Ḥadīth (/ˈhædɪθ/ or /hɑːˈdiːθ/; Arabic: حديث
ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth, also
Islam denotes the words, actions, and the silent
approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within
Islam the authority
of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law ranks inferior only to the
Qur'an — which Muslims hold to be the word of
Allah revealed to his
messenger Muhammad. The significance of the hadith comes from the
instruction of the
Qur'an (in verses such as 24:54, 33:21) to emulate,
obey, and abide by, the judgement of Muhammad.
Ḥadīth is the Arabic word for speech, report, account,
narrative.  :471 Unlike the Qur'an, Ahadith accounts are not
held to be divine revelation, and were not written down by Muhammad's
followers immediately after his death but several generations later.
They are not a single text by a single author, but from the early
formation of the Islamic era they would come to be, collected,
collated and compiled into a great corpus of Islamic literature, and
the Aḥādīth, the Ḥadīth collections would come to differentiate
the different branches of the Islamic faith. A small minority of
Quranists reject all Ḥadīth.
Because the vast number of ahadith include questionable and even
contradictory statements, the authentication of ahadith became a major
field of study in Islam. A hadith has two parts in its classic
form, the chain of narrators who have transmitted the report (the
isnad), and the main text of the report (the matn).
Individual hadith are classified by Muslim clerics and jurists as
sahih ("authentic"), hasan ("good") or da'if ("weak"). However,
different groups and different scholars may classify a hadith
A manuscript copy of al-Bukhari,
Mamluk era, 13th century, Egypt.
Adilnor Collection, Sweden.
Among some scholars of
Sunni Islam the term hadith may include not
only the words, advice, practices, etc. of Muhammad, but also those of
his companions. In
Shia Islam Ḥadīth is the embodiment of
the sunnah, the words and actions of the Prophet and his family the
Ahl al-Bayt (
The Twelve Imams
The Twelve Imams and the Prophet's daughter,
2.1 Distinction with Sunnah
Hadith and Quran
4 Components, schools, types
4.3 Different schools
5 History, tradition and usage
5.2 Shia and Sunni textual traditions
5.2.1 Extent and nature in the Sunni tradition
5.2.2 Extent and nature in the Shia tradition
5.3 Modern usage
6.1 Terminology: admissible and inadmissible hadiths
6.2 Biographical evaluation
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Part of a series on
Life in Mecca
Migration to Medina
Life in Medina
Milestones and records
Conquest of Mecca
Isra and Mi'raj
Splitting of the moon
Miracles of Muhammad
Hadith (Pen and Paper)
Muhammad in the Bible
Mosque of the prophet
In Arabic, the noun ḥadīth (حديث
IPA: [ħæˈdiːθ]) means "report", "account", or
"narrative". Its Arabic plural is aḥādīth (أحاديث
Hadith also refers to the speech of a
In Islamic terminology, according to Juan Campo, the term hadith
refers to reports of statements or actions of Muhammad, or of his
tacit approval or criticism of something said or done in his
Classical hadith specialist
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani says that the
intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something
Muhammad but that is not found in the Quran.
Other associated words possess similar meanings including: khabar
(news, information) often refers to reports about Muhammad, but
sometimes refers to traditions about his companions and their
successors from the following generation; conversely, athar (trace,
vestige) usually refers to traditions about the companions and
successors, though sometimes connotes traditions about Muhammad.
