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Haggai
Haggai
/ˈhæɡi.aɪ/[1] (Hebrew: חַגַּי‎, Ḥaggay or Hag-i, Koine Greek: Ἀγγαῖος; Latin: Aggaeus) was a Hebrew
Hebrew
prophet during the building of the Second Temple
Second Temple
in Jerusalem, and one of the twelve minor prophets in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible and the author of the Book of Haggai. He is known for his prophecy in 520 BCE, commanding the Jews to rebuild the Temple.[2] His name means "my holiday". He was the first of three post-exile prophets from the Neo-Babylonian Exile of the House of Judah (with Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who lived about one hundred years later), who belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Babylon
Babylon
by Nebuchadnezzar. He began God’s prophesy about sixteen years after the return of the Jews to Judah (ca. 520 BCE). The work of rebuilding the temple had been put to a stop through the intrigues of the Samaritans. After having been suspended for eighteen years, the work was resumed through the efforts of Haggai
Haggai
and Zechariah.[3] They exhorted the people, which roused them from their lethargy, and induced them to take advantage of a change in the policy of the Persian government under Darius I. The name Haggai, with various vocalizations, is also found in the Book of Esther, as a eunuch servant of the Queen.

Contents

1 Haggai
Haggai
Prophecies 2 Haggai
Haggai
and officials of his time 3 Jewish Persian Diplomacy 4 Haggai
Haggai
in Jewish tradition 5 Liturgical commemoration 6 Haggai
Haggai
in Freemasonry 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Haggai
Haggai
Prophecies[edit]

Haggai
Haggai
(watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot)

Haggai
Haggai
prophesied in 520 BCE Jerusalem, about the people needing to complete building the Temple. The new Temple was bound to exceed the awesomeness of the previous Temple. He claimed if the Temple was not built there would be poverty, famine and drought affecting the Jewish nation. There is a controversy regarding who edited Haggai's works. According to scholars, they credit it to his students. However, Jewish Tradition believe, that the Men of the Great Assembly were responsible for the edits. The Men of the Great Assembly are traditionally known for continuing the work of Ezra and Nehemiah.[2] Haggai
Haggai
and officials of his time[edit] Haggai
Haggai
supported the officials of his time, specifically Zerubbabel, the governor, and Joshua
Joshua
the High Priest. In the Book of Haggai, God refers to Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
as "my servant" as King David
David
was, and says he will make him as a "signet ring," as King Jehoiachin was ( Haggai
Haggai
2:23; cf. Jer 22:24). The signet ring symbolized a ring worn on the hand of Yahweh, showing that a king held divine favour. Thus, Haggai
Haggai
is implicitly, but not explicitly, saying that Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
would preside over a restored Davidic kingdom.[4] Jewish Persian Diplomacy[edit] The Persian Empire was growing weak, and Haggai
Haggai
saw time as an opportunity to restore the Davidic Kingdom. He believed that the Kingdom of David
David
was able to rise and take back their part in Jewish issues. Haggai’s message was directed to the nobles and Zerubbabel, as he would be the first Davidic monarch restored. He saw this as important because the Kingdom would be an end to Jewish Idol worship.[2] Haggai
Haggai
in Jewish tradition[edit] Haggai, in rabbinic writing, is often referred to as one of the men of the Great Assembly. The Babylonian Talmud
Babylonian Talmud
(5th century CE) mentions a tradition concerning the prophet Haggai,[5] saying that he gave instruction concerning three things: (a) that it is not lawful for a man whose brother married his daughter (as a co-wife in a polygamous relationship) to consummate a levirate marriage with one of his deceased brother's co-wives (a teaching accepted by the School of Hillel, but rejected by the School of Shammai);[6] (b) that Jews living in the regions of Ammon
Ammon
and Moab
Moab
separate from their produce the poor man's tithe during the Sabbatical year; (c) that they accept of proselytes from the peoples of Tadmor
Tadmor
(Palmyra) and from the people of Ḳardu. Liturgical commemoration[edit] On the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar, Haggai
Haggai
is commemorated as a saint and prophet. His feast day is 16 December (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 16 December currently falls on 29 December of the modern Gregorian Calendar). He is also commemorated, in common with the other righteous persons of the Old Testament, on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers (the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord). Haggai
Haggai
is commemorated with the other Minor prophets
Minor prophets
in the Calendar of saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
on 31 July. Haggai
Haggai
in Freemasonry[edit] In the Masonic degree of Holy Royal Arch
Holy Royal Arch
Haggai
Haggai
is one of the Three Principals of the Chapter. Named after Haggai
Haggai
the prophet and is supported by Zerubbabel, Prince of the People, and Joshua, the son of Josedech, the High Priest. See also[edit]

Book of Haggai Tomb of the Prophets Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi

References[edit]

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Haggai". Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons. 

^ Alternatively, /ˈhæɡaɪ/. ^ a b c Schiffman, Lawrence. Judaism in the Persian Period. pp. 53–54.  ^ Ezra 6:14 ^ Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 346. ISBN 0195332725.  ^ Babylonian Talmud
Babylonian Talmud
(Yebamot 16a) ^ A quintessential Jewish teaching, since it is lawful for a Jewish man to marry his brother's daughter, or his sister's daughter. Likewise, polygamy was permitted under Mosaic law, as also the biblical injunction to take in marriage the wife of one's deceased brother (Heb. Yibum = levirate marriage) when they had no offspring. The problem, however, that arises here is that a man whose daughter was married to his brother, had his brother died childless, he (the living brother who is the father of his brother's wife) could not consummate a marriage with his own daughter, a thing prohibited in Jewish law, and therefore even the co-wives of his brother assume the same prohibition and are forbidden for him to marry.

External links[edit]

Prophet
Prophet
Haggai
Haggai
Orthodox icon and synaxarion

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Prophets in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible

Pre-Patriarchal

Abel Kenan Enoch Noah (in rabbinic literature)

Patriarchs / Matriarchs

Abraham Isaac Jacob Levi Joseph Sarah Rebecca Rachel Leah

Israelite prophets in the Torah

Moses (in rabbinic literature) Aaron Miriam Eldad and Medad Phinehas

Mentioned in the Former Prophets

Joshua Deborah Gideon Eli Elkanah Hannah Abigail Samuel Gad Nathan David Solomon Jeduthun Ahijah Shemaiah Elijah Elisha Iddo Hanani Jehu Micaiah Jahaziel Eliezer Zechariah ben Jehoiada Huldah

Major

Isaiah (in rabbinic literature) Jeremiah Ezekiel Daniel (in rabbinic literature)

Minor

Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah (in rabbinic literature) Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Noahide

Beor Balaam Job (in rabbinic literature)

Other

Amoz Beeri Baruch Agur Uriah Buzi Mordecai Esther (in rabbinic literature) Oded Azariah

Italics indicate persons whose status as prophets is not universally accepted.

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Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

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Bede
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Matthew Mark Luke John

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Ambrose
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Cyprian
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Irenaeus
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Jerome
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Polycarp
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Patriarchs

Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs

Popes

Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus

Prophets

Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah

Virgins

Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

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Military saints Virtuous pagan

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 26532325 LCCN: n2008020309 SUDO

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