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Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province
Roman province
of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. It ran from the banks of the River Tyne near the North Sea to the Solway Firth
Solway Firth
on the Irish Sea, and was the northern limit of the Roman Empire, immediately north of which were the lands of the northern Ancient Britons, including the Picts. It had a stone base and a stone wall. There were milecastles with two turrets in between. There was a fort about every five Roman miles. From north to south, the wall comprised a ditch, wall, military way and vallum, another ditch with adjoining mounds. It is thought the milecastles were staffed with static garrisons, whereas the forts had fighting garrisons of infantry and cavalry. In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts.[1] A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path. The largest Roman artefact anywhere, it runs a total of 73 miles (117.5 kilometres) in northern England.[2] Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions.[3] It was designated as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987.[4] In comparison, the Antonine wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall (the Gillam hypothesis),[5] was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008.[6][7] It is a common misconception that Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
marks the boundary between England and Scotland. In fact Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
lies entirely within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border.[8] While it is less than 0.6 miles (1.0 km) south of the border with Scotland in the west at Bowness-on-Solway, in the east it is as much as 68 miles (109 km) away.

Contents

1 Dimensions 2 Route 3 Purpose of construction 4 Construction

4.1 "Broad Wall" and "Narrow Wall" 4.2 Turf wall 4.3 Standards

5 Garrison 6 After Hadrian

6.1 Preservation by John Clayton 6.2 World Heritage Site 6.3 Tourism 6.4 Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path

7 Roman-period names

7.1 Forts

8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Dimensions[edit] Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
was 80 Roman miles or 117.5 km (73.0 mi) long;[9] its width and height varied according to the construction materials available nearby. East of the River Irthing, the wall was made from squared stone and measured 3 metres (10 feet) wide and 5 to 6 metres (16 to 20 feet) high, while west of the river the wall was originally made from turf and measured 6 metres (20 feet) wide and 3.5 metres (11 feet) high; it was later rebuilt in stone. These dimensions do not include the wall's ditches, berms and forts. The central section measured eight Roman feet wide (7.8 ft or 2.4 m) on a 3 m (10 ft) base. Some parts of this section of the wall survive to a height of 3 m (10 ft). Immediately south of the wall, a large ditch was dug, with adjoining parallel mounds, one on either side. This is known today as the Vallum, even though the word Vallum in Latin is the origin of the English word wall, and does not refer to a ditch. In many places – for example Limestone Corner
Limestone Corner
– the Vallum is better preserved than the wall, which has been robbed of much of its stone. Route[edit]

Route of Hadrian's Wall

Sections of Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
remain along the route, though much has been dismantled over the years to use the stones for various nearby construction projects.

Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
extended west from Segedunum
Segedunum
at Wallsend
Wallsend
on the River Tyne, via Carlisle and Kirkandrews-on-Eden, to the shore of the Solway Firth, ending a short but unknown distance west of the village of Bowness-on-Solway.[10] The A69 and B6318 roads follow the course of the wall from Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
to Carlisle, then along the northern coast of Cumbria
Cumbria
(south shore of the Solway Firth). Although the curtain wall ends near Bowness-on-Solway, this does not mark the end of the line of defensive structures. The system of milecastles and turrets is known to have continued along the Cumbria coast as far as Risehow, south of Maryport.[11] For classification purposes, the milecastles west of Bowness-on-Solway
Bowness-on-Solway
are referred to as Milefortlets. Purpose of construction[edit]

Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
facing east towards Crag Lough

Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
was probably planned before Hadrian's visit to Britain in AD 122. According to restored sandstone fragments found in Jarrow which date from 118 or 119, it was Hadrian's wish to keep "intact the empire", which had been imposed on him via "divine instruction".[12] Although Hadrian's biographer wrote "[Hadrian] was the first to build a wall 80 miles long to separate the Romans from the barbarians", reasons for the construction of the wall vary, and no recording of an exact explanation survives.[13] Theories have been presented by historians, mostly of an expression of Roman power and Hadrian's policy of defence before expansion. On his accession to the throne in 117, Hadrian
Hadrian
had been experiencing rebellion in Roman Britain
Roman Britain
and from the peoples of various conquered lands across the Empire, including Egypt, Judea, Libya
Libya
and Mauritania.[12] These troubles may have influenced Hadrian's plan to construct the wall as well as his construction of limites in other areas of the Empire, but to what extent is unknown. Scholars disagree over how much of a threat the inhabitants of northern Britain really presented and whether there was any economic advantage in defending and garrisoning a fixed line of defences like the Wall, rather than conquering and annexing what has become the Scottish Lowlands
Scottish Lowlands
and defending the territory with a loose arrangement of forts.[12] The limites of Rome were never expected to stop tribes from migrating or armies from invading, and while a frontier protected by a palisade or stone wall would help curb cattle-raiders and the incursions of other small groups,[14] the economic viability of constructing and keeping guarded a wall 72 miles (116 km) long along a sparsely populated border to stop small-scale raiding is dubious.[12] Another possible explanation for the wall is the degree of control it would have provided over immigration, smuggling and customs.[12] Limites did not strictly mark the boundaries of the empire: Roman power and influence often extended beyond the walls.[12] People within and beyond the limes travelled through it each day when conducting business, and organised check-points like those offered by Hadrian's Wall provided good opportunities for taxation. With watch towers only a short distance from gateways in the limes, patrolling legionaries could have kept track of entering and exiting natives and Roman citizens alike, charging customs dues and checking for smuggling.[citation needed] Another theory is of a simpler variety—that Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
was partly constructed to reflect the power of Rome and was used as a political point by Hadrian. Once its construction was finished, it is thought to have been covered in plaster and then whitewashed: its shining surface reflected the sunlight and was visible for miles around.[12] Construction[edit] Construction started in AD 122[15] and was largely completed in six years.[16] Construction started in the east, between milecastles four and seven, and proceeded westwards, with soldiers from all three of the occupying Roman legions participating in the work. The route chosen largely paralleled the nearby Stanegate
Stanegate
road from Luguvalium (Carlisle) to Coria (Corbridge), upon which were situated a series of forts, including Vindolanda. The wall in its central and best-preserved section follows a hard, resistant igneous diabase rock escarpment, known as the Whin Sill.

Roman fort and town at Corstopitum viewed along the Stanegate

The initial plan called for a ditch and wall with 80 small gated milecastle fortlets, one placed every Roman mile, holding a few dozen troops each, and pairs of evenly spaced intermediate turrets used for observation and signalling. However, very few milecastles are actually sited at exact Roman mile
Roman mile
divisions: they can be up to 200 yards east or west because of landscape features or to improve signalling to the Stanegate
Stanegate
forts to the south.[17] Local limestone was used in the construction, except for the section to the west of the River Irthing where turf was originally used instead, for unknown reasons; it was later rebuilt in stone. Milecastles in this area were also built from timber and earth rather than stone, but turrets were always made from stone. The Broad Wall was initially built with a clay-bonded rubble core and mortared dressed rubble facing stones, but this seems to have made it vulnerable to collapse, and repair with a mortared core was sometimes necessary. The milecastles and turrets were of three different designs, depending on which Roman legion
Roman legion
built them – inscriptions of the Second, Sixth, and Twentieth Legions, show that all were involved in the construction. The turrets were about 493 metres (539 yards) apart and measured 14.02 square metres (150.9 square feet) internally.[citation needed] Construction was divided into lengths of about 5 miles (8.0 km). One group of each legion would excavate the foundations and build the milecastles and turrets and then other cohorts would follow with the wall construction. The wall was finished in 128.

"Broad Wall" and "Narrow Wall"[edit]

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Vallum at Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
near Milecastle
Milecastle
42 (Cawfields)

Early in its construction, just after reaching the North Tyne, the width of the wall was narrowed to 2.5 m (8.2 ft) or even less (sometimes 1.8 metres) (the "Narrow Wall"). However, Broad Wall foundations had already been laid as far as the River Irthing, where the Turf Wall began, demonstrating that construction worked from east to west. Many turrets and milecastles were optimistically provided with wider stub "wing walls" in preparation for joining to the Broad Wall, offering a handy reference for archaeologists trying to piece together the construction chronology. Within a few years it was decided to add a total of 14 to 17 (sources[which?] disagree) full-sized forts along the length of the wall, including Vercovicium
Vercovicium
(Housesteads) and Banna (Birdoswald), each holding between 500 and 1,000 auxiliary troops (no legions were posted to the wall). The eastern end of the wall was extended further east from Pons Aelius
Pons Aelius
(Newcastle) to Segedunum
Segedunum
(Wallsend) on the Tyne estuary. Some of the larger forts along the wall, such as Cilurnum (Chesters) and Vercovicium
Vercovicium
(Housesteads), were built on top of the footings of milecastles or turrets, showing the change of plan. An inscription mentioning early governor Aulus Platorius Nepos indicates that the change of plans took place early on. Also, some time during Hadrian's reign (before 138) the wall west of the Irthing was rebuilt in sandstone to about the same dimensions as the limestone section to the east.