Collections of hadith are not necessarily exclusively hadith of
Muwatta Imam Malik
Muwatta Imam Malik is usually described as "the earliest
written collection of hadith" but sayings of Muhamad are “blended
with the sayings of the companions” In Introduction to
Abd al-Hadi al-Fadli, Kitab
Ali is referred to as "the first hadith
book of the
Ahl al-Bayt to be written on the authority of the
However, according to the
Shia Islam Ahlul Bayt Digital Library
Project, "... when there is no clear Qur’anic statement, nor is
Hadith upon which Muslim schools have agreed. ... Shi’a ...
refer to Ahlul-Bayt for deriving the
Sunnah of Prophet" — implying
Hadith in limited to the "Traditions" of Muhammad, the Shia
Sunna draws on the sayings, etc. of the Ahlul-Bayt or Imams of Shia
Distinction with Sunnah
The word sunnah (custom or "all the traditions and practices" of the
Islamic prophet that "have become models to be followed" by Muslims)
is also used in reference to a normative custom of
Muhammad or the
early Muslim community.
Some sources (Khaled Abou El Fadl) limit hadith to verbal reports,
with the deeds of
Muhammad and reports about his companions being part
Sunnah not hadith.
Another source (Joseph A. Islam) distinguishes between the two saying:
Whereas the 'Hadith' is an oral communication that is allegedly
derived from the Prophet or his teachings, the 'Sunna' (quite
literally: mode of life, behaviour or example) signifies the
prevailing customs of a particular community or people. ... A 'Sunna'
is a practice which has been passed on by a community from generation
to generation en masse, whereas the Ahadith are reports collected by
later compilers often centuries removed from the source. ... A
practice which is contained within the
Hadith may well be regarded as
Sunna, but it is not necessary that a Sunna would have a supporting
hadith sanctioning it.
See also: Categories of Ahadith
Hadith and Quran
The theological importance of ahadith comes from several verses in the
Quran such as:
Allah and obey the Messenger, but if you turn away, he (the
Prophet) is only responsible for the duty placed on him (i.e. to
convey Allah’s Message) and you for that placed on you. If you obey
him, you shall be on the right guidance. The Messenger’s duty is
only to convey (the message) in a clear way. (An-Nur 24:54)
In God's messenger you have indeed a good example for everyone who
looks forward with hope to God and the Last Day, and remembers God
unceasingly. (Al-Ahzab 33: 21)
Hadith are also regarded by Muslims as important tools for
Quran and commentaries (tafsir) written on it. Some
important elements, which are today taken to be a long-held part of
normative traditional Islamic practice and belief — for example, the
detailed ritual practice of the five salat (obligatory Islamic
prayers) — are in fact not mentioned in the
Qur'an at all, but are
derived solely from the hadith. Hadithists (i.e. believers in
hadith, i.e. almost all Muslims), therefore, maintain that the ahadith
are a necessary requirement for the true and proper practice of Islam,
as it gives Muslims the nuanced details of Islamic practice and belief
in areas where the
Qur'an is silent. Quranists, on the contrary, hold
the critical view on hadith that anything on which the
silent is deliberate because
Allah did not hold its detail to be of
consequence, and in the case of ahadith that contradict the Qur'an,
more so should those ahadith be forcefully rejected outright as a
corruption of Islam.
In the classical example of salat (obligatory Islamic prayers), where
salat is commanded in the Qur'an, all Muslims agree that salat is an
obligatory part of Islamic religious practice. Divergence among
Muslims arises, therefore, in how salat is performed. According to
hadithists, the details and instructions of how to correctly perform
salat, so as to, in their view, "validly" fulfill the Qur'anic command
of performing salat, can only be found in the ahadith. Despite this,
salat is nonetheless performed differently by different hadithist
Islamic sects, depending on which hadith collection each hadithist
sect relies upon. Quranists, for their part, leave the detail of salat
to be a matter between each individual Muslim and Allah, with salat
performance done to each Muslim's own individual understanding,
interpretation and need. In the Quranists' view, as the
deliberately silent on the details of salat,
Allah did not hold its
detail to be of consequence, so correctly performed salat lies not in
any supposed correct details of the performance of prayer, but on a
correct intention to perform the prayers, valid however it may be
Among most hadithists, the importance of ahadith is secondary to
Qur'an given that, at least in theory, an Islamic conflict of laws
doctrine holds Qur'anic supremacy above ahadith in developing Islamic
jurisprudence. However, a minority of hadithists have historically
placed ahadith on a par with the Qur'an. A smaller minority have
upheld ahadith in contradiction to the Qur'an, thereby placing ahadith
Qur'an and claiming that contradictory ahadith abrogate the
parts of the
Qur'an where they conflict.
