of Nations
League of Nations
afforded Haile Selassie the opportunity to address the assembly, Italy
Italy
even withdrew its League delegation, on 12 May 1936.[81] It was in this context that Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
walked into the hall of the League of Nations, introduced by the President of the Assembly as "His Imperial Majesty, the Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia" (Sa Majesté Imperiale, l'Empereur d'Ethiopie). The introduction caused a great many Italian journalists in the galleries to erupt into jeering, heckling, and whistling. As it turned out, they had earlier been issued whistles by Mussolini's son-in-law, Count
Count
Galeazzo Ciano.[82] The Romanian delegate, Nicolae Titulescu, famously jumped to his feet in response and cried "To the door with the savages!", and the offending journalists were removed from the hall. Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
waited calmly for the hall to be cleared, and responded "majestically"[83] with a speech sometimes considered[by whom?] among the most stirring of the 20th century.[5] Although fluent in French, the working language of the League, Haile Selassie chose to deliver his historic speech in his native Amharic. He asserted that, because his "confidence in the League was absolute", his people were now being slaughtered. He pointed out that the same European states that found in Ethiopia's favor at the League of Nations were refusing Ethiopia
Ethiopia
credit and matériel while aiding Italy, which was employing chemical weapons on military and civilian targets alike.

It was at the time when the operations for the encircling of Makale were taking place that the Italian command, fearing a rout, followed the procedure which it is now my duty to denounce to the world. Special
Special
sprayers were installed on board aircraft so that they could vaporize, over vast areas of territory, a fine, death-dealing rain. Groups of nine, fifteen, eighteen aircraft followed one another so that the fog issuing from them formed a continuous sheet. It was thus that, as from the end of January 1936, soldiers, women, children, cattle, rivers, lakes, and pastures were drenched continually with this deadly rain. In order to kill off systematically all living creatures, in order to more surely poison waters and pastures, the Italian command made its aircraft pass over and over again. That was its chief method of warfare.[84]

Noting that his own "small people of 12 million inhabitants, without arms, without resources" could never withstand an attack by a large power such as Italy, with its 42 million people and "unlimited quantities of the most death-dealing weapons", he contended that all small states were threatened by the aggression, and that all small states were in effect reduced to vassal states in the absence of collective action. He admonished the League that "God and history will remember your judgment."[85]

It is collective security: it is the very existence of the League of Nations. It is the confidence that each State is to place in international treaties… In a word, it is international morality that is at stake. Have the signatures appended to a Treaty value only in so far as the signatory Powers have a personal, direct and immediate interest involved?

The speech made the emperor an icon for anti-fascists around the world, and Time named him "Man of the Year".[86] He failed, however, to get what he most needed: the League agreed to only partial and ineffective sanctions on Italy. Only six nations in 1937 did not recognize Italy's occupation: China, New Zealand, the Soviet Union, the Republic of Spain, Mexico
Mexico
and the United States.[71] Exile[edit]

A plate from the dinner service sold by Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
in England in 1937

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
in 1942

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
spent his exile years (1936–41) in Bath, England, in Fairfield House, which he bought. The emperor and Kassa Haile Darge took morning walks together behind the high walls of the 14-room Georgian house. Haile Selassie's favorite reading was "diplomatic history." But most of his serious hours were occupied with the 90,000-word story of his life that he was laboriously writing in Amharic.[87] Prior to Fairfield House, he briefly stayed at Warne's Hotel in Worthing[88] and in Parkside, Wimbledon.[89] A bust of Haile Selassie is in nearby Cannizaro Park
Cannizaro Park
to commemorate this time and is a popular place of pilgrimage for London's Rastafari
Rastafari
community. Haile Selassie stayed at the Abbey Hotel in Malvern in the 1930s and his granddaughters and daughters of court officials were educated at Clarendon School in North Malvern. During his time in Malvern he attended services at Holy Trinity
Trinity
Church, in Link Top. A blue plaque, commemorating his stay in Malvern, was unveiled on Saturday, 25 June 2011. As part of the ceremony, a delegation from the Rastafari movement gave a short address and a drum recital.[90][91][92][93][94] Haile Selassie's activity in this period was focused on countering Italian propaganda as to the state of Ethiopian resistance and the legality of the occupation.[95] He spoke out against the desecration of houses of worship and historical artifacts (including the theft of a 1,600-year-old imperial obelisk), and condemned the atrocities suffered by the Ethiopian civilian population.[96] He continued to plead for League intervention and to voice his certainty that "God's judgment will eventually visit the weak and the mighty alike",[97] though his attempts to gain support for the struggle against Italy were largely unsuccessful until Italy
Italy
entered World War II on the German side in June 1940.[98] The emperor's pleas for international support did take root in the United States, particularly among African-American organizations sympathetic to the Ethiopian cause.[99] In 1937, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was to give a Christmas Day radio address to the American people to thank his supporters when his taxi was involved in a traffic accident, leaving him with a fractured knee.[100] Rather than canceling the radio broadcast, he proceeded in much pain to complete the address, in which he linked Christianity and goodwill with the Covenant of the League of Nations, and asserted that "War is not the only means to stop war":[100]

With the birth of the Son of God, an unprecedented, an unrepeatable, and a long-anticipated phenomenon occurred. He was born in a stable instead of a palace, in a manger instead of a crib. The hearts of the Wise men were struck by fear and wonder due to His Majestic Humbleness. The kings prostrated themselves before Him and worshipped Him. 'Peace be to those who have good will'. This became the first message. ...Although the toils of wise people may earn them respect, it is a fact of life that the spirit of the wicked continues to cast its shadow on this world. The arrogant are seen visibly leading their people into crime and destruction. The laws of the League of Nations are constantly violated and wars and acts of aggression repeatedly take place… So that the spirit of the cursed will not gain predominance over the human race whom Christ redeemed with his blood, all peace-loving people should cooperate to stand firm in order to preserve and promote lawfulness and peace.[100]

During this period, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
suffered several personal tragedies. His two sons-in-law, Ras Desta Damtew and Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Beyene Merid, were both executed by the Italians.[97] The emperor's daughter, Princess Romanework, wife of Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Beyene Merid, was herself taken into captivity with her children, and she died in Italy
Italy
in 1941.[101] His daughter Tsehai died during childbirth shortly after the restoration in 1942.[102] After his return to Ethiopia, he donated Fairfield House to the city of Bath as a residence for the aged, until modified in the 1990s where it is now used as a day care centre.[103] Advanced negotiations are progressing for a community group to run the House to preserve and develop the House. 1940s and 1950s[edit]

Newspaper illustration drawn by Charles H. Alston for the U.S. Office of War Information Domestic Operations Branch News Bureau, 1943

Meeting with Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Akihito
Akihito
in 1955

Plaque commemorating the visit of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I to Mexico, 1954 – Etiopía Station, line 3 of the Mexico
Mexico
City Metro

British forces, which consisted primarily of Ethiopian-backed African and South African colonial troops under the "Gideon Force" of Colonel Orde Wingate, coordinated the military effort to liberate Ethiopia. The emperor himself issued several imperial proclamations in this period, demonstrating that, while authority was not divided up in any formal way, British military might and the emperor's populist appeal could be joined in the concerted effort to liberate Ethiopia.[98] On 18 January 1941, during the East African Campaign, Haile Selassie crossed the border between Sudan
Sudan
and Ethiopia
Ethiopia
near the village of Um Iddla. The standard of the Lion of Judah
Lion of Judah
was raised again. Two days later, he and a force of Ethiopian patriots joined Gideon Force
Gideon Force
which was already in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and preparing the way.[104] Italy
Italy
was defeated by a force of the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Nations, Free France, Free Belgium, and Ethiopian patriots. On 5 May 1941, Haile Selassie entered Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
and personally addressed the Ethiopian people, five years to the day since his 1936 exile:

