Haiku (俳句) listen (help·info) (plural haiku) is a very
short form of Japanese poetry. It is typically characterized by three
The essence of haiku is "cutting" (kiru). This is often represented
by the juxtaposition of two images or ideas and a kireji ("cutting
word") between them, a kind of verbal punctuation mark which
signals the moment of separation and colours the manner in which the
juxtaposed elements are related.
Traditional haiku consist of 17 on (also known as morae though often
loosely translated as "syllables"), in three phrases of 5, 7, and 5
on, respectively. (An alternative form of haiku consists of 11 on
in three phrases of 3, 5, and 3 on, respectively.)
A kigo (seasonal reference), usually drawn from a saijiki, an
extensive but defined list of such terms.
Modern Japanese haiku (現代俳句, gendai-haiku) are increasingly
unlikely to follow the tradition of 17 on or to take nature as their
subject, but the use of juxtaposition continues to be
honored in both traditional and modern haiku. There is a common,
although relatively recent, perception that the images juxtaposed must
be directly observed everyday objects or occurrences.
In Japanese, haiku are traditionally printed in a single vertical line
while haiku in English often appear in three lines to parallel the
three phrases of Japanese haiku.
Previously called hokku, haiku was given its current name by the
Masaoka Shiki at the end of the 19th century.
1 Kiru and Kireji
2 Syllables or on in haiku
5 Origin and development
5.1 From renga to renku to haiku
Haiku movement in the West
6.4 English-language haiku
7 The beginnings of Romance-language haiku
9 Famous writers
9.1 Pre-Shiki period
9.2 Shiki and later
10 See also
13 External links
Kiru and Kireji
Main article: Kireji
In Japanese haiku a kireji, or cutting word, typically appears at the
end of one of the verse's three phrases. A kireji fills a role
somewhat analogous to a caesura in classical western poetry or to a
volta in sonnets. Depending on which cutting word is chosen, and its
position within the verse, it may briefly cut the stream of thought,
suggesting a parallel between the preceding and following phrases, or
it may provide a dignified ending, concluding the verse with a
heightened sense of closure.
The fundamental aesthetic quality of both hokku and haiku is that it
is internally sufficient, independent of context, and will bear
consideration as a complete work. The kireji lends
the verse structural support, allowing it to stand as an
independent poem. The use of kireji distinguishes haiku and
hokku from second and subsequent verses of renku; which may employ
semantic and syntactic disjuncture, even to the point of occasionally
end-stopping a phrase with a sentence-ending particle (終助詞,
shūjoshi). However, renku typically employ kireji.
In English, since kireji have no direct equivalent, poets sometimes
use punctuation such as a dash or ellipsis, or an implied break to
create a juxtaposition intended to prompt the reader to reflect on the
relationship between the two parts.
The kireji in the Bashō examples "old pond" and "the wind of Mt Fuji"
are both "ya" (や). Neither the remaining Bashō example nor the Issa
example contain a kireji although they do both balance a fragment in
the first five on against a phrase in the remaining 12 on (it may not
be apparent from the English translation of the Issa that the first
five on mean "Edo's rain").
Syllables or on in haiku
Main article: On (Japanese prosody)
In comparison with English verse typically characterized by syllabic
meter, Japanese verse counts sound units known as "on" or morae.
Traditional haiku consist of 17 on, in three phrases of five, seven
and five on respectively. Among contemporary poems teikei (定型
fixed form) haiku continue to use the 5-7-5 pattern while jiyuritsu
(自由律 free form) haiku do not. One of the
examples below illustrates that traditional haiku masters were not
always constrained by the 5-7-5 pattern.
Although the word "on" is sometimes translated as "syllable", one on
is counted for a short syllable, two for an elongated vowel or doubled
consonant, and one for an "n" at the end of a syllable. Thus, the word
"haibun", though counted as two syllables in English, is counted as
four on in Japanese (ha-i-bu-n); and the word "on" itself, which
English-speakers would view as a single syllable, comprises two on:
the short vowel o and the moraic nasal n̩. This is illustrated by the
Issa haiku below, which contains 17 on but only 15 syllables.
Conversely, some sounds, such as "kyo" (きょ) may look like two
syllables to English speakers but are in fact a single on (as well as
a single syllable) in Japanese.
In 1973, the
Haiku Society of America noted that the norm for writers
of haiku in English was to use 17 syllables, but they also noted a
trend toward shorter haiku.