The hadith literature is based on spoken reports in circulation after
the death of Muhammad. Unlike the Qur'an, ahadith were not promptly
written down during Muhammad's life or immediately after his death.
Hadith were evaluated and gathered into large collections during the
8th and 9th centuries, generations after the death of Muhammad, after
the end of the era of the "rightful"
Rashidun Caliphate, over
1,000 km (620 mi) from where
Components, schools, types
The hadith had a profound and controversial influence on moulding the
commentaries (tafsir) of the Quran. The earliest commentary of the
Quran known as
Tafsir Ibn Abbas is sometimes attributed to the
companion Ibn Abbas.
The hadith were used in forming the basis of
Sharia (the religious law
system forming part of the Islamic tradition), and the hadith are at
the root of why there is no single
Sharia system, but rather a
collection of parallel
Sharia systems within Islam.
Much of early Islamic history available today is also based on the
hadith and is challenged for lack of basis in primary source material,
as well as internal contradictions of the secondary material
Hadith may be hadith qudsi (sacred hadith) — which some Muslims
regard as the words of God (Arabic: Allah) — or hadith sharif (noble
hadith), which are Muhammad's own utterances.
According to as-Sayyid ash-Sharif al-Jurjani, the hadith qudsi differ
Quran in that the former are "expressed in Muhammad's words",
whereas the latter are the "direct words of God". A hadith qudsi need
not be a sahih (sound hadith), but may be da‘if or even
An example of a hadith qudsi is the hadith of
Abu Hurairah who said
When God decreed the Creation He pledged Himself by writing in His
book which is laid down with Him: My mercy prevails over My
wrath.[non-primary source needed]
The two major aspects of a hadith are the text of the report (the
matn), which contains the actual narrative, and the chain of narrators
(the isnad), which documents the route by which the report has been
transmitted. The isnad was an effort to document that a hadith
had actually come from Muhammad, and Muslim scholars from the eighth
century until today have never ceased repeating the mantra "The isnad
is part of the religion — if not for the isnad, whoever wanted could
say whatever they wanted." The isnad means literally 'support', and
it is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it
in determining the authenticity or weakness of a hadith. The isnad
consists of a chronological list of the narrators, each mentioning the
one from whom they heard the hadith, until mentioning the originator
of the matn along with the matn itself.
The first people to hear hadith were the companions who preserved it
and then conveyed it to those after them. Then the generation
following them received it, thus conveying it to those after them and
so on. So a companion would say, "I heard the Prophet say such and
such." The Follower would then say, "I heard a companion say, 'I heard
the Prophet.'" The one after him would then say, "I heard someone say,
'I heard a Companion say, 'I heard the Prophet..." and so on.
Different branches of
Islam refer to different collections of hadith,
though the same incident may be found in hadith in different
In the Sunni branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections are the
six books, of which
Sahih al-Bukhari and
Sahih Muslim generally have
the highest status. The other books of hadith are Sunan Abu Dawood,
Al-Sunan al-Sughra and Sunan ibn Majah. However the
Malikis, one of the four Sunni "schools of thought" (madhhabs),
Sunan ibn Majah
Sunan ibn Majah and assert the canonical status
of Muwatta Imam Malik.
Twelver Shi'a branch of Islam, the canonical hadith collections
are the Four Books: Kitab al-Kafi, Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih, Tahdhib
al-Ahkam, and Al-Istibsar.
Ibadi branch of Islam, the main canonical collection is the
Tartib al-Musnad. This is an expansion of the earlier Jami Sahih
collection, which retains canonical status in its own right.