Today is the day on which we defeated our enemy. Therefore, when we say let us rejoice with our hearts, let not our rejoicing be in any other way but in the spirit of Christ. Do not return evil for evil. Do not indulge in the atrocities which the enemy has been practicing in his usual way, even to the last. Take care not to spoil the good name of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
by acts which are worthy of the enemy. We shall see that our enemies are disarmed and sent out the same way they came. As Saint George who killed the dragon is the Patron Saint of our army as well as of our allies, let us unite with our allies in everlasting friendship and amity in order to be able to stand against the godless and cruel dragon which has newly risen and which is oppressing mankind.[105]

On 27 August 1942, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
confirmed the legal basis for the abolition of slavery that had been enacted by Italy
Italy
throughout the empire and imposed severe penalties, including death, for slave trading.[106] After World War II, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
became a charter member of the United Nations. In 1948, the Ogaden, a region disputed with Somalia, was granted to Ethiopia.[107] On 2 December 1950, the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 390 (V), establishing the federation of Eritrea
Eritrea
(the former Italian colony) into Ethiopia.[108] Eritrea
Eritrea
was to have its own constitution, which would provide for ethnic, linguistic, and cultural balance, while Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was to manage its finances, defense, and foreign policy.[108] Despite his centralization policies that had been made before World War II, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
still found himself unable to push for all the programs he wanted. In 1942, he attempted to institute a progressive tax scheme, but this failed due to opposition from the nobility, and only a flat tax was passed; in 1951, he agreed to reduce this as well.[109] Ethiopia
Ethiopia
was still "semi-feudal",[110] and the emperor's attempts to alter its social and economic form by reforming its modes of taxation met with resistance from the nobility and clergy, which were eager to resume their privileges in the postwar era.[109] Where Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
actually did succeed in effecting new land taxes, the burdens were often passed by the landowners to the peasants.[109] Despite his wishes, the tax burden remained primarily on the peasants. Between 1941 and 1959, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
worked to establish the autocephaly of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.[111] The Ethiopian Orthodox Church had been headed by the abuna, a bishop who answered to the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. In 1942 and 1945 Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
applied to the Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church to establish the independence of Ethiopian bishops, and when his appeals were denied he threatened to sever relations with the Coptic Church of Alexandria.[111] Finally, in 1959, Pope Kyrillos VI elevated the Abuna to Patriarch-Catholicos.[111] The Ethiopian Church remained affiliated with the Alexandrian Church.[109] In addition to these efforts, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
changed the Ethiopian church-state relationship by introducing taxation of church lands, and by restricting the legal privileges of the clergy, who had formerly been tried in their own courts for civil offenses.[109] In keeping with the principle of collective security, for which he was an outspoken proponent, he sent a contingent under General Mulugueta Bulli, known as the Kagnew Battalion, to take part in the Korean War by supporting the United Nations
United Nations
Command. It was attached to the American 7th Infantry Division, and fought in a number of engagements including the Battle of Pork Chop Hill.[112] In a 1954 speech, the emperor spoke of Ethiopian participation in the Korean War
Korean War
as a redemption of the principles of collective security:

Nearly two decades ago, I personally assumed before history the responsibility of placing the fate of my beloved people on the issue of collective security, for surely, at that time and for the first time in world history, that issue was posed in all its clarity. My searching of conscience convinced me of the rightness of my course and if, after untold sufferings and, indeed, unaided resistance at the time of aggression, we now see the final vindication of that principle in our joint action in Korea, I can only be thankful that God gave me strength to persist in our faith until the moment of its recent glorious vindication.[113]

Haile Selassie, Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia, photographed during a radio broadcast

During the celebrations of his Silver Jubilee in November 1955, Haile Selassie introduced a revised constitution,[114] whereby he retained effective power, while extending political participation to the people by allowing the lower house of parliament to become an elected body. Party politics were not provided for. Modern educational methods were more widely spread throughout the Empire, and the country embarked on a development scheme and plans for modernization, tempered by Ethiopian traditions, and within the framework of the ancient monarchical structure of the state. Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
compromised when practical with the traditionalists in the nobility and church. He also tried to improve relations between the state and ethnic groups, and granted autonomy to Afar lands that were difficult to control. Still, his reforms to end feudalism were slow and weakened by the compromises he made with the entrenched aristocracy. The Revised Constitution of 1955 has been criticized for reasserting "the indisputable power of the monarch" and maintaining the relative powerlessness of the peasants.[115] Charitable gesture[edit] He sent aid to the British government in 1947 when Britain was affected by heavy flooding. His letter to Lord Meork, National Distress Fund, London said, "even though We are busy of helping our people who didn't recover from the crises of the war, We heard that your fertile and beautiful country is devastated by the unusually heavy rain, and your request for aid. Therefore, We are sending small amount of money, about one thousand pounds through our embassy to show our sympathy and cooperation."[116] He also left his home in exile, Fairfield House, Bath, to the City of Bath for the use of the Aged in 1959. 1960s[edit]

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Haile Selassie

1st & 5th Chairman of the Organization of African Unity

In office 25 May 1963 – 17 July 1964

Succeeded by Gamal Abdel Nasser

In office 5 November 1966 – 11 September 1967

Preceded by Joseph Arthur Ankrah

Succeeded by Joseph-Désiré Mobutu

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
contributed Ethiopian troops to the United Nations Operation in the Congo peacekeeping force during the 1960 Congo Crisis, to preserve Congolese integrity, per United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 143. On 13 December 1960, while Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was on a state visit to Brazil, his Imperial Guard forces staged an unsuccessful coup, briefly proclaiming Haile Selassie's eldest son Asfa Wossen as emperor. The coup d'état was crushed by the regular army and police forces. The coup attempt lacked broad popular support, was denounced by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and was unpopular with the army, air force and police. Nonetheless, the effort to depose the emperor had support among students and the educated classes.[117] The coup attempt has been characterized as a pivotal moment in Ethiopian history, the point at which Ethiopians "for the first time questioned the power of the king to rule without the people's consent".[118] Student populations began to empathize with the peasantry and poor, and to advocate on their behalf.[118] The coup spurred Haile Selassie to accelerate reform, which was manifested in the form of land grants to military and police officials. The emperor continued to be a staunch ally of the West, while pursuing a firm policy of decolonization in Africa, which was still largely under European colonial rule. The United Nations
United Nations
conducted a lengthy inquiry regarding the status of Eritrea, with the superpowers each vying for a stake in the state's future. Britain, the administrator at the time, suggested the partition of Eritrea
Eritrea
between Sudan
Sudan
and Ethiopia, separating Christians and Muslims. The idea was instantly rejected by Eritrean political parties, as well as the UN. A UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea
Eritrea
be federated with Ethiopia, which was later stipulated on 2 December 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea
Eritrea
would have its own parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian parliament and would become the federal parliament.[119] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
would have none of European attempts to draft a separate Constitution under which Eritrea
Eritrea
would be governed, and wanted his own 1955 Constitution protecting families to apply in both Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Eritrea. In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence began, followed by Haile Selassie's dissolution of the federation and shutting down of Eritrea's parliament.

Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
with President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt
Egypt
in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
for the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
summit, 1963.

In September 1961, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
attended the Conference of Heads of State of Government of Non-Aligned Countries in Belgrade, FPR Yugoslavia. This is considered to be the founding conference of the Non-Aligned Movement. In 1961, tensions between independence-minded Eritreans and Ethiopian forces culminated in the Eritrean War of Independence. The emperor declared Eritrea
Eritrea
the fourteenth province of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in 1962.[120] The war would continue for 30 years, as first Haile Selassie, then the Soviet-backed junta that succeeded him, attempted to retain Eritrea
Eritrea
by force. In 1963, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
presided over the formation of the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
(OAU), the precursor of the continent-wide African Union
African Union
(AU). The new organization would establish its headquarters in Addis Ababa. In May of that year, Haile Selassie was elected as the OAU's first official chairperson, a rotating seat. Along with Modibo Keïta
Modibo Keïta
of Mali, the Ethiopian leader would later help successfully negotiate the Bamako Accords, which brought an end to the border conflict between Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria. In 1964, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
would initiate the concept of the United States of Africa, a proposition later taken up by Muammar Gaddafi.[121] On 4 October 1963, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations[122][123] referring in his address to his earlier speech to the League of Nations:

Twenty-seven years ago, as Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia, I mounted the rostrum in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the League of Nations
League of Nations
and to appeal for relief from the destruction which had been unleashed against my defenceless nation, by the fascist invader. I spoke then both to and for the conscience of the world. My words went unheeded, but history testifies to the accuracy of the warning that I gave in 1936. Today, I stand before the world organization which has succeeded to the mantle discarded by its discredited predecessor. In this body is enshrined the principle of collective security which I unsuccessfully invoked at Geneva. Here, in this Assembly, reposes the best – perhaps the last – hope for the peaceful survival of mankind.[124]

On 25 November 1963, the emperor was among other heads of state, including France's President Charles de Gaulle, who traveled to Washington D.C. and attended the funeral of assassinated President John F. Kennedy. In 1966, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
attempted to create a modern, progressive tax[citation needed] that included registration of land, which would significantly weaken the nobility. Even with alterations, this law led to a revolt in Gojjam, which was repressed although enforcement of the tax was abandoned. The revolt, having achieved its design in undermining the tax, encouraged other landowners to defy Haile Selassie.

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
on a state visit to Washington, 1963

While he had fully approved of, and assured Ethiopia's participation in, UN-approved collective security operations, including Korea and Congo, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
drew a distinction with the non-UN approved foreign intervention in Indochina, and consistently deplored it as needless suffering, calling for the Vietnam War to end on several occasions. At the same time he remained open toward the United States and commended it for making progress with African Americans' Civil Rights legislation in the 1950s and 1960s, while visiting the US several times during these years. In 1967, he visited Montreal, Canada to open the Ethiopian Pavilion at the Expo '67 World's Fair where he received great acclaim amongst other World leaders there for the occasion. Student unrest became a regular feature of Ethiopian life in the 1960s and 1970s. Marxism
Marxism
took root in large segments of the Ethiopian intelligentsia, particularly among those who had studied abroad and had thus been exposed to radical and left-wing sentiments that were becoming popular in other parts of the globe.[117] Resistance by conservative elements at the Imperial Court and Parliament, and by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, made Haile Selassie's land reform proposals difficult to implement, and also damaged the standing of the government, costing Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
much of the goodwill he had once enjoyed. This bred resentment among the peasant population. Efforts to weaken unions also hurt his image. As these issues began to pile up, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
left much of domestic governance to his Prime Minister, Aklilu Habte Wold, and concentrated more on foreign affairs. 1970s[edit]

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I in Toledo (Spain) in April 1971. Picture by Eduardo Butragueño.

Outside of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
continued to enjoy enormous prestige and respect. As the longest-serving head of state in power, he was often given precedence over other leaders at state events, such as the state funerals of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
and Charles de Gaulle, the summits of the Non-Aligned Movement, and the 1971 celebration of the 2,500 years of the Persian Empire. In 1970 he visited Italy
Italy
as a guest of President Giuseppe Saragat, and in Milan
Milan
he met Giordano Dell'Amore, President of Italian Savings Banks Association. He visited China in October 1971, and was the first foreign head of state to meet Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
following the death of Mao's designated successor Lin Biao in a plane crash in Mongolia. Human rights in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
under Selassie's regime were poor. Civil liberties and political rights were low with Freedom House
Freedom House
giving Ethiopia
Ethiopia
a "Not Free" score for both civil liberties and political rights in the last years of Selassie's rule.[125] Common human right abuses included imprisonment and torture of political prisoners and very poor prison conditions.[11] The Ethiopian army also carried out a number of these atrocities while fighting the Eritrean separatists. This was due to a policy of destroying Eritrean villages that supported the rebels. There were a number of mass killings of hundreds of civilians during the war in the late 1960s and early '70s.[126][127][128][129] Wollo
Wollo
famine[edit] Famine—mostly in Wollo, north-eastern Ethiopia, as well as in some parts of Tigray—is estimated to have killed 40,000 to 80,000 Ethiopians[8][130] between 1972 and 1974. A BBC News report[131] has cited a 1973 estimate that 200,000 deaths occurred, based on a contemporaneous estimate from the Ethiopian Nutrition Institute. While this figure is still repeated in some texts and media sources, it was an estimate that was later found to be "over-pessimistic".[133] Although the region is infamous for recurrent crop failures and continuous food shortage and starvation risk, this episode was remarkably severe. A 1973 production of the ITV programme The Unknown Famine
Famine
by Jonathan Dimbleby[134][135] relied on the unverified estimate of 200,000 dead,[131][136] stimulating a massive influx of aid while at the same time destabilizing Haile Selassie's regime.[130]

Against that background, a group of dissident army officers instigated a creeping coup against the emperor's faltering regime. To guard against a public backlash in favour of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(who was still widely revered), they contrived to obtain a copy of The Unknown Famine which they intercut with images of Africa's grand old man presiding at a wedding feast in the grounds of his palace. Retitled The Hidden Hunger, this film noir was shown round the clock on Ethiopian television to coincide with the day that they finally summoned the nerve to seize the emperor himself. — Jonathan Dimbleby, "Feeding on Ethiopia's famine"[137]

The 1973 oil crisis, the severity of which is demonstrated by this graph, hit Ethiopia
Ethiopia
amidst a devastating famine, compounding its effect and undermining support for the emperor.[115]

Some reports suggest that the emperor was unaware of the extent of the famine,[131] while others assert that he was well aware of it.[138][139] In addition to the exposure of attempts by corrupt local officials to cover up the famine from the imperial government, the Kremlin's depiction of Haile Selassie's Ethiopia
Ethiopia
as backwards and inept (relative to the purported utopia of Marxism-Leninism) contributed to the popular uprising that led to its downfall and the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam.[140] The famine and its image in the media undermined popular support of the government, and Haile Selassie's once unassailable personal popularity fell.[141] The crisis was exacerbated by military mutinies and high oil prices, the latter a result of the 1973 oil crisis. The international economic crisis triggered by the oil crisis caused the costs of imported goods, gasoline, and food to skyrocket, while unemployment spiked.[115] Revolution[edit] In February 1974, four days of serious riots in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
against a sudden economic inflation left five dead. The emperor responded by announcing on national television a reduction in petrol prices and a freeze on the cost of basic commodities. This calmed the public, but the promised 33% military wage hike was not substantial enough to pacify the army, which then mutinied, beginning in Asmara and spreading throughout the empire. This mutiny led to the resignation of Prime Minister Aklilu Habte-Wold on 27 February 1974.[142] Haile Selassie again went on television to agree to the army's demands for still greater pay, and named Endelkachew Makonnen
Endelkachew Makonnen
as his new Prime Minister. Despite Endalkatchew's many concessions, discontent continued in March with a four-day general strike that paralyzed the nation. Imprisonment[edit]

The deposition of Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I (above rear window) from the Jubilee Palace on 12 September 1974, marking the coup d'état's action on that day and the assumption of power by the Derg.