Some translators of
Japanese poetry have noted that about 12 syllables
in English approximate the duration of 17 Japanese on. Also in
translations four lines is more appropriate for the colloquialism of
the language and is closest to natural conversational rhythm,
necessary to carry the weight of the hokku
Main article: Kigo
A haiku traditionally contains a kigo, a word or phrase that
symbolizes or implies the season of the poem and which is drawn from a
saijiki, an extensive but prescriptive list of such words.
Kigo are often in the form of metonyms and can be
difficult for those who lack Japanese cultural references to
spot. The Bashō examples below include "kawazu",
"frog" implying spring, and "shigure", a rain shower in late autumn or
Kigo are not always included in non-Japanese haiku or by
modern writers of Japanese "free-form" haiku.
The best-known Japanese haiku is Bashō's "old pond":
into 17 hiragana)
furu ike ya kawazu tobikomu mizu no oto (transliterated into rōmaji)
This separates into on as:
fu-ru-i-ke ya (5)
ka-wa-zu to-bi-ko-mu (7)
frog leaps in
Another haiku by Bashō:
hatsu shigure saru mo komino o hoshige nari
This separates into on as:
ha-tsu shi-gu-re (5)
sa-ru mo ko-mi-no o (7)
ho-shi-ge na-ri (5)
the first cold shower
even the monkey seems to want
a little coat of straw
This haiku by Bashō illustrates that he was not always constrained to
a 5-7-5 on pattern. It contains 18 on in the pattern 6-7-5 ("ō" or
おう is treated as two on.)
Fuji no kaze ya ōgi ni nosete
This separates into "on" as:
fu-ji no ka-ze ya (6)
o-u-gi ni no-se-te (7)
e-do mi-ya-ge (5)
the wind of Fuji
I've brought on my fan
a gift from Edo
This haiku by Issa illustrates that 17 Japanese on do not always
equate to 17 English syllables ("nan" counts as two on and "nonda" as
Edo no ame nan goku nonda hototogisu
This separates into "on" as,
e-do no a-me (5)
na-n go-ku no-n-da (7)
how many gallons
of Edo's rain did you drink,
Origin and development
From renga to renku to haiku
Renga and Renku
Hokku is the opening stanza of an orthodox collaborative linked poem,
or renga, and of its later derivative, renku (or haikai no renga). By
the time of
Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694), the hokku had begun to appear
as an independent poem, and was also incorporated in haibun (a
combination of prose and hokku), and haiga (a combination of painting
with hokku). In the late 19th century,
Masaoka Shiki (1867–1902)
renamed the standalone hokku to haiku. The latter term is now
generally applied retrospectively to all hokku appearing independently
of renku or renga, irrespective of when they were written, and the use
of the term hokku to describe a stand-alone poem is considered
Matsuo Bashō and Hokku
In the 17th century, two masters arose who elevated haikai and gave it
a new popularity. They were
Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694) and Ueshima
Onitsura (ja) (1661–1738).
Hokku is the first verse of the
collaborative haikai or renku, but its position as the opening verse
made it the most important, setting the tone for the whole
composition. Even though hokku had sometimes appeared individually,
they were always understood in the context of renku. The Bashō
school promoted standalone hokku by including many in their
anthologies, thus giving birth to what is now called "haiku". Bashō
also used his hokku as torque points [clarification needed] within his
short prose sketches and longer travel diaries. This subgenre of
haikai is known as haibun. His best-known work, Oku no Hosomichi, or
Narrow Roads to the Interior, is counted as one of the classics of
Japanese literature and has been translated into English
Bashō was deified by both the imperial government and Shinto
religious headquarters one hundred years after his death because he
raised the haikai genre from a playful game of wit to sublime poetry.
He continues to be revered as a saint of poetry in Japan, and is the
one name from classical
Japanese literature that is familiar
throughout the world.
Main article: Yosa Buson
Grave of Yosa Buson
The next famous style of haikai to arise was that of Yosa Buson
(1716–1783) and others such as Kitō, called the
Tenmei style after
Tenmei Era (1781–1789) in which it was created.
Buson is recognized as one of the greatest masters of haiga (an art
form where painting is combined with haiku or haikai prose). His
affection for painting can be seen in the painterly style of his
Main article: Kobayashi Issa
No new popular style followed Buson. However, a very individualistic,
and at the same time humanistic, approach to writing haiku was
demonstrated by the poet
Kobayashi Issa (1763–1827), whose miserable
childhood, poverty, sad life, and devotion to the
Pure Land sect of
Buddhism are evident in his poetry. Issa made the genre immediately
accessible to wider audiences.