Ismaili shia sects use the
Daim al-Islam as hadith collections.
Ahmadiyya sect generally rely on the Sunni canons.
Some minor groups, collectively known as Quranists, reject the
authority of the hadith collections altogether.
In general, the difference between Shi'a and Sunni collections is that
Shia give preference to ahadith credited to the Prophet's family and
close associates (Ahl al-Bayt), while Sunnis do not consider family
lineage in evaluating a
Sunnah narrated by any of twelve
thousand companions of Muhammad.
History, tradition and usage
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Traditions of the life of
Muhammad and the early history of
passed down mostly orally for more than a hundred years after
Muhammad's death in AD 632. Muslim historians say that
ibn Affan (the third khalifa (caliph) of the
Rashidun Caliphate, or
third successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been Muhammad's
secretary), is generally believed to urge Muslims to record the hadith
Muhammad suggested to some of his followers to write down his
words and actions.
Uthman's labours were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of
aggrieved soldiers, in 656. No sources survive directly from this
period so we are dependent on what later writers tell us about this
According to British historian of Arab world Alfred Guillaume, it is
"certain" that "several small collections" of hadith were "assembled
in Umayyad times."
In 851 the rationalist
Mu`tazila school of thought fell from favor in
the Abbasid Caliphate. The Mu`tazila, for whom the
"judge of truth ... was human reason," had clashed with
traditionists who looked to the literal meaning of the
hadith for truth. While the
Quran had been officially compiled and
approved, hadiths had not. One result was the number of hadiths began
"multiplying in suspiciously direct correlation to their utility" to
the quoter of the hadith (Traditionists quoted hadith warning against
listening to human opinion instead of Sharia; Hanafites quoted a
hadith stating that "In my community there will rise a man called Abu
Hanafite founder] who will be its guiding light". In fact
one agreed upon hadith warned that, "There will be forgers, liars who
will bring you hadiths which neither you nor your forefathers have
heard, Beware of them." In addition the number of hadith grew
Malik ibn Anas
Malik ibn Anas had attributed just 1720 statements
or deeds to the Muhammad, it was no longer unusual to find people who
had collected a hundred times that number of hadith.
Faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions supported
differing views on a variety of controversial matters—some of them
flatly contradicting each other—Islamic scholars of the Abbasid
sought to authenticate hadith. Scholars had to decide which hadith
were to be trusted as authentic and which had been invented for
political or theological purposes. To do this, they used a number of
techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.
Shia and Sunni textual traditions
Part of a series on
Oneness of God
Day of Resurrection
Profession of faith
Texts and laws
Sunnah (Hadith, Sirah)
Spread of Islam
Culture and society
Criticism of Islam
Islam and other religions
Sunni and Shia hadith collections differ because scholars from the two
traditions differ as to the reliability of the narrators and
transmitters. Narrators who took the side of
Abu Bakr and
than Ali, in the disputes over leadership that followed the death of
Muhammad, are seen as unreliable by the Shia; narrations sourced to
Ali and the family of Muhammad, and to their supporters, are
preferred. Sunni scholars put trust in narrators, such as Aisha, whom
Shia reject. Differences in hadith collections have contributed to
differences in worship practices and shari'a law and have hardened the
dividing line between the two traditions.
Extent and nature in the Sunni tradition
In the Sunni tradition, the number of such texts is ten thousand plus
or minus a few thousand. But if, say, ten companions record a text
reporting a single incident in the life of Muhammad, hadith scholars
can count this as ten hadiths. So Musnad Ahmad, for example, has over
30,000 hadiths—but this count includes texts that are repeated in
order to record slight variations within the text or within the chains
of narrations. Identifying the narrators of the various texts,
comparing their narrations of the same texts to identify both the
soundest reporting of a text and the reporters who are most sound in
their reporting occupied experts of hadith throughout the 2nd century.