The Derg, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men, set up in June to investigate the military's demands, took advantage of the government's disarray to depose Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
on 12 September 1974. General Aman Mikael Andom, a Protestant of Eritrean origin,[142] served briefly as provisional head of state pending the return of Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Asfa Wossen, who was then receiving medical treatment abroad. Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was placed under house arrest briefly at the 4th Army Division in Addis Ababa,[142] while most of his family was detained at the late Duke
Duke
of Harar's residence in the north of the capital. The last months of the emperor's life were spent in imprisonment, in the Grand Palace.[143] Reportedly, his mental condition was such that he believed he was still Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia.[144] Later, most of the imperial family was imprisoned in the Addis Ababa prison Kerchele, also known as "Alem Bekagne", or "I've had Enough of This World". On 23 November 1974, sixty former high officials of the imperial government were executed without trial.[145] The executed included Haile Selassie's grandson and two former Prime Ministers.[143] These killings, known to Ethiopians as "Bloody Saturday", were condemned by Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Asfa Wossen; the Derg responded to his rebuke by revoking its acknowledgment of his imperial legitimacy, and announcing the end of the Solomonic dynasty.[145] Death and interment[edit] On 28 August 1975, the state media reported that the "ex-monarch" Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
had died on 27 August of "respiratory failure" following complications from a prostate examination followed up by a prostate operation.[146] His doctor, Asrat Woldeyes, denied that complications had occurred and rejected the government version of his death.[citation needed] Some imperial loyalists believed that the emperor had in fact been assassinated, and this belief remains widely held to this day.[147] One western correspondent in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
at the time commented, "While it is not known what actually happened, there are strong indications that no efforts were made to save him. It is unlikely that he was actually killed. Such rumors were bound to arise no matter what happened, given the atmosphere of suspicion and distrust prevailing in Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
at the time."[148] The Soviet-backed Derg
Derg
fell in 1991. In 1992, the emperor's bones were found under a concrete slab on the palace grounds;[147] some reports suggest that his remains were discovered beneath a latrine.[149] For almost a decade thereafter, as Ethiopian courts attempted to sort out the circumstances of his death, his coffin rested in Bhata Church, near his great-uncle Menelik II's resting place.[150] On 5 November 2000, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
was given an imperial-style funeral by the Ethiopian Orthodox church. The post-communist government refused calls to declare the ceremony an official imperial funeral.[150] Although such prominent Rastafari
Rastafari
figures as Rita Marley
Rita Marley
and others participated in the grand funeral, most Rastafari
Rastafari
rejected the event and refused to accept that the bones were the remains of Haile Selassie. There remains some debate within the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement whether Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
actually died in 1975.[151] Descendants[edit]

Prince Makonnen, son of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I.

By Menen Asfaw, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
had six children: Princess Tenagnework, Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Asfaw Wossen, Princess Zenebework, Princess Tsehai, Prince Makonnen, and Prince Sahle Selassie. There is some controversy as to the motherhood of Haile Selassie's eldest daughter, Princess Romanework. While the living members of the royal family state that Romanework is the eldest daughter of Empress Menen,[152] it has been asserted that Princess Romanework is actually the daughter of a previous union of the emperor with Woizero Altayech.[153] This may be a nickname she used, as nobleman Blata Merse Hazen Wolde Kirkos, a contemporary source prominent in both the Imperial Court and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
names her as Woizero Woinetu Amede. The emperor's own autobiography makes no mention of this previous marriage or having fathered children with anyone other than Empress Menen, although he mentions the death of this daughter in captivity at Turin. Other sources such as Blata Merse Hazen Wolde Kirkos mentions Princess Romanework's mother Woizero Woinetu Amede as attending the wedding of her daughter to Dejazmatch Beyene Merid in a first hand account in his book about the years before the Italian occupation. Prince Asfaw Wossen was first married to Princess Wolete Israel Seyoum and then following their divorce to Princess Medferiashwork Abebe. Prince Makonnen
Prince Makonnen
was married to Princess Sara Gizaw. Prince Sahle Selassie was married to Princess Mahisente Habte Mariam. Princess Romanework married Dejazmatch Beyene Merid. Princess Tenagnework
Princess Tenagnework
first married Ras Desta Damtew, and after she was widowed later married Ras Andargachew Messai. Princess Zenebework
Princess Zenebework
married Dejazmatch Haile Selassie Gugsa. Princess Tsehai
Princess Tsehai
married Lt. General Abiye Abebe. Rastafari
Rastafari
messiah[edit]

“ … Ethiopia
Ethiopia
shall soon stretch out her hands unto God. ”

—  Psalms
Psalms
68:31

Rastafari

Main doctrines

Jah Ital

Zion Cannabis use

Central figures

Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I Jesus

Menen Asfaw Marcus Garvey

Key scriptures

Bible Kebra Nagast

My Life and Ethiopia's Progress

The Promise Key Holy Piby

Royal Parchment Scroll of Black Supremacy

Branches

Mansions in the U.S.

Bobo Ashanti Nyabinghi

Twelve Tribes of Israel

Festivals

Shashamane Grounation Day

Reasoning

Notable individuals

Leonard Howell Joseph Hibbert Archibald Dunkley Mortimer Planno Vernon Carrington Charles Edwards Bob Marley Peter Tosh

See also

Vocabulary Persecution

Dreadlocks Reggae

Roots reggae Lion of Judah Ethiopian Christianity Chalice Index of Rastafari
Rastafari
articles