Main article: Masaoka Shiki
Masaoka Shiki (1867–1902) was a reformer and modernizer. A prolific
writer, even though chronically ill during a significant part of his
life, Shiki disliked the 'stereotype' of haikai writers of the 19th
century who were known by the deprecatory term tsukinami, meaning
'monthly', after the monthly or twice-monthly haikai gatherings of the
end of the 18th century (in regard to this period of haikai, it came
to mean 'trite' and 'hackneyed'). Shiki also criticized
Bashō. Like the Japanese intellectual world in
general at that time, Shiki was strongly influenced by Western
culture. He favored the painterly style of Buson and particularly the
European concept of plein-air painting, which he adapted to create a
style of haiku as a kind of nature sketch in words, an approach called
shasei (写生, "sketching from life"). He popularized his views by
verse columns and essays in newspapers.
Hokku up to the time of Shiki, even when appearing independently, were
written in the context of renku. Shiki formally separated his new
style of verse from the context of collaborative poetry. Being
agnostic, he also separated it from the influence of Buddhism.
Further, he discarded the term "hokku" and proposed the term haiku as
an abbreviation of the phrase "haikai no ku" meaning a verse of
haikai, although the term predates Shiki by some two centuries,
when it was used to mean any verse of haikai. Since
then, "haiku" has been the term usually applied in both Japanese and
English to all independent haiku, irrespective of their date of
composition. Shiki's revisionism dealt a severe blow to renku and
surviving haikai schools. The term "hokku" is now used chiefly in its
original sense of the opening verse of a renku, and rarely to
distinguish haiku written before Shiki's time.
Main article: Haibun
Haibun is a combination of prose and haiku, often autobiographical or
written in the form of a travel journal.
Main article: Haiga
Haiga is a style of Japanese painting based on the aesthetics of
haikai, and usually including a haiku. Today, haiga artists combine
haiku with paintings, photographs and other art.
The carving of famous haiku on natural stone to make poem monuments
known as kuhi (句碑) has been a popular practice for many centuries.
The city of
Matsuyama has more than two hundred kuhi.
Haiku movement in the West
The earliest westerner known to have written haiku was the Dutchman
Hendrik Doeff (1764–1837), who was the Dutch commissioner in the
Dejima trading post in Nagasaki, during the first years of the 19th
century. One of his haiku:
inazuma no 稲妻の
kaina wo karan 腕を借らん
lend me your arms,
fast as thunderbolts,
for a pillow on my journey.
Although there were further attempts outside
Japan to imitate the
"hokku" in the early 20th century, there was little understanding of
its principles. Early Western scholars such as Basil
Hall Chamberlain (1850–1935) and
William George Aston
William George Aston were mostly
dismissive of hokku's poetic value. One of the first advocates of
English-language hokku was the Japanese poet Yone Noguchi. In "A
Proposal to American Poets," published in the Reader magazine in
February 1904, Noguchi gave a brief outline of the hokku and some of
his own English efforts, ending with the exhortation, "Pray, you try
Japanese Hokku, my American poets!" At about the same time the poet
Sadakichi Hartmann was publishing original English-language hokku, as
well as other Japanese forms in both English and French.
In France, haiku was introduced by
Paul-Louis Couchoud around 1906.
Couchoud's articles were read by early
Imagist theoretician F. S.
Flint, who passed on Couchoud's ideas to other members of the
Poets' Club such as Ezra Pound.
Amy Lowell made a trip
to London to meet Pound and find out about haiku. She returned to the
United States where she worked to interest others in this "new" form.
Haiku subsequently had a considerable influence on Imagists in the
1910s, notably Pound's "In a Station of the Metro" of 1913, but,
notwithstanding several efforts by
Yone Noguchi to explain "the hokku
spirit", there was as yet little understanding of the form and its
Main article: Reginald Horace Blyth
R. H. Blyth was an
Englishman who lived in Japan. He produced a series
of works on Zen, haiku, senryū, and on other forms of Japanese and
Asian literature. In 1949, with the publication in
Japan of the first
volume of Haiku, the four-volume work by Blyth, haiku were introduced
to the post-war English-speaking world. This four-volume series
(1949–52) described haiku from the pre-modern period up to and
including Shiki. Blyth's History of
Haiku (1964) in two volumes is
regarded as a classical study of haiku. Today Blyth is best known as a
major interpreter of haiku to English speakers. His works have
stimulated the writing of haiku in English.