Cross section of the works

After most of the forts had been added, the Vallum was built on the southern side. The wall was thus part of a defensive system which, from north to south, included:

A row of forts built 5 to 10 mi (8.0 to 16.1 km) north of the wall, used for scouting and intelligence (e.g. Bewcastle
Bewcastle
Roman Fort) a glacis and a deep ditch a berm with rows of pits holding entanglements the curtain wall a later military road (the Military Way) The Vallum.

Part of Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
from Housesteads
Housesteads
showing the Knag Burn Gateway in the valley

Turf wall[edit] From Milecastle
Milecastle
49 to the western terminus of the wall at Bowness-on-Solway, the curtain wall was originally constructed from turf, possibly due to the absence of limestone for the manufacture of mortar.[18] Subsequently, the Turf Wall was demolished and replaced with a stone wall. This took place in two phases; the first (from the River Irthing
River Irthing
to a point west of Milecastle
Milecastle
54), during the reign of Hadrian, and the second following the reoccupation of Hadrian's Wall subsequent to the abandonment of the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
(though it has also been suggested that this second phase took place during the reign of Septimius Severus). The line of the new stone wall follows the line of the turf wall, apart from the stretch between Milecastle
Milecastle
49 and Milecastle
Milecastle
51, where the line of the stone wall is slightly further to the north.[18] In the stretch around Milecastle
Milecastle
50TW, it was built on a flat base with three to four courses of turf blocks.[19] A basal layer of cobbles was used westwards from Milecastle
Milecastle
72 (at Burgh-by-Sands) and possibly at Milecastle
Milecastle
53.[20] Where the underlying ground was boggy, wooden piles were used.[18] At its base, the now-demolished turf wall was 6 metres (20 ft) wide, and built in courses of turf blocks measuring 18 inches (46 cm) long by 12 inches (30 cm) deep by 6 inches (15 cm) high, to a height estimated at around 3.66 metres (12.0 ft). The north face is thought to have had a slope of 75%, whereas the south face is thought to have started vertical above the foundation, quickly becoming much shallower.[18] Standards[edit] Above the stone curtain wall's foundations, one or more footing courses were laid. Offsets were introduced above these footing courses (on both the north and south faces), which reduced the wall's width. Where the width of the curtain wall is stated, it is in reference to the width above the offset. Two standards of offset have been identified: Standard A, where the offset occurs above the first footing course, and Standard B, where the offset occurs after the third (or sometimes fourth) footing course.[21] Garrison[edit] According to Sheppard Frere, the garrison reflected the political rather than military purpose of the wall. The wall provided the soldiers with an elevated platform from which they could safely observe movement of the local population. It had "heavy provision of cavalry" which could sally out from any of the milestone gates though as mentioned earlier, the garrison was neither expected nor trained to the level necessary to defend a city wall. Overall the fortifications appear to have required additional strengthening after the initial design and were stronger than their equivalent in Germany, probably reflecting local resentment. Frere believes that the milecastles, which would have needed 1000–1500 men, were held by a patrolling garrison of Numeri, though he concedes that there are no inscriptions referring to Numeri in Britain at the time. Command headquarters was at Uxelodunum
Uxelodunum
(nowadays called Stanwix) near Carlisle, where the Ala Petriana
Petriana
was based. A signalling system allowed communication in minutes between Stanwix
Stanwix
and York.[22] Further information on the garrisoning of the wall has been provided by the discovery of the Vindolanda
Vindolanda
tablets, such as the record of an inspection on 18 May between AD 92 and AD 97 where only 456 of the full quota of 756 Dutch and Belgian troops were present, the rest being sick or otherwise absent.[23] After Hadrian[edit]

Leahill 51B is a typical example of the many turrets built into the wall between the milecastles.

In the years after Hadrian's death in 138, the new emperor, Antoninus Pius, essentially abandoned the wall, leaving it occupied in a support role, and began building a new wall called the Antonine Wall, about 160 kilometres (100 mi) north, in what later became known as the Scottish Lowlands, across the isthmus running west-south-west to east-north-east, sometimes referred to as the Central Belt
Central Belt
or Central Lowlands. This turf wall ran 40 Roman miles, or about 37.8 mi (60.8 km), and had significantly more forts than Hadrian's Wall. Antoninus was unable to conquer the northern tribes, so when Marcus Aurelius became emperor, he abandoned the Antonine Wall
Antonine Wall
and reoccupied Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
as the main defensive barrier in 164. In 208–211, the Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
again tried to conquer Caledonia
Caledonia
and temporarily reoccupied the Antonine Wall. The campaign ended inconclusively and the Romans eventually withdrew to Hadrian's Wall. Bede, following Gildas, wrote in [AD 730]:

[the departing Romans] thinking that it might be some help to the allies [Britons], whom they were forced to abandon, constructed a strong stone wall from sea to sea, in a straight line between the towns that had been there built for fear of the enemy, where Severus also had formerly built a rampart. — Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Book I Chapter 12

Bede
Bede
obviously identified Gildas' stone wall as Hadrian's Wall (actually built in the 120s) and he would appear to have deduced that the ditch-and-mound barrier known as the Vallum (just to the south of and contemporary with, Hadrian's Wall) was the rampart constructed by Severus. Many centuries would pass before just who built what became apparent.[24] In the late 4th century, barbarian invasions, economic decline and military coups loosened the Empire's hold on Britain. By 410, the estimated End of Roman rule in Britain, the Roman administration and its legions were gone and Britain was left to look to its own defences and government. Archaeologists have revealed that some parts of the wall remained occupied well into the 5th century. It has been suggested that some forts continued to be garrisoned by local Britons under the control of a Coel Hen figure and former dux. Hadrian's Wall fell into ruin and over the centuries the stone was reused in other local buildings. Enough survived in the 8th century for spolia from Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
to find their way into the construction of Jarrow Priory.

Painting by William Bell Scott; the face of the centurion is that of John Clayton (Painting at Wallington Hall)

Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
near Birdoswald
Birdoswald
Fort, with a man spraying weed-killer to reduce biological weathering to the stones

The wall fascinated John Speed, who published a set of maps of England and Wales by county at the start of the 17th century. He described it as "the Picts
Picts
Wall" (or "Pictes"; he uses both spellings). A map of Newecastle (sic), drawn in 1610 by William Matthew, described it as "Severus' Wall", mistakenly giving it the name ascribed by Bede
Bede
to the Antonine Wall. The maps for Cumberland
Cumberland
and Northumberland
Northumberland
not only show the wall as a major feature, but are ornamented with drawings of Roman finds, together with, in the case of the Cumberland
Cumberland
map, a cartouche in which he sets out a description of the wall itself. Preservation by John Clayton[edit] Much of the wall has now disappeared. Long sections of it were used for roadbuilding in the 18th century,[25] especially by General Wade to build a military road (most of which lies beneath the present day B6318 "Military Road") to move troops to crush the Jacobite insurrection. The preservation of much of what remains can be credited to John Clayton. He trained as a lawyer and became town clerk of Newcastle in the 1830s. He became enthusiastic about preserving the wall after a visit to Chesters. To prevent farmers taking stones from the wall, he began buying some of the land on which the wall stood. In 1834, he started purchasing property around Steel Rigg near Crag Lough. Eventually, he controlled land from Brunton to Cawfields. This stretch included the sites of Chesters, Carrawburgh, Housesteads, and Vindolanda. Clayton carried out excavation at the fort at Cilurnum
Cilurnum
and at Housesteads, and he excavated some milecastles. Clayton managed the farms he had acquired and succeeded in improving both the land and the livestock. His successful management produced a cash-flow, which could be invested in future restoration work. Workmen were employed to restore sections of the wall, generally up to a height of seven courses. The best example of the Clayton Wall is at Housesteads. After Clayton's death, the estate passed to relatives and was soon lost at gambling. Eventually, the National Trust began acquiring the land on which the wall stands. At Wallington Hall, near Morpeth, there is a painting by William Bell Scott, which shows a centurion supervising the building of the wall. The centurion has been given the face of John Clayton. World Heritage Site[edit] Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987, and in 2005 it became part of the transnational "Frontiers of the Roman Empire" World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
which also includes sites in Germany.[26] Tourism[edit] Although Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987, it remains unguarded, enabling visitors to climb and stand on the wall, although this is not encouraged, as it could damage the historic structure. On 13 March 2010, a public event Illuminating Hadrian's Wall took place, which saw the route of the wall lit with 500 beacons. On 31 August and 2 September 2012, there was a second illumination of the wall as a digital art installation called "Connecting Light", which was part of the London 2012 Festival. Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path[edit] Main article: Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path In 2003, a National Trail footpath was opened that follows the line of the wall from Wallsend
Wallsend
to Bowness-on-Solway.[27] Because of the fragile landscape, walkers are asked to follow the path only in summer.[28] Roman-period names[edit]

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The remains of Castle Nick, Milecastle
Milecastle
39, near Steel Rigg, between Housesteads
Housesteads
and the Once Brewed
Once Brewed
Visitor Centre for the Northumberland National Park

The remains of the fort at Housesteads

The Staffordshire Moorlands Pan, which may provide the ancient name of Hadrian's Wall