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Today, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
is worshipped as God incarnate[154] among followers of the Rastafari movement
Rastafari movement
(taken from Haile Selassie's pre-imperial name Ras—meaning Head, a title equivalent to Duke—Tafari Makonnen), which emerged in Jamaica
Jamaica
during the 1930s under the influence of Marcus Garvey's "Pan Africanism" movement. He is viewed as the messiah who will lead the peoples of Africa and the African diaspora
African diaspora
to freedom.[155] His official titles are Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah
Lion of the Tribe of Judah
and King of Kings
King of Kings
of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Elect of God, and his traditional lineage is thought to be from Solomon and Sheba.[156] These notions are perceived by Rastafari
Rastafari
as confirmation of the return of the messiah in the prophetic Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
in the New Testament: King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, and Root of David. Rastafari
Rastafari
faith in the incarnate divinity of Haile Selassie[157] began after news reports of his coronation reached Jamaica,[158] particularly via the two Time magazine articles on the coronation the week before and the week after the event. Haile Selassie's own perspectives permeate the philosophy of the movement.[158][159] In 1961, the Jamaican government sent a delegation composed of both Rastafari
Rastafari
and non- Rastafari
Rastafari
leaders to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
to discuss the matter of repatriation, among other issues, with the emperor. He reportedly told the Rastafari
Rastafari
delegation (which included Mortimer Planno), "Tell the Brethren to be not dismayed, I personally will give my assistance in the matter of repatriation."[160] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
visited Jamaica
Jamaica
on 21 April 1966, and approximately one hundred thousand Rastafari
Rastafari
from all over Jamaica
Jamaica
descended on Palisadoes Airport
Palisadoes Airport
in Kingston,[158] having heard that the man whom they considered to be their messiah was coming to visit them. Spliffs[161] and chalices[162] were openly[163] smoked, causing "a haze of ganja smoke" to drift through the air.[164][165][166] Haile Selassie arrived at the airport but was unable to come down the mobile steps of the airplane, as the crowd rushed the tarmac. He then returned into the plane, disappearing for several more minutes. Finally, Jamaican authorities were obliged to request Ras Mortimer Planno, a well-known Rasta leader, to climb the steps, enter the plane, and negotiate the emperor's descent.[167] Planno re-emerged and announced to the crowd: "The Emperor
Emperor
has instructed me to tell you to be calm. Step back and let the Emperor
Emperor
land".[168] This day is widely held by scholars to be a major turning point for the movement,[169][170][171] and it is still commemorated by Rastafari
Rastafari
as Grounation Day, the anniversary of which is celebrated as the second holiest holiday after 2 November, the emperor's Coronation
Coronation
Day. From then on, as a result of Planno's actions, the Jamaican authorities were asked to ensure that Rastafari
Rastafari
representatives were present at all state functions attended by the emperor,[170][171] and Rastafari
Rastafari
elders also ensured that they obtained a private audience with the emperor,[170] where he reportedly told them that they should not emigrate to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
until they had first liberated the people of Jamaica. This dictum came to be known as "liberation before repatriation". Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
defied expectations of the Jamaican authorities[172] and never rebuked the Rastafari
Rastafari
for their belief in him as the returned Jesus. Instead, he presented the movement's faithful elders with gold medallions – the only recipients of such an honor on this visit.[173][174] During PNP leader (later Jamaican Prime Minister) Michael Manley's visit to Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in October 1969, the emperor allegedly still recalled his 1966 reception with amazement, and stated that he felt that he had to be respectful of their beliefs.[175] This was the visit when Manley received the Rod of Correction or Rod of Joshua as a present from the emperor, which is thought to have helped him to win the 1972 election in Jamaica. Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife, converted to the Rastafari
Rastafari
faith after seeing Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
on his Jamaican trip. She claimed in interviews (and in her book No Woman, No Cry) that she saw a stigmata print on the palm of Haile Selassie's hand as he waved to the crowd which resembled the markings on Christ's hands from being nailed to the cross—a claim that was not supported by other sources, but was used as evidence for her and other Rastafari
Rastafari
to suggest that Haile Selassie I was indeed their messiah.[176] She was also influential in the conversion of Bob Marley, who then became internationally recognized. As a result, Rastafari
Rastafari
became much better known throughout much of the world.[177] Bob Marley's posthumously released song "Iron Lion Zion" refers to Haile Selassie. Selassie's position[edit] In a 1967 recorded interview Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
appeared to deny his alleged divinity. In the interview Bill McNeil says: "there are millions of Christians throughout the world, your Imperial Majesty, who regard you as the reincarnation of Jesus
Jesus
Christ." Selassie replied in his native language:

I have heard of that idea. I also met certain Rastafarians. I told them clearly that I am a man, that I am mortal, and that I will be replaced by the oncoming generation, and that they should never make a mistake in assuming or pretending that a human being is emanated from a deity.[178]

For many Rastafari
Rastafari
the CBC interview is not interpreted as a denial of his divinity, and according to Robert Earl Hood, Haile Selassie neither denied nor affirmed his divinity either way.[179] In Reggae Routes: The Story of Jamaican Music, Kevin Chang and Wayne Chen note

It's often said, though no definite date is ever cited, that Haile Selassie himself denied his divinity. Former senator and Gleaner editor, Hector Wynter, tells of asking him, during his visit to Jamaica
Jamaica
in 1966, when he was going to tell Rastafari
Rastafari
he was not God. "Who am I to disturb their belief?" replied the emperor.[172]

After his return to Ethiopia, he dispatched Archbishop Abuna Yesehaq Mandefro to the Caribbean
Caribbean
to help draw Rastafari
Rastafari
and other West Indians to the Ethiopian church and, according to some sources, denied his divinity.[180][181][182][183] In 1948, Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
donated a piece of land at Shashamane, 250 km south of Addis Ababa, for the use of people of African descent from the West Indies. Numerous Rastafari
Rastafari
families settled there and still live as a community to this day.[184] Titles and styles[edit]

23 July 1892 – 1 November 1905: Lij Tafari Makonnen 1 November 1905 – 8 September 1911: Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Tafari Makonnen 8 September 1911 – 7 October 1928: Ras Tafari Makonnen 7 October 1928 – 2 November 1930: Negus
Negus
Tafari Makonnen 2 November 1930 – 12 September 1974: His Imperial Majesty the King of Kings of Ethiopia, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Elect of God.

Honours[edit] National orders[edit]

Chief Commander of the Order of the Star of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1909)[185] Grand Cordon of the Order of Solomon
Order of Solomon
(1930)[186] Grand Collar of the Order of the Seal of Solomon[185] Grand Cordon of the Order of the Queen of Sheba[185] Grand Cordon of the Order of the Holy Trinity
Trinity
(Ethiopia)[185] Grand Cordon of the Order of Menelik II[185]

Foreign orders[edit]

Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG) (United Kingdom, 1917) Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown of Italy
Order of the Crown of Italy
(Kingdom of Italy, 1917) Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Kingdom of Italy, 1924) Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Redeemer (Kingdom of Greece, 19 August 1924) Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold (Belgium, 1924) Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Royal Victorian Order
(GCVO) (United Kingdom, 1924) Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath
Order of the Bath
(GCB) (United Kingdom, 1924) Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau (Luxembourg, 25 May 1924) Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur
Legion d'Honneur
(France, 1924) Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword
Order of the Tower and Sword
(Portugal, 1925) Knight of the Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
(Kingdom of Italy, 1928) Recipient of the Royal Victorian Chain
Royal Victorian Chain
(United Kingdom, 1930) Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Chrysanthemum
(Japan, 1930)[187][better source needed] Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali
Order of Muhammad Ali
(Kingdom of Egypt, 1930) Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion
Order of the Netherlands Lion
(Netherlands, 1930) Knight of the Order of the White Eagle (Poland, 1930) Croix de guerre 1939–1945 with a bronze palm (France, 1945) Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(USA, 1945) Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of St. Olav
Order of St. Olav
(Norway, 1949) Yugoslav Great Star (Yugoslavia, 1954) Medal of Military Merit 1st Class (Kingdom of Greece, 28 October 1954) Grand Cross Special
Special
Class of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
Germany
(Germany, 1954) Military Medal (France, 1954) Knight Grand Cross of the Military William Order
Military William Order
(Netherlands, 3 November 1954)[188] Stranger Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
(KG) (United Kingdom, 1954) Knight of the Order of the Elephant
Order of the Elephant
(RE) (Denmark, 1954) Knight of the Order of the Seraphim
Order of the Seraphim
(RSerafO) (Sweden, 1954) Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
Order of the Aztec Eagle
(Mexico, 1954) Grand Star of the Order of Merit of the Austrian Republic
Order of Merit of the Austrian Republic
(Austria, 1954) Honorary Citizen of Belgrade
Belgrade
(Yugoslavia, 1954)[189] Member of the Order of Merit for National Foundation, the "Order of the Republic of Korea" grade (South Korea, 1955) Knight Grand Cross with Collar of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (Italy, 1955) Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum
Order of the Chrysanthemum
(Japan, 1956) Grand Cross of the National Order of Vietnam
National Order of Vietnam
(South Vietnam, 1958) Grand Commander of the Order of Truth (Burma, 1958) Grand Collar of the Order of the Southern Cross (Brazil, 1958) Star of the Republic of Indonesia, 1st Class (Indonesia, 1958) Hilal-i-Pakistan, 1st Class (Pakistan, 1958) Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri
Order of the Royal House of Chakri
(Thailand, 1958) Riband of the Three Military Orders (Order Of Christ, Order of Saint Benedict of Aviz, and Order of St. James of the Sword) (Portugal, 1959) Korean War
Korean War
Service Medal (South Korea, 1959) 1st Class of the Order of Suvorov
Order of Suvorov
(USSR, 1959) Grand Cross of the Order of the Somali Star (Somalia) Grand Cordon of the Order of the Nile
Order of the Nile
(Egypt, 22 May 1963) Commander of the Order of the Shield and Spears (Buganda, 1964) Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi
Order of Pahlavi
(Iran, 1964) Star of the People's Republic of Romania
Romania
(Romania, 1964) Member 1st Class with Diamonds of the Order of the Flag of the Republic of Hungary
Hungary
(Hungary, 1964) Jamaica
Jamaica
Kings House Honouree (Jamaica, 1966) Collar of the National Order of Honour and Merit
National Order of Honour and Merit
(Haiti, 1966) Necklace of the Order of Jean-Jacques Dessalines the Great (Haiti, 1966)[190] Grand Cross of the Order of Polonia Restituta
Order of Polonia Restituta
(Poland, 1967) Honorary Recipient of the Order of the Crown of the Realm
Order of the Crown of the Realm
(D.M.N.) (Malaysia, 21 May 1968) Companion of the Order of the Star of Ghana
Order of the Star of Ghana
(CSG) (Ghana, 1970) Collar of the Order of Pius IX
Order of Pius IX
(Holy See, 1970) Knight Collar of the Order of Charles III
Order of Charles III
(Spain, 27 April 1971)[191] Commemorative Medal of the 2500th Anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire (Iran, 14 October 1971)[192] Honorary Citizen of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Yugoslavia, 1972)[193] Collar of the Order of the Liberator General San Martín
Order of the Liberator General San Martín
(Argentina) Grand Cross of the National Order of Dahomey (Benin) Grand Cross of the Order of the Condor of the Andes
Order of the Condor of the Andes
(Bolivia) Order of Valour
Order of Valour
(Cameroon) Order of Central African Merit
Order of Central African Merit
(Central African Republic) Grand Cross of the National Order of Chad
National Order of Chad
(Republic of Chad) Collar of the Order of Merit (Chile) Grand Cross of the Order of Merit (Congo) Order of the White Lion
Order of the White Lion
1st Class with Collar (Czechoslovakia) Collar of the Order of the White Rose
Order of the White Rose
(Finland) Grand Cross of the Order of the Equatorial Star (Gabon) Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (Guinea) Grand Order of the Hashemites (Kingdom of Iraq) Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
Order of al-Hussein bin Ali
(Jordan) Grand Chief of the Order of the Golden Heart
Order of the Golden Heart
(Kenya) Extraordinary Grade of the Order of Merit (Lebanon) Grand Cordon of the Order of the Pioneers of Liberia
Order of the Pioneers of Liberia
(Liberia) Order of Idris I (Libya) Grand Cordon of the National Order of Madagascar
Madagascar
(Madagascar) Order of the Lion (Malawi) Grand Cross of the National Order of Mali
National Order of Mali
(Mali) Grand Cross of the National Order of Merit (Mauritania) Order of Muhammad (Morocco) Grand Cross of the National Order (Niger) Order of the Federal Republic
Order of the Federal Republic
(Nigeria) Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun of Peru
Order of the Sun of Peru
(Peru) Raja of the Order of Sikatuna
Order of Sikatuna
(Philippines) Order of Abdulaziz al Saud, 1st Class (Saudi Arabia) Grand Cross of the Order of the Lion (Senegal) Cordon of Honour (Sudan) Order of Umayyad
Order of Umayyad
(Syria) Special
Special
Grade of the Order of Propitious Clouds (Taiwan) Grand Cross of the Order of Mono
Order of Mono
(Togo) Order of Independence (Tunisia) Order of the Source of the Nile (Uganda) Grand Cross of the National Order of Upper Volta (Republic of Upper Volta) Collar of the Order of the Liberator
Order of the Liberator
(Venezuela) Collar of the National Order of the Leopard
National Order of the Leopard
(Zaire) Collar of the Order of the Eagle of Zambia (Zambia)

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Haile Selassie

8. Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Wolde Malakot Yamana Krestos

4. Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Wolde Mikael Gudessa

9. Woizero Kalama Worq

2. Ras Mäkonnen Wäldä-Mika'él Guddisa

20. Meridazmach Wossen Seged

10. Meridazmach Sahle Selassie

21. Woizero Zenebework

5. Immabet Tenagnework Sahle Selassie

22.

11. Woizero Yimegnushal Ayele

23. Etalemahu

1. Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I of Ethiopia

6. Dejazmach
Dejazmach
Ali Abba Jifar of Woreilu

3. Woizero Yeshimebet Ali Abba Jifar

14. Ato Yimeru of Gurage

7. Immabet-Hoy Walatta Ihata Giyorgis Yimeru

15. Woizero Araza-Aregai

Military ranks[edit] Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
held the following ranks:[194]

Field Marshal, Imperial Ethiopian Army Admiral of the Fleet, Imperial Ethiopian Navy Marshal of the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force Field Marshal, British Army, 20 January 1965[195]

Popular culture[edit]

William Saroyan
William Saroyan
wrote a short story about him entitled The Lion of Judah in his 1971 book, Letters from 74 rue Taitbout or Don't Go But If You Must Say Hello To Everybody. His name is often called out in vain by Hermes Conrad, a Rastafarian Accountant from the show Futurama Featured as a playable leader in the computer strategy game Civilization V: Brave New World Rex Stewart, a jazz cornetist, thought about Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
when he was creating a tune named Menelik (The Lion of Juda) which was recorded in 1941. Propagandhi’s 1993 debut album, How to Clean Everything, features a song called “Haille Sellasse, Up Your Ass”, a bitter attack on religious conflicts in the Middle East and the Rastafari
Rastafari
movement. Band Zabranjeno pusenje
Zabranjeno pusenje
wrote a song about him entitled "Hajle Selasije" featuring on their album "Fildzan viska" from 1997. The band Bright Eyes feature a song on their album The People's Key entitled "Haile Selassie." In 2008 a full-length feature film dedicated to Haile Selassie, Man of the Millennium, was produced by an Ethiopian film-maker Tikher Teferra Kidane of Exodus Films, in collaboration with an Alaskan TV station Tanana Valley TV and 4th Avenue Films.[196] In paying homage to the late emperor, Lupe Fiasco
Lupe Fiasco
released a track titled 'Haile Selassie' on the 24th of October 2014. The song's theme centres on equality and justice.[197]

See also[edit]