Main article: Kenneth Yasuda
The Japanese-American scholar and translator
Kenneth Yasuda published
The Japanese Haiku: Its Essential Nature, History, and Possibilities
in English, with Selected Examples in 1957. The book includes both
translations from Japanese and original poems of his own in English,
which had previously appeared in his book titled A Pepper-Pod: Classic
Japanese Poems together with Original Haiku. In these books Yasuda
presented a critical theory about haiku, to which he added comments on
haiku poetry by early 20th-century poets and critics. His translations
apply a 5–7–5 syllable count in English, with the first and third
lines end-rhymed. Yasuda considered that haiku translated into English
should utilize all of the poetic resources of the language.
Yasuda's theory also includes the concept of a "haiku moment" based in
personal experience, and provides the motive for writing a haiku (' an
aesthestic moment' of a timeless feeling of enlightened harmony as the
poet's nature and the environment are unified'). This notion of
the haiku moment has resonated with haiku writers in English, even
though the notion is not widely promoted in Japanese haiku.(See
Haiku Moments for Us Today'
Main article: Harold G. Henderson
In 1958, An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets
from Bashô to Shiki by
Harold G. Henderson was published by Doubleday
Anchor Books. This book was a revision of Henderson's earlier book
titled The Bamboo Broom (Houghton Mifflin, 1934). After World War II,
Henderson and Blyth worked for the American Occupation in
for the Imperial Household, respectively, and their shared
appreciation of haiku helped form a bond between the two.
Henderson translated every hokku and haiku into a rhymed tercet
(a-b-a), whereas the Japanese originals never used rhyme. Unlike
Yasuda, however, he recognized that 17 syllables in English are
generally longer than the 17 on of a traditional Japanese haiku.
Because the normal modes of English poetry depend on accentual meter
rather than on syllabics, Henderson chose to emphasize the order of
events and images in the originals. Nevertheless,
many of Henderson's translations were in the five-seven-five pattern.
Haiku in English
The first haiku written in English was by Ezra Pound, In a Station of
the Metro, published in 1913. Since then, the haiku has become a
fairly popular form among English-speaking poets. English haiku can
follow the traditional Japanese rules, but are frequently less strict,
particularly concerning the number of syllables and subject matter.
The loosening of traditional standards has resulted in the term
"haiku" being applied to brief English-language poems such as
"mathemaku" and other kinds of pseudohaiku. Some sources claim that
this is justified by the blurring of definitional boundaries in
Japan. Rich cross cultural haiku traditions continue to this day,
evidenced by books like Baseball Haiku: American and Japanese Haiku
and Senryu on Baseball edited by Cor van den Heuvel and Nanae Tamura
(W.W. Norton 2007).
The beginnings of Romance-language haiku
Subsequent to Paul-Louis Couchoud’s popularisation of the form in
France through his essays and translations, the next major haiku
collection to appear there was the sequence of war poems by Julien
Vocance, Cent visions de guerre (1916). Later haiku by him were
included among the work of the twelve published together in the
Nouvelle Revue Française
Nouvelle Revue Française (No. 84, September 1920), among whom
was the young Paul Éluard. This was followed by the anthology Le
Haïkaï Français in 1923.
In Spain several prominent poets experimented with haiku, including
Joan Alcover, Antonio Machado,
Juan Ramón Jiménez
Juan Ramón Jiménez and Luis
Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca also experimented with and learned
conciseness from the form while still a student in 1921. The most
persistent, however, was Isaac del Vando, whose La Sombrilla Japonesa
(1924) went through several editions. The form was also used in
Catalan by the avant-garde writers Josep Maria Junoy (1885-1955) and
Joan Salvat-Papasseit, by the latter notably in his sequence
The Mexican poet
José Juan Tablada
José Juan Tablada is credited with popularising
haiku in his country, reinforced by the publication of two collections
composed entirely in that form: Un dia (1919), and El jarro de
flores (1922). In the introduction to the latter, Tablada noted
that two young Mexicans,
Rafael Lozano and Carlos Gutiérrez Cruz, had
also begun writing them. They were followed soon after by Carlos
Pellicer, Xavier Villaurrutia, and by
Jaime Torres Bodet
Jaime Torres Bodet in his
collection Biombo (1925). Much later,
Octavio Paz included many
haiku in Piedras Sueltas (1955).