Poltross Burn, Milecastle
Milecastle
48

Sycamore Gap (the " Robin Hood
Robin Hood
Tree")[29]

A volunteer stands inside Leahill Turret
Turret
51B

The only ancient source for its provenance is the Augustan History. No sources survive to confirm what the wall was called in antiquity, and no historical literary source gives it a name. However, the discovery of the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan
Staffordshire Moorlands Pan
in Staffordshire in 2003 has provided a clue. This small enamelled bronze Roman trulla (ladle), dating to the 2nd century AD, is inscribed with a series of names of Roman forts along the western sector of the wall, together with a personal name and phrase: MAIS COGGABATA VXELODVNVM CAMBOGLANNA RIGORE VALI AELI DRACONIS. Bowness (MAIS) is followed by Drumburgh-by-Sands (COGGABATA), until now known only as CONGAVATA from the late Roman document, the Notitia Dignitatum. Next comes Stanwix
Stanwix
(VXELODVNVM), then Castlesteads (CAMBOGLANNA). These are the four of the westernmost forts on Hadrian's Wall, but excluding Aballava. RIGORE is the ablative singular form of the Latin word rigor. This can mean several things, but one of its lesser-known meanings is "straight line", "course", or "direction". This sense was used by Roman surveyors and appears on several inscriptions to indicate a line between places. So the meaning could be "according to the course". There is no known word vali, but vallum was the Latin word for an earthen wall, rampart, or fortification.[30] In modern English usage vallum is applied to the ditch and adjoining mounds dug by the Roman army just south of the wall, but to the Romans a vallum was a wall and not a ditch (it is the source of the English word 'wall'). The genitive singular form of vallum is valli, so one of the most likely meanings is VAL[L]I, "of the Wall". Omitting one of a pair of double consonants is common on Roman inscriptions; moreover, an error in the transcription of a written note could be the reason: another similar bronze vessel, known as the Rudge Cup
Rudge Cup
(found in Wiltshire in the 18th century) has VN missing from the name VXELODVNVM, for example, although the letters appear on the Staffordshire Moorlands Pan. The Rudge Cup
Rudge Cup
only bears fort names. The name AELI was Hadrian's nomen, his main family name, the gens Aelia. The Roman bridge and fort at Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
was called Pons Aelius. DRACONIS can be translated as "[by the hand – or property] of Draco". It was normal for Roman manufacturers to give their names in the genitive ("of"), and "by the hand" would be understood. The form is common, for example, on Samian ware. The translation, therefore, could be:

Mais, Coggabata, Uxelodunum, Camboglanna, according to the line of Aelian wall. [By the hand or The property] of Draco.

Another possibility is that the individual's name was Aelius Draco, which would only leave us with an unspecified vallum, "wall". Forts[edit] The Latin and Romano-Celtic names of all of the Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
forts are known, from the Notitia Dignitatum
Notitia Dignitatum
and other evidence such as inscriptions:

Segedunum
Segedunum
(Wallsend) Pons Aelius
Pons Aelius
(Newcastle upon Tyne) Condercum
Condercum
( Benwell
Benwell
Hill) Vindobala
Vindobala
(Rudchester)[31] Hunnum
Hunnum
(Halton Chesters)[31] Cilurnum
Cilurnum
( Chesters
Chesters
aka Walwick Chesters)[31] Procolita
Procolita
(Carrowburgh) Vercovicium
Vercovicium
(Housesteads) Aesica
Aesica
(Great Chesters)[31] Magnis (Carvoran) Banna (Birdoswald) Camboglanna
Camboglanna
(Castlesteads) Uxelodunum
Uxelodunum
(Stanwix. Also known as Petriana) Aballava
Aballava
(Burgh-by-Sands) Coggabata
Coggabata
(Drumburgh) Mais (Bowness-on-Solway)

Turrets
Turrets
on the wall include:

Leahill Turret

Outpost forts beyond the wall include:

Habitancum
Habitancum
(Risingham) Bremenium
Bremenium
(High Rochester)[31] Fanum Cocidi (Bewcastle) (north of Birdoswald) Ad Fines (Chew Green)[32]

Supply forts behind the wall include:

Alauna (Maryport) Arbeia
Arbeia
(South Shields) Coria (Corbridge) Vindolanda
Vindolanda
(Little Chesters
Chesters
or Chesterholm)[31] Vindomora
Vindomora
(Ebchester)[31]

In popular culture[edit]

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Books

Nobel Prize–winning English author Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
contributed to the popular image of the "Great Pict Wall" in his short stories about Parnesius, a Roman legionary who defended the Wall against the Picts.[citation needed] These stories are a part of the Puck of Pook's Hill cycle, published in 1906. American author George R. R. Martin
George R. R. Martin
has acknowledged that Hadrian's Wall was the inspiration for The Wall in his best-selling series A Song of Ice and Fire, dramatised in the fantasy TV series Game of Thrones, which is also in the north of its country and stretches from coast to coast.[33] In M J Trow's fictional Britannia series, Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
is the central location and portrays Coel Hen and Padarn Beisrudd as limitanei.