In the 3rd century of
Islam (from 225/840 to about 275/889),
hadith experts composed brief works recording a selection of about
two- to five-thousand such texts which they felt to have been most
soundly documented or most widely referred to in the Muslim scholarly
community. The 4th and 5th century saw these six works being
commented on quite widely. This auxiliary literature has contributed
to making their study the place of departure for any serious study of
hadith. In addition, Bukhari and Muslim in particular, claimed that
they were collecting only the soundest of sound hadiths. These later
scholars tested their claims and agreed to them, so that today, they
are considered the most reliable collections of hadith. Toward the
end of the 5th century,
Ibn al-Qaisarani formally standardized the
Sunni canon into six pivotal works, a delineation which remains to
Over the centuries, several different categories of collections came
into existence. Some are more general, like the muṣannaf, the
muʿjam, and the jāmiʿ, and some more specific, either characterized
by the topics treated, like the sunan (restricted to legal-liturgical
traditions), or by its composition, like the arbaʿīniyyāt
(collections of forty hadiths).
Extent and nature in the Shia tradition
Shi'a Muslims do not use the six major hadith collections followed by
the Sunni, as they do not trust many of the Sunni narrators and
transmitters. They have their own extensive hadith literature. The
best-known hadith collections are The Four Books, which were compiled
by three authors who are known as the 'Three Muhammads'. The Four
Kitab al-Kafi by
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni al-Razi
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih
Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih by
Muhammad ibn Babuya and
Al-Istibsar both by Shaykh
Muhammad Tusi. Shi'a clerics
also make use of extensive collections and commentaries by later
Unlike Sunnis, Shia do not consider any of their hadith collections to
be sahih (authentic) in their entirety. Therefore, every individual
hadith in a specific collection must be investigated separately to
determine its authenticity.
The mainstream sects consider hadith to be essential supplements to,
and clarifications of, the Quran, Islam's holy book, as well as for
clarifying issues pertaining to Islamic jurisprudence. Ibn al-Salah, a
hadith specialist, described the relationship between hadith and other
aspect of the religion by saying: "It is the science most pervasive in
respect to the other sciences in their various branches, in particular
to jurisprudence being the most important of them." "The intended
meaning of 'other sciences' here are those pertaining to religion,"
explains Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, "Quranic exegesis, hadith, and
jurisprudence. The science of hadith became the most pervasive due to
the need displayed by each of these three sciences. The need hadith
has of its science is apparent. As for Quranic exegesis, then the
preferred manner of explaining the speech of God is by means of what
has been accepted as a statement of Muhammad. The one looking to this
is in need of distinguishing the acceptable from the unacceptable.
Regarding jurisprudence, then the jurist is in need of citing as an
evidence the acceptable to the exception of the later, something only
possible utilizing the science of hadith."
According to Bernard Lewis, "in the early Islamic centuries there
could be no better way of promoting a cause, an opinion, or a faction
than to cite an appropriate action or utterance of the Prophet." To
fight these forgeries, the elaborate science of hadith studies was
Hadith studies use a number of methods of evaluation
developed by early Muslim scholars in determining the veracity of
reports attributed to Muhammad. This is achieved by analyzing the text
of the report, the scale of the report's transmission, the routes
through which the report was transmitted, and the individual narrators
involved in its transmission. On the basis of these criteria, various
classifications were devised for hadith. The earliest comprehensive
work in hadith studies was Abu
Muhammad al-Ramahurmuzi's al-Muhaddith
al-Fasil, while another significant work was al-Hakim al-Naysaburi's
Ma‘rifat ‘ulum al-hadith. Ibn al-Salah's ʻUlum al-hadith is
considered the standard classical reference on hadith studies.
Terminology: admissible and inadmissible hadiths
By means of hadith terminology, hadith are categorized as ṣaḥīḥ
(sound, authentic), ḍaʿīf (weak), or mawḍūʿ (fabricated).