Elsewhere the Ecuadorian poet and diplomat Jorge Carrera Andrade
included haiku among the 31 poems contained in Microgramas (Tokio
1940) and the Argentine
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges in the collection La
cifra (1981). After several early false starts in
Portungese-speaking Brazil, including a collection of 56 by Waldomiro
Siqueira Jr. (1912-?) in his Haikais (São Paulo 1933), the form was
popularised by Guilherme de Almeida, first through his 1937 magazine
article Os Meus Haicais and then in his collection Poesia Vária
In 1992 Nobel laureate
Czesław Miłosz published the volume
which he translated from English to Polish haiku of Japanese masters
and American and Canadian contemporary haiku authors.
The former president of the European Council, Herman Van Rompuy, is a
notable haijin (俳人, haiku poets) and known as "
Haiku Herman." He
published a book of haiku in April 2010.
In the early 20th century, Nobel laureate
Rabindranath Tagore composed
haiku in Bengali. He also translated some from Japanese. In Gujarati,
Jhinabhai Desai 'Sneharashmi' popularized haiku and remained a
popular haiku writer. In February 2008, the World
was held in Bangalore, gathering haijin from all over India and
Bangladesh, as well as from Europe and the United States.[citation
needed] In South Asia, some other poets also write
Haiku from time to
time, most notably including the Pakistani poet Omer Tarin, who is
also active in the movement for global nuclear disarmament and some of
Hiroshima Haiku' have been read at various peace conferences in
Japan and the UK.
Arakida Moritake (1473–1549)
Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694)
Nozawa Bonchō (c. 1640–1714)
Takarai Kikaku (1661–1707)
Ueshima Onitsura (ja) (1661–1738)
Yokoi Yayū (1702–1783)
Fukuda Chiyo-ni (1703–1775)
Yosa Buson (1716–1783)
Ryōkan Taigu (1758-1831)
Kobayashi Issa (1763–1827)
Shiki and later
Masaoka Shiki (1867–1902)
Kawahigashi Hekigotō (ja) (1873–1937)
Takahama Kyoshi (1874–1959)
Samukawa Sokotsu (1875–1954)
Taneda Santōka (1882–1940)
Ozaki Kōyō (1882–1926)
Ogiwara Seisensui (1884–1976)
Natsume Sōseki (1867–1916)
Ryūnosuke Akutagawa (1892–1927)
Haiku in English
Haiku in languages other than Japanese
Hokku (predecessor to Haiku)
Kigo (season word)
Kireji ("cutting word")
Japanese language poets
List of kigo
Masaoka Shiki International
Saijiki (kigo list)
Senryū (haiku-like verse form)
^ Yamada-Bochynek, Yoriko (1985).
Haiku East and West. Bochum:
Universitatsverlag Brockmeyer. p. 255.
^ Hiraga, Masakop K. (1999). "Rough Sea and the Milky Way: 'Blending'
Haiku Text," in Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents,
ed. Chrystopher L. Nehaniv. Berlin: Springer. p. 27.
^ Lanoue, David G. Issa, Cup-of-tea Poems: Selected
Haiku of Kobayashi
Issa, Asian Humanities
^ Sterba, Carmen. "Thoughts on Juxtaposition". Simply Haiku: A
Quarterly Journal of Japanese Short Form Poetry. Simply Haiku.
Retrieved 9 April 2013.
^ Haruo Shirane Beyond the
^ Shirane, Haruo (2004). Early Modern Japanese Literature: An
Anthology, 1600-1900. Columbia University Press. p. 521.
^ Brief Notes on "Kire-ji" Archived 2009-08-27 at the Wayback
Machine., Association of Japanese Classical Haiku. Retrieved
^ Steven D. Carter. Three Poets at Yuyama. Sogi and Yuyama Sangin
Hyakuin, 1491, in Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 33, No. 3. (Autumn, 1978),
^ Konishi Jin'ichi; Karen Brazell; Lewis Cook, The Art of Renga, in
Journal of Japanese Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1. (Autumn, 1975), p.39
^ Sato, Hiroaki. One Hundred Frogs: from renga to haiku to English,
Weatherhill 1983, ISBN 0-8348-0176-0
^ 1973 definition of haiku on the website of the
Haiku Society of
^ definition of haiku on the website of the
Haiku Society of America
^ Yuasa, Nobuyuki, Introduction 'The Narrow Road and Other travel
sketches' by Matsuo Basho, Penguin Classics, London 1966
^ Higginson, William J. The
Haiku Handbook, Kodansha International,
1985, ISBN 4-7700-1430-9, p.9
^ Translated by
William J. Higginson in Matsuo Bashō: Frog Haiku
(Thirty Translations and One Commentary), including commentary from
Robert Aitken's A
Zen Wave: Bashô's
Zen (revised ed.,
Shoemaker & Hoard, 2003)
^ Works of Basho, Winter on Iga and Basho ict.ne.jp website.