Movies

The 1991 American romantic action adventure film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves in the location of Sycamore gap. The wall has also been featured in recent films such as Centurion
Centurion
and The Eagle, and was a major focal point of the 2004 King Arthur
King Arthur
in which one of the primary gates is opened for the first time since the wall's construction to allow Arthur and his knights passage into the north for their quest. The climactic Battle of Badon between the Britons led by Arthur and his knights, and the Saxons led by Cerdic and his son Cynric took place in the film just inside the wall. The 2007 action adventure film The Last Legion
The Last Legion
featured Hadrian's wall as the place where the final battle takes place. The 2008 science fiction film Doomsday featured Hadrian's wall rebuilt to quarantine Scotland because of a deadly virus. The 2015 film "Dragonheart 3: The Sorcerer's Curse" features Hadrian's wall as a main thematic element.

Music

The opening track from Maxim's first solo effort Hell's Kitchen is named "Hadrian's Wall".[34] The second track on the English-American hard rock band Black Country Communion second album is called "The Battle for Hadrian's Wall". The lyrics reference outposts separated by a mile each, such as "We sit in waiting every mile on Hadrian's Wall".

Television

The final episode in the Blackadder
Blackadder
series is the television film Blackadder: Back & Forth. In this episode, Blackadder
Blackadder
and Baldrick attempt to collect significant historical souvenirs in order to win a bet. During their adventures, they take note at their own ancestors, one of which is a Roman defender of Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
who makes slight remarks of the wall's unimpressive (modern) height. Billy Connolly
Billy Connolly
World tour of England Ireland and Wales episode 4, Billy left Ireland and came to Northumberland
Northumberland
on Roman road and he's on Hadrian's wall on the rainy day before Billy came to Newcastle 2002. On the NBC show "Grimm," in the 2015-2016 season, the protagonist group that helps to fight the antagonist is called "H.W." short for "Hadrian's Wall."

Video Game

Barbarians and wolves attack Hadrian's Wall. Scene from the iOS game Vindac, Version 1.0.

Vindac is a Latin Language preposition game set at Hadrian's Wall. Gamers cast Latin preposition spells by gesture at barbaric foes.

Poetry

British poet W. H. Auden
W. H. Auden
wrote a script for a BBC radio documentary called Hadrian's Wall, which was broadcast on BBC's north-eastern Regional Programme in 1937. Auden later published a poem from the script, "Roman Wall Blues," in his book Another Time. The poem is a brief monologue spoken in the voice of a lonely Roman soldier stationed at the wall.

Other media

Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
is the name of a Barrier ICE card in the card game Android: Netrunner.[35]

See also[edit]

In 2010, to commemorate the 1600th anniversary of the end of Roman rule in Britain, a series of 500 beacons were lit along the length of the wall

Anastasian Wall
Anastasian Wall
(in Turkey) Anglo-Scottish border Antonine Wall Athanaric's Wall
Athanaric's Wall
(in Romania) Berlin Wall Danevirke English Heritage
English Heritage
properties Gask Ridge Great Wall (other) Great Wall of China Great Wall of Gorgan
Great Wall of Gorgan
(in Iran) Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path Hadrianic Society History of Northumberland History of Scotland Limes List of walls Offa's Dyke Roman Britain Rudge Cup Scots' Dike Silesian Walls
Silesian Walls
(in Poland) Trajan's Wall
Trajan's Wall
(in Romania) Via Hadriana

References[edit]