Other classifications used also include: ḥasan (good), which refers
to an otherwise ṣaḥīḥ report suffering from minor deficiency,
or a weak report strengthened due to numerous other corroborating
reports; and munkar (denounced) which is a report that is rejected due
to the presence of an unreliable transmitter contradicting another
more reliable narrator. Both sahīh and hasan reports are
considered acceptable for usage in Islamic legal discourse.
Classifications of hadith may also be based upon the scale of
transmission. Reports that pass through many reliable transmitters at
each point in the isnad up until their collection and transcription
are known as mutawātir. These reports are considered the most
authoritative as they pass through so many different routes that
collusion between all of the transmitters becomes an impossibility.
Reports not meeting this standard are known as aahad, and are of
several different types.
Main article: Biographical evaluation
Another area of focus in the study of hadith is biographical analysis
(‘ilm al-rijāl, lit. "science of people"), in which details about
the transmitter are scrutinized. This includes analyzing their date
and place of birth; familial connections; teachers and students;
religiosity; moral behaviour; literary output; their travels; as well
as their date of death. Based upon these criteria, the reliability
(thiqāt) of the transmitter is assessed. Also determined is whether
the individual was actually able to transmit the report, which is
deduced from their contemporaneity and geographical proximity with the
other transmitters in the chain. Examples of biographical
dictionaries include: Abd al-Ghani al-Maqdisi's Al-Kamal fi Asma'
al-Rijal, Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani's Tahdhīb al-Tahdhīb and
al-Dhahabi's Tadhkirat al-huffaz.
Main article: Criticism of Hadith
Goldziher on Hadīth
The major points of intra-Muslim criticism of the
Hadith literature is
based in questions regarding its authenticity. However, Muslim
criticism of ahadith is also based on theological and philosophical
Islamic grounds of argument and critique.
Muslim scholars have a long history of questioning the Hadith
literature throughout Islamic history. Western academics also became
active in the field later on.
List of hadith authors and commentators
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^ See the references and discussion by Abdul Fattah Abu Ghuddah
Thalathatu rasa'il fi ulum al-hadith; risalat abi dawud ila ahl
makkata fi wasf sunanihi, pg 36, footnote. Beirut: Maktaba al-Matbu'at
al-Islamiyah: 2nd ed 1426/2005.
^ The earliest book, Bukhari's Sahih was composed by 225/840 since he
states that he spent sixteen years composing it (Hady al-Sari,
introduction to Fath al-Bari, p. 489, Lahore: Dar Nashr al-Kutub
al-Islamiya, 1981/1401) and also that he showed it to Yahya ibn Ma'in
(p. 8, ibid.) who died in 233. Nasa'i, the last to die of the authors
of the six books, died in 303/915. He probably completed this work a
few decades before his death: by 275 or so.
^ Counting multiple narrations of the same texts as a single text, the
number of hadiths each author has recorded roughly as follows: Bukhari
(as in Zabidi's Mukhtasar of Bukhari's book) 2134, Muslim (as in
Mundhiri's Mukhtasar of Muslim's book) 2200, Tirmidhi 4000, Abu Dawud
4000, Nasa'i 4800,
Ibn Majah 4300. There is considerable overlap
amongst the six books so that Ibn al-Athir's Jami' al-Usul, which
gathers together the hadiths texts of all six books deleting repeated
texts, has about 9500 hadiths.
^ Muqaddimah Ibn al-Salah, p. 160 Dar al-Ma’aarif edition
^ Ignác Goldziher, Muslim Studies, vol. 2, p. 240. Halle, 1889-1890.
^ Scott C. Lucas, Constructive Critics, Ḥadīth Literature, and the
Articulation of Sunnī Islam, p. 106. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2004.
^ Ibn Khallikan's Biographical Dictionary, translated by William
McGuckin de Slane. Paris: Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain
and Ireland. Sold by
Institut de France
Institut de France and Royal Library of Belgium.