Biography portal

Black Lions Desta Damtew List of people who have been considered deities

Notes[edit] Footnotes[edit]

^ Translates to "Power of the Trinity".[1] ^ Pronounced in English as /ˈhaɪli səˈlæsi/ or /səˈlɑːsi/.[2][3] ^ Ge'ez ግርማዊ ቀዳማዊ አፄ ኃይለ ሥላሴ ሞዓ አንበሳ ዘእምነገደ ይሁዳ ንጉሠ ነገሥት ዘኢትዮጵያ ሰዩመ እግዚአብሔር; girmāwī ḳedāmāwī 'aṣē ḫayle śillāsē, mō'ā 'anbessā ze'imneggede yihudā niguse negest ze'ītyōṗṗyā, siyume 'igzī'a'bihēr.[citation needed] ^ Bālemulu literally means "fully empowered" or "wholly authorised", thus distinguishing it from the general use of Enderase, that being a representative or lieutenant of the Emperor
Emperor
to fiefs or vassals, essentially a Governor-General
Governor-General
or Viceroy, by which term provincial governors in the contemporary Imperial period, during Haile Selassie's reign, were referred.[citation needed] ^ Balcha Safo
Balcha Safo
brought an army of ten thousand with him from Sidamo.[40] ^ Balcha Safo's personal bodyguard numbered about five hundred.[40]

Citations[edit]

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Dub Poetry. Rodopi. ISBN 9051835493, p. 83. ^ a b O'Brien Chang, Kevin; Chen, Wayne (1998). Reggae
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the Devoted Rastafarian!". Rasta-man-vibration.com. Retrieved 12 September 2010.  ^ Spencer, William David (1998). Dread Jesus. SPCK Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-28105101-4.  ^ Hood, Robert Earl (January 1990). Must God Remain Greek?: Afro Cultures and God-talk. Fortress Press. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-0-8006-2449-1.  ^ "Ethiopians in D.C. Region Mourn Archbishop's Death". The Washington Post. 13 January 2006.  ^ " Bob Marley
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Haile Selassie
I – God of the Black race". BBC.  ^ Nettleford, Rex (1970), Mirror, Mirror: Identity, Race and Protest in Jamaica, William Collins and Sangster Ltd, Jamaica. ^ "The History and Location of the Shashamane
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Reaches Her Hand Unto God: Imperial Ethiopia's Unique Symbols, Structures and Role in the Modern World. Published by Defense & Foreign Affairs, part of the International Strategic Studies Association, 1998. ISBN 1892998009. p.17 ^ Religious, Traditional & Ceremonial. The Official Website of The Crown Council of Ethiopia. The Crown Council of Ethiopia. Retrieved 13 August 2014. ^ Order of the Chrysanthemum#Foreign recipients of the Order of the Chrysanthemum ^ " Haile Selassie
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Bibliography[edit]

Marcus, Harold G. (1994). A History of Ethiopia. London: University of California Press. p. 316. ISBN 0-520-22479-5.  Mockler, Anthony (2003). Haile Selassie's War. Signal Books. ISBN 1-90266953-3.  Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel; Spencer, William David; McFarlane, Adrian Anthony (1998). Chanting Down Babylon: The Rastafari
Rastafari
Reader. Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639584-4.  Roberts, Andrew Dunlop (1986). The Cambridge History of Africa: From 1905 to 1940. 7. Cambridge: Press Sindicate of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 0-52122505-1.  Safire, William (1997), Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History, W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-39304005-4 . Selassie, Haile I (1999), My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I, translated from Amharic
Amharic
by Edward Ullendorff, New York: Frontline Books, ISBN 0-948390-40-9 . Shinn, David Hamilton; Ofcansky, Thomas P. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Ethiopia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-81086566-1.  "Distressed Negus". Time Magazine. 15 November 1937. Retrieved 19 January 2010.  De Waal, Alexander (1991). Evil Days: Thirty Years of War and Famine in Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(PDF). Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1-56432038-3.  White, Timothy (2006). Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley. Henry Holt & Co. ISBN 0-80508086-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Henze, Paul B (2000), ""The Rise of Haile Selassie: Time of Troubles, Regent, Emperor, Exile" and " Ethiopia
Ethiopia
in the Modern World: Haile Selassie from Triumph to Tragedy"", Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia, New York: Palgrave, ISBN 0-312-22719-1 . Kapuściński, Ryszard (1978), The Emperor: Downfall of an Autocrat, ISBN 0-679-72203-3 . Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I: Ethiopia's Lion of Judah, 1979, ISBN 0-88229-342-7 Haile Selassie's war: the Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935–1941, 1984, ISBN 0-394-54222-3 Haile Selassie, western education, and political revolution in Ethiopia, 2006, ISBN 978-1-934043-20-2 King of Kings: the triumph and tragedy of Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I of Ethiopia, 2015, ISBN 978-1-910376-14-0 Mosley, Leonard, Haile Selassie: The Conquering Lion. Prentice Hall 1965 LCCN 65-11882 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Haile Selassie
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Ethiopian Treasures – Emperor
Emperor
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Haile Selassie
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Haile Selassie
– slideshow by Life magazine Marcus Garvey's prophecy of Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I as the returned messiah Haile Selassie
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I and the Italo-Ethiopian war Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I, the Later Years A critical look at the reign of Emperor
Emperor
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Haile Selassie
I of Ethiopia BBC article, memories of his personal servant "His Imperial Majesty, Emperor
Emperor
Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
visits Jamaica", Watch News Reel (video), Google, 21 April 1966  Ba Beta Kristiyan Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I  – The Church of Haile Selassie I Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I Speaks -Text & Audio- Collection by Martin Rikli in 1935–1936, including photos of Haile Selassie, open access through the University of Florida Digital Collections The Emperor's Clothes A History of Ethiopia Newspaper clippings about Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
German National Library of Economics
(ZBW).

Haile Selassie House of Solomon Born: 23 July 1892 Died: 27 August 1975

Regnal titles

Preceded by Zewditu
Zewditu
I Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia 2 November 1930 – 12 September 1974 Monarchy abolished

Titles in pretence

Loss of title Communist take-over

— TITULAR — Emperor
Emperor
of Ethiopia 12 September 1974 – 27 August 1975 Succeeded by Crown Prince
Crown Prince
Amha Selassie

v t e

Emperors of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1270–1974)

Family tree

Solomonic dynasty

Yekuno Amlak Yagbe'u Seyon
Yagbe'u Seyon
(Salomon I) Senfa Ared IV Hezba Asgad Qedma Asgad Jin Asgad Saba Asgad Wedem Arad Amda Seyon I Newaya Krestos Newaya Maryam Dawit I Tewodros I Yeshaq I Andreyas Takla Maryam Sarwe Iyasus Amda Iyasus Zara Yaqob (Kwestantinos I) Baeda Maryam I Eskender (Kwestantinos II) Amda Seyon II Na'od Dawit II Gelawdewos Menas Sarsa Dengel Yaqob Za Dengel Yaqob Susenyos I Fasilides Yohannes I Iyasu the Great Tekle Haymanot I Tewoflos Yostos Dawit III Bakaffa Iyasu II

Age of the Princes

Iyoas I Yohannes II Tekle Haymanot II Susenyos II Tekle Haymanot II Salomon II Tekle Giyorgis I Iyasu III Tekle Giyorgis I Hezqeyas Tekle Giyorgis I Baeda Maryam II Tekle Giyorgis I Salomon III Yonas Tekle Giyorgis I Salomon III Demetros Tekle Giyorgis I Demetros Egwale Seyon Iyoas II Gigar Baeda Maryam III Gigar Iyasu IV Gebre Krestos Sahle Dengel Gebre Krestos Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel Yohannes III Sahle Dengel