^ "obituary:Brian Dobson". Daily Telegraph. 21 September 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2012.  ^ "Hadrian's Wall: A horde of ancient treasures make for a compelling new Cumbrian exhibition". The Independent. 8 November 2016.  ^ "More than 25,000 people see Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
lit up". BBC. 8 November 2016.  ^ [1] ^ Rohl, Darrell, Jesse. "More than a Roman Monument: A Place-centred Approach to the Long-term History and Archaeology of the Antonine Wall" (PDF). Durham Theses. Durham University. Available at Durham E-Theses Online ref: 9458. Retrieved 14 October 2017.  ^ "Wall gains World Heritage status'" BBC News. Retrieved 8 July 2008. ^ Frontiers of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
- UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre ^ English Heritage. 30 Surprising Facts About Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Retrieved 18 March 2017. ^ "BBC – History – Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Gallery". Bbc.co.uk. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Breeze, David J (November 2006). Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th – November 2006 ed.). Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne (1934). ISBN 0-901082-65-1.  ^ Breeze, D.J. (2004). "Roman military sites on the Cumbrian coast". In R.J.A. Wilson and I.D Caruana, eds. Romans on the Solway : essays in honour of Richard Bellhouse. CWAAS Extra Series, vol.31. Kendal: Cumberland
Cumberland
and Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society on behalf of the Trustees of the Senhouse Roman Museum, Maryport. pp. 1–231, p.66–94. ISBN 1873124392. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ a b c d e f g Anthony Everitt, Hadrian
Hadrian
and the Triumph of Rome (2009), Random House, Inc, 448 pages; ISBN 0-8129-7814-5. ^ Unknown. "11.2". Scriptores Historiae Augustae. Vita Hadriani.  ^ Stephen Johnson (2004) Hadrian's Wall, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc, 128 pages, ISBN 0-7134-8840-9 ^ Breeze, D.J.; Dobson, B. (2000). Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(4 ed.). London: Penguin Books. p. 86. ISBN 978-0140271829.  ^ Wilson, 271. ^ Woolliscroft, D., 1989, "Signalling and the design of Hadrian's Wall", Archaeologia Aeliana 5th Series, Vol. XVII, pp. 5–20. ^ a b c d Breeze, David J (1934). Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th – November 2006 ed.). Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne. pp. 55–62. ISBN 0-901082-65-1.  ^ Simpson, F G; Richmond, I A; St Joseph, K (1935), "Report of the Cumberland
Cumberland
Excavation Committee for 1934", Transactions of the Cumberland
Cumberland
& Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, new series, Titus Wilson & Son, 35: 220–32  ^ Simpson, F G; MacIntyre, J (1933), "Report of the Cumberland Excavation Committee for 1932", Transactions of the Cumberland
Cumberland
& Westmorland Antiquarian & Archaeological Society, new series, Titus Wilson & Son, 33: 262–70  ^ Breeze, David J. (1934), Handbook to the Roman Wall (14th – November 2006 ed.), Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne, p. 53, ISBN 0-901082-65-1  ^ Sheppard Frere
Sheppard Frere
(1980). Britannia. Routlege & Kegan Paul. pp. 158–160. ISBN 0-7100-8916-3.  ^ Simon Schama
Simon Schama
(2000). A History of Britain. BBC Worldwide Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-563-38497-2.  ^ "Wall of Severus". Dot-domesday.me.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  ^ "Hadrian's Wall". English-lakes.com. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre. "Frontiers of the Roman Empire". Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ " Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path". National Trails. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ "Every Footstep Counts – The Trail's Country Code". Hadrians Wall Path National Trail. Retrieved 26 November 2007.  ^ Sycamore Gap, a section of the wall between two crests just east of Milecastle
Milecastle
39, is locally known as the " Robin Hood
Robin Hood
Tree" for its use in the 1991 film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves (1991). ^ "Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, vallum". Perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  ^ a b c d e f g Note the suffix "chester", reflecting the presence of a Roman castra. ^ "GENUKI: The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868) – Northumberland". Genuki.bpears.org.uk. 3 August 2010. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 26 March 2013.  ^ Martin, George R.R. "A Conversation With George R.R. Martin". The SF Site. Retrieved 10 September 2011.  ^ "MAXIM : HELLS KITCHEN - the album, scans and info". Nekozine.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-04-12.  ^ " Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
- Core - Android: Netrunner LCG - Android: Netrunner Card Spoilers". Cardgamedb.com. Retrieved 2016-04-12. 

Sources[edit]

Burton, Anthony Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path. 2004 Aurum Press Ltd. ISBN 1-85410-893-X. Davies, Hunter A Walk along the Wall, 1974 Wiedenfield and Nicolson: London ISBN 0 297 76710 0. de la Bédoyère, Guy. Hadrian's Wall: A History and Guide. Stroud: Tempus, 1998. ISBN 0-7524-1407-0. England's Roman Frontier: Discovering Carlisle and Hadrian's Wall Country. Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Heritage Ltd and Carlisle Tourism Partnership. 2010. Forde-Johnston, James L. Hadrian's Wall. London: Michael Joseph, 1978. ISBN 0-7181-1652-6. Hadrian's Wall Path
Hadrian's Wall Path
(map). Harvey, 12–22 Main Street, Doune, Perthshire FK16 6BJ. harveymaps.co.uk Speed Maps – A set of Speed's maps were issued bound in a single volume in 1988 in association with the British Library and with an introduction by Nigel Nicolson as 'The Counties of Britain A Tudor Atlas by John Speed'. Moffat, Alistair, The Wall. 2008 Birlinn Limited Press. ISBN 1-84158-675-7. Tomlin, R. S. O., "Inscriptions" in Britannia (2004), vol. xxxv, pp. 344–5 (the Staffordshire Moorlands cup naming the Wall). Wilson, Roger J.A., A Guide to the Roman Remains in Britain. London: Constable & Company, 1980; ISBN 0-09-463260-X. Charlotte Higgins (2014). Under Another Sky Chapter 7. London, UK: Vintage. ISBN 978-0-099552-09-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hadrian's Wall.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hadrian's Wall.