Vol. 3, p. 5.
Muhammad Zubayr Siddiqi,
Hadith Literature, Cambridge, Islamic Texts
Society, 1993, edited and revised by Abdal Hakim Murad.
^ Momen, Moojan, Introduction to Shi'i Islam, Yale University Press,
^ Mohammad A. Shomali (2003). Shi'i Islam: Origins, Faith and
Practices (reprint ed.). ICAS Press. p. 35.
^ Ulum al-
Hadith by Ibn al-Salah, p. 5, Dar al-Fikr, with the
verification of Nur al-Din al-‘Itr.
^ Lewis, Bernard (2011). The End of Modern History in the Middle East.
Hoover Institution Press. p. 79-80. Retrieved 28 March
"Hadith," Encyclopedia of
"Hadith," Encyclopedia of
Islam and the Muslim world.
^ Berg (2000) p. 8
Robinson (2003) pp. 69–70;
Lucas (2004) p. 15
^ B. Hallaq, Wael (1999). "The Authenticity of Prophetic Ḥadîth: A
Pseudo-Problem". Studia Islamica. No. 89 (1999): 75–90.
JSTOR 1596086. (Registration required (help)).
Berg, H. (2000). The development of exegesis in early Islam: the
authenticity of Muslim literature from the formative period.
Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1224-0.
Brown, Jonathan A. C. (2004). "Criticism of the Proto-
Al-daraqutni's Adjustment of the Sahihayn". Journal of Islamic
Studies. 15 (1): 1–37. doi:10.1093/jis/15.1.1.
Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2007). The Canonization of al-Bukhārī and
Muslim (PDF). Leiden, Netherlands: Brill. ISBN 9789004158399.
Retrieved 3 October 2017.
Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval
and Modern World (Foundations of Islam). Oneworld Publications.
Lucas, S. (2004). Constructive Critics,
Hadith Literature, and the
Articulation of Sunni Islam. Brill Academic Publishers.
Robinson, C. F. (2003). Islamic Historiography. Cambridge University
Press. ISBN 0-521-62936-5.
Robson, J. "Hadith". In P.J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E.
van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of
Islam Online. Brill
Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912.
Senturk, Recep (2005). Narrative Social Structure: Anatomy of the
Hadith Transmission Network, 610-1505. Stanford, CA: Stanford
University Press. ISBN 9780804752077.
Swarup, Ram (1983). Understanding
Islam through Hadis. New Delhi:
Voice of India. ISBN 9788185990736. Retrieved 3 October
1000 Qudsi Hadiths: An Encyclopedia of Divine Sayings; New York:
Arabic Virtual Translation Center; (2012) ISBN 978-1-4700-2994-4
Hallaq, Wael B. (1999). "The Authenticity of Prophetic Ḥadîth: A
Pseudo-Problem". Studia Islamica (89): 75–90. doi:10.2307/1596086.
ISSN 0585-5292. JSTOR 1596086.
Brown, J. (2007). The Canonization of al-Bukhari and Muslim: The
Formation and Function of the Sunni
Hadith Canon. Leiden: Brill, 2007.
Brown, J. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern
World. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 978-1851686636.
Juynboll, G. H. A. (2007). Encyclopedia of Canonical Hadith. Leiden:
Lucas, S. (2002). The Arts of
Hadith Compilation and Criticism.
University of Chicago. OCLC 62284281.
Musa, A. Y.
Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on The Authority Of
Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008.
Fred M. Donner, Narratives of Islamic Origins (1998)
Tottoli, Roberto, "Hadith", in
Muhammad in History, Thought, and
Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (2 vols.), Edited by C.
Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol I,
Look up hadith in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hadith
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Importance of hadith
Hadith – Search by keyword and find hadith by narrator
Hadith by Narrator – Find hadith by narrators
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Hadith app, All 13 ahadith books
"Hadith". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
"Hadis". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920.
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