Tewodros dynasty

Tewodros II

Zagwe restoration

Tekle Giyorgis II

Tigray dynasty

Yohannes IV

Solomonic dynasty

Menelik II Iyasu V Zewditu
Zewditu
I Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
I

v t e

Chairpersons of the Organisation of African Unity
Organisation of African Unity
and the African Union

Organisation of African Unity

Selassie Nasser Nkrumah Ankrah Selassie Mobutu Boumedienne Ahidjo Kaunda Daddah Hassan II Gowon Barre Amin Ramgoolam Bongo Nimeiry Tolbert Senghor Stevens Moi Mengistu Nyerere Diouf Nguesso Kaunda Traoré Mubarak Museveni Babangida Diouf Mubarak Ben Ali Meles Biya Mugabe Compaoré Bouteflika Eyadéma Chiluba Mwanawasa

African Union

Mbeki Chissano Obasanjo Nguesso Kufuor Kikwete Gaddafi Mutharika Nguema Boni Hailemariam Abdel Aziz Mugabe Déby Condé Kagame

v t e

Pan-Africanism

Ideology

Variants

Afrocentrism African nationalism African socialism Black nationalism Garveyism Nkrumaism Sankarism Uhuru Movement Zikism

Concepts

African century Black Power Négritude Ubuntu Ujamaa United States
United States
of Africa

Proponents

Politicians

Nnamdi Azikiwe Amílcar Cabral David Comissiong Muammar Gaddafi Marcus Garvey Alieu Ebrima Cham Joof Kenneth Kaunda Jomo Kenyatta Patrice Lumumba Thabo Mbeki Robert Mugabe Abdias do Nascimento Gamal Abdel Nasser Kwame Nkrumah John Nyathi Pokela Julius Nyerere Thomas Sankara Ahmed Sékou Touré Haile Selassie Robert Sobukwe I. T. A. Wallace-Johnson

Others

Marimba Ani Molefi Kete Asante Steve Biko Edward Wilmot Blyden Stokely Carmichael John Henrik Clarke Cheikh Anta Diop W. E. B. Du Bois Frantz Fanon John G. Jackson Leonard Jeffries Yosef Ben-Jochannan Maulana Karenga Fela Kuti Malcolm X Zephania Mothopeng George Padmore Motsoko Pheko Runoko Rashidi Paul Robeson Randall Robinson Walter Rodney Burning Spear Henry Sylvester-Williams Issa Laye Thiaw Omali Yeshitela

Organizations

African Union African Unification Front All-African People's Revolutionary Party Conseil de l'Entente Convention People's Party Economic Freedom Fighters International African Service Bureau Organisation of African Unity Pan Africanist Congress of Azania Rassemblement Démocratique Africain UNIA-ACL

Symbols

Black Star of Africa Lion of Judah Pan-African colours Pan-African flag

Related

African philosophy African-American leftism Africanization All-African Peoples' Conference Kwanzaa Year of Africa

v t e

Time Persons of the Year

1927–1950

Charles Lindbergh
Charles Lindbergh
(1927) Walter Chrysler
Walter Chrysler
(1928) Owen D. Young
Owen D. Young
(1929) Mohandas Gandhi (1930) Pierre Laval
Pierre Laval
(1931) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1932) Hugh S. Johnson
Hugh S. Johnson
(1933) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1934) Haile Selassie
Haile Selassie
(1935) Wallis Simpson
Wallis Simpson
(1936) Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
/ Soong Mei-ling
Soong Mei-ling
(1937) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1938) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1939) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1940) Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1941) Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
(1942) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1943) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1944) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1946) George Marshall
George Marshall
(1947) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1948) Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1949) The American Fighting-Man (1950)

1951–1975

Mohammed Mosaddeq (1951) Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
(1952) Konrad Adenauer
Konrad Adenauer
(1953) John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles
(1954) Harlow Curtice
Harlow Curtice
(1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighters (1956) Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
(1957) Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
(1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight D. Eisenhower
(1959) U.S. Scientists: George Beadle / Charles Draper / John Enders / Donald A. Glaser / Joshua Lederberg
Joshua Lederberg
/ Willard Libby
Willard Libby
/ Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling
/ Edward Purcell / Isidor Rabi / Emilio Segrè
Emilio Segrè
/ William Shockley
William Shockley
/ Edward Teller / Charles Townes / James Van Allen
James Van Allen
/ Robert Woodward (1960) John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
(1961) Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
(1962) Martin Luther King Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr.
(1963) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1964) William Westmoreland
William Westmoreland
(1965) The Generation Twenty-Five and Under (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
(1967) The Apollo 8
Apollo 8
Astronauts: William Anders
William Anders
/ Frank Borman
Frank Borman
/ Jim Lovell (1968) The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt
Willy Brandt
(1970) Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1971) Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
/ Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1972) John Sirica
John Sirica
(1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women: Susan Brownmiller / Kathleen Byerly
Kathleen Byerly
/ Alison Cheek / Jill Conway / Betty Ford
Betty Ford
/ Ella Grasso / Carla Hills / Barbara Jordan / Billie Jean King
Billie Jean King
/ Susie Sharp / Carol Sutton / Addie Wyatt (1975)

1976–2000

Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
(1976) Anwar Sadat
Anwar Sadat
(1977) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1980) Lech Wałęsa
Lech Wałęsa
(1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
/ Yuri Andropov
Yuri Andropov
(1983) Peter Ueberroth
Peter Ueberroth
(1984) Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
(1985) Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
(1986) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
(1989) George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1990) Ted Turner
Ted Turner
(1991) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
(1992) The Peacemakers: Yasser Arafat
Yasser Arafat
/ F. W. de Klerk
F. W. de Klerk
/ Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela
/ Yitzhak Rabin
Yitzhak Rabin
(1993) Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1994) Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(1995) David Ho
David Ho
(1996) Andrew Grove
Andrew Grove
(1997) Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
/ Ken Starr
Ken Starr
(1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2000)

2001–present

Rudolph Giuliani (2001) The Whistleblowers: Cynthia Cooper / Coleen Rowley
Coleen Rowley
/ Sherron Watkins (2002) The American Soldier (2003) George W. Bush
George W. Bush
(2004) The Good Samaritans: Bono
Bono
/ Bill Gates
Bill Gates
/ Melinda Gates
Melinda Gates
(2005) You (2006) Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin
(2007) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2008) Ben Bernanke
Ben Bernanke
(2009) Mark Zuckerberg
Mark Zuckerberg
(2010) The Protester (2011) Barack Obama
Barack Obama
(2012) Pope Francis
Pope Francis
(2013) Ebola Fighters: Dr. Jerry Brown / Dr. Kent Brantly
Kent Brantly
/ Ella Watson-Stryker / Foday Gollah / Salome Karwah
Salome Karwah
(2014) Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
(2015) Donald Trump
Donald Trump
(2016) The Silence Breakers (2017)

Book

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66475642 LCCN: n79043431 ISNI: 0000 0001 0910 2298 GND: 118700758 SELIBR: 319456 SUDOC: 027764656 BNF: cb11973730w (data) NLA: 35677375 NDL: 00620780 NKC: jo2007416169 BNE: XX1117917 SN

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