^ Works of Basho, Summer on Iga and Basho ict.ne.jp website.
^ "Issa archive". Haikuguy.com. Retrieved 2012-01-06.
^ Higginson, William J. The
Haiku Handbook, Kodansha International,
1985, ISBN 4-7700-1430-9, p.20
^ van den Heuvel, 1986, p.357
^ a b Hiroaki Sato. One Hundred Frogs, Weatherhill, 1983,
ISBN 0-8348-0176-0 p.113
^ Yuasa, Nobuyuki. The Narrow Road to the Deep North and other travel
sketches, Penguin 1966, ISBN 0-14-044185-9 p.39
^ Rimer, J. Thomas. A Reader's Guide to Japanese Literature, Kodansha
International 1988, ISBN 4-7700-1396-5 pp.69-70
^ Ross, Bruce.
Haiku Moment: An Anthology of Contemporary North
American Haiku, Tuttle Publishing, 1993, ISBN 0-8048-1820-7 p.xv
^ Henderson, Harold G. An Introduction to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems
and Poets from Basho to Shiki, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958, p.163
^ Earl Miner, Japanese Linked Poetry. Princeton University Press,
1980. ISBN 0-691-01368-3 pbk.
Haiku in the Netherlands and Flanders by Max Verhart, in the German
Haiku Society website
^ Otterspeer, W. Leiden Oriental connections, 1850-1940, Volume 5 of
Studies in the history of Leiden University. Brill, 1989,
ISBN 9789004090224. p360
^ Yasuda, Kenneth, Introduction 'The Japanese Haiku' Charles Tuttle Co
Rutland 1957 ISBN 0804810966
^ Otsuiji(Seiki Osuga) Otsuji Hairon-shu 'Otsuiji's Collected Essays
Haiku Theory' ed.Toyo Yoshida, 5th edn Tokyo, Kaede Shobo 1947
^ Hirai, Masako ed.Now to be! Shiki's
Haiku Moments for Us Today'
(Ima, ikuru!Shiki no sekai) U-Time Publishing, 2003
ISBN 4860100409 
^ Grumman, Bob. A Divergery of Haiku, ToxanAtomyzd in Modern Haiku
34:2, 2003, 20–26
^ Jan Hokenson, Japan, France, and East-West Aesthetics: French
Literature, 1867-2000, Fairleigh Dickinson University 2004, p.249ff
^ Poems online
^ Georges C. Friendenkraft, "Style and Spirit in French Haikus"
^ Octavio Paz, La tradición del haikú, Cambridge 1970
^ Leslie Stainton, Lorca a Dream of Life, Bloomsbury 2013, chapter 6
^ La haiku en lengua española
^ Jordi Mas López, Els haikús de Josep Maria Junoy i Joan
Salvat-Papasseit Barcelona Free University, 2002
^ Entire collection online
^ Entire collection online
^ Sonja Karsen, Selected poems of Jaime Torres Bodet, Indiana
University 1964, p.27
^ Spanish text online; and some translations by Muriel Rukeyser in
Selected Poems of Octaviao Paz, Indiana University 1963
^ The Quarterly Conversation, March 2012
^ Pequeños Universos
^ Rosa Clement, "A history of Brazilian haiku"
Herman Van Rompuy
Herman Van Rompuy publishes haiku poems". Telegraph.co.uk. 16 April
^ "EU's "
Haiku Herman" launches first poetry book". Reuters. April 15,
^ Charter, David (April 16, 2010). "'
Haiku Herman' Van Rompuy: poet,
president and fish out of water". London: Times Online.
^ Article on Sneh Rashmi on website of Gujarati Sahitya Parishad
(Gujarati Literary Council). In it, we read: "જાપાની
કરી તેમણે ઐતિહાસિક પ્રદાન
કર્યું છે" ("By pioneering and popularizing the famous
Japanese poetry called
Haiku in Gujarati, he has gained a
place in history").
^ Ramanathan S. & Kothari R. (1998). Modern Gujarati Poetry: A
Selection. Sahitya Akedami. ISBN 81-260-0294-8,
^ See article by Yasuhiko Shigemoto, on
Haiku and Omer
Tarin, in The Mainichi daily, Tokyo, Japan, 15 August 1998, p 11
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