In Our Time Radio series with Greg Woolf, Professor of Ancient History at the University of St Andrews, David Breeze, Former Chief Inspector of Ancient Monuments for Scotland and Visiting Professor of Archaeology at the University of Durham and Lindsay Allason-Jones, Former Reader in Roman Material Culture at the University of Newcastle Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
on the Official Northumberland
Northumberland
Visitor website Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Discussion Forum UNESCO
UNESCO
Frontiers of the Roman Empire News on the Wall path English Lakes article iRomans—website with interactive map of Cumbrian section of Hadrian Wall Connecting Light—art installation

v t e

Structures of Hadrian's Wall

Milecastles

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 50TW 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

Milefortlets

MF 1 MF 2 MF 3 MF 4 MF 5 MF 9 MF 10 MF 11 MF 12 MF 13 MF 14 MF 15 MF 16 MF 17 MF 18 MF 19 MF 20 MF 21 MF 22 MF 23 MF 24 MF 25

Other structures on Hadrian's Wall

Portgate Planetrees ( Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
section) Chesters
Chesters
Bridge Limestone
Limestone
Corner Knag Burn Gateway Peel Gap Tower Willowford Bridge Pike Hill Signal Tower

Regular and linear features

Vallum Military Way Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
Path Turrets

v t e

Forts of Hadrian's Wall

Wall Forts (East to West)

Segedunum Pons Aelius Condercum Vindobala Onnum Cilurnum Procolita Vercovicium Aesica Magnae Banna Camboglanna Uxelodunum Aballava Coggabata Maia

Outpost Forts

Habitancum Fanum Cocidi Castra
Castra
Exploratorum Blatobulgium

Stanegate
Stanegate
Forts

Corstopitum Newbrough Vindolanda Haltwhistle Burn Magnis Throp Nether Denton Castle Hill Boothby Brampton Old Church Luguvalium

Supply Forts

Alauna Arbeia Coria Vindomora

Cumbrian Coast Forts (North to South)

Bibra Alauna Burrow Walls Gabrosentum

v t e

World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom

England

Bath Blenheim Palace Canterbury Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey and St. Martin's Church Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Derwent Valley Mills Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Cathedral Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Hadrian's Wall

Ironbridge Gorge Jurassic Coast Kew Royal Botanic Gardens Lake District Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Maritime Greenwich Saltaire Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and Fountains Abbey Tower of London Westminster Palace, Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
and St. Margaret's Church

Scotland

Edinburgh Old Town and New Town Forth Bridge Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Antonine Wall

Heart of Neolithic
Neolithic
Orkney New Lanark St. Kilda

Wales

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I in Gwynedd Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Northern Ireland

Giant's Causeway

British Overseas Territories

Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
Complex Gough Island Inaccessible Island Henderson Island Town of St. George and Related Fortifications

v t e

English Heritage
English Heritage
sites in Cumbria

Dating from Neolithic/ Bronze Age

Castlerigg Stone Circle King Arthur's Round Table Mayburgh Henge

Dating from Roman Britain

Ambleside Roman Fort Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
(including Banks East Turret, Birdoswald
Birdoswald
Roman Fort, Brougham Roman fort, Hare Hill, Harrows Scar Milecastle
Milecastle
and Wall, King's Stables ( Milecastle
Milecastle
48), Leahill Turret
Turret
and Piper Sike Turret, Pike Hill Signal Tower, Willowford Wall Turrets
Turrets
and Bridge) Hardknott Roman Fort Ravenglass Roman Bath House

Dating from the Middle Ages

Bow Bridge Brough Castle Brougham Castle Carlisle Castle Clifton Hall Furness Abbey Lanercost Priory Penrith Castle Piel Castle Shap Abbey Wetheral Priory Gatehouse

Dating from the 17th Century onwards

Countess Pillar Stott Park Bobbin Mill

Coordinates: 55°01′27″N 2°17′33″W / 55.02417°N 2.29250°W /

.