The Info List - H. G. Wells

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Herbert George Wells[3][4] (21 September 1866 – 13 August 1946), usually referred to as H. G. Wells, was an English writer. He was prolific in many genres, writing dozens of novels, short stories, and works of social commentary, satire, biography, and autobiography, including even two books on war games. He is now best remembered for his science fiction novels and is often called a "father of science fiction", along with Jules Verne
Jules Verne
and Hugo Gernsback.[5][6][a] During his own lifetime, however, he was most prominent as a forward-looking, even prophetic social critic who devoted his literary talents to the development of a progressive vision on a global scale. A futurist, he wrote a number of utopian works and foresaw the advent of airplanes, tanks, space travel, nuclear weapons, satellite television and something resembling the World Wide Web.[7] His science fiction imagined time travel, alien invasion, invisibility, and biological engineering. Brian Aldiss
Brian Aldiss
referred to Wells as the "Shakespeare of science fiction”.[8] His most notable science fiction works include The Time Machine
The Time Machine
(1895), The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(1897), and The War of the Worlds (1898). He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
four times.[9] Wells's earliest specialised training was in biology, and his thinking on ethical matters took place in a specifically and fundamentally Darwinian context.[10] He was also from an early date an outspoken socialist, often (but not always, as at the beginning of the First World War) sympathising with pacifist views. His later works became increasingly political and didactic, and he wrote little science fiction, while he sometimes indicated on official documents that his profession was that of journalist.[11] Novels like Kipps and The History of Mr Polly, which describe lower-middle-class life, led to the suggestion that he was a worthy successor to Charles Dickens,[12] but Wells described a range of social strata and even attempted, in Tono-Bungay
(1909), a diagnosis of English society
English society
as a whole. A diabetic, in 1934, Wells co-founded the charity The Diabetic Association (known today as Diabetes UK).


1 Life

1.1 Early life 1.2 Teacher 1.3 Personal life 1.4 Artist 1.5 Writer 1.6 Final years 1.7 Death

2 Political views 3 Religious views 4 Literary influence 5 Representations

5.1 Literary 5.2 Dramatic

6 Literary papers 7 Bibliography 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Life[edit] Early life[edit] Herbert George Wells was born at Atlas House, 162 High Street in Bromley, Kent,[13] on 21 September 1866.[4] Called "Bertie" in the family, he was the fourth and last child of Joseph Wells (a former domestic gardener, and at the time a shopkeeper and professional cricketer) and his wife, Sarah Neal (a former domestic servant). An inheritance had allowed the family to acquire a shop in which they sold china and sporting goods, although it failed to prosper: the stock was old and worn out, and the location was poor. Joseph Wells managed to earn a meagre income, but little of it came from the shop and he received an unsteady amount of money from playing professional cricket for the Kent
county team.[14] Payment for skilled bowlers and batsmen came from voluntary donations afterwards, or from small payments from the clubs where matches were played. A defining incident of young Wells's life was an accident in 1874 that left him bedridden with a broken leg.[4] To pass the time he started reading books from the local library, brought to him by his father. He soon became devoted to the other worlds and lives to which books gave him access; they also stimulated his desire to write. Later that year he entered Thomas Morley's Commercial Academy, a private school founded in 1849 following the bankruptcy of Morley's earlier school. The teaching was erratic, the curriculum mostly focused, Wells later said, on producing copperplate handwriting and doing the sort of sums useful to tradesmen. Wells continued at Morley's Academy until 1880. In 1877, his father, Joseph Wells, fractured his thigh. The accident effectively put an end to Joseph's career as a cricketer, and his subsequent earnings as a shopkeeper were not enough to compensate for the loss of the primary source of family income.[15]

Wells spent the winter of 1887/88 convalescing at Uppark, where his mother, Sarah, was housekeeper.[16]

No longer able to support themselves financially, the family instead sought to place their sons as apprentices in various occupations.[17] From 1880 to 1883, Wells had an unhappy apprenticeship as a draper at the Southsea
Drapery Emporium, Hyde's.[18] His experiences at Hyde's, where he worked a thirteen-hour day and slept in a dormitory with other apprentices,[13] later inspired his novels The Wheels of Chance and Kipps, which portray the life of a draper's apprentice as well as providing a critique of society's distribution of wealth.[19] Wells's parents had a turbulent marriage, owing primarily to his mother being a Protestant and his father a freethinker. When his mother returned to work as a lady's maid (at Uppark, a country house in Sussex), one of the conditions of work was that she would not be permitted to have living space for her husband and children. Thereafter, she and Joseph lived separate lives, though they never divorced and remained faithful to each other. As a consequence, Herbert's personal troubles increased as he subsequently failed as a draper and also, later, as a chemist's assistant. Fortunately for Herbert, Uppark
had a magnificent library in which he immersed himself, reading many classic works, including Plato's Republic, Thomas More's Utopia, and the works of Daniel Defoe.[20] This would be the beginning of Herbert George Wells's venture into literature. Teacher[edit]

Wells studying in London c. 1890

In October 1879, Wells's mother arranged through a distant relative, Arthur Williams, for him to join the National School at Wookey
in Somerset as a pupil–teacher, a senior pupil who acted as a teacher of younger children.[18] In December that year, however, Williams was dismissed for irregularities in his qualifications and Wells was returned to Uppark. After a short apprenticeship at a chemist in nearby Midhurst
and an even shorter stay as a boarder at Midhurst Grammar School, he signed his apprenticeship papers at Hyde's. In 1883, Wells persuaded his parents to release him from the apprenticeship, taking an opportunity offered by Midhurst
Grammar School again to become a pupil–teacher; his proficiency in Latin and science during his previous, short stay had been remembered.[14][18] The years he spent in Southsea
had been the most miserable of his life to that point, but his good fortune at securing a position at Midhurst Grammar School meant that Wells could continue his self-education in earnest.[14] The following year, Wells won a scholarship to the Normal School of Science (later the Royal College of Science
Royal College of Science
in South Kensington, now part of Imperial College London) in London, studying biology under Thomas Henry Huxley.[21] As an alumnus, he later helped to set up the Royal College of Science
Royal College of Science
Association, of which he became the first president in 1909. Wells studied in his new school until 1887 with a weekly allowance of 21 shillings (a guinea) thanks to his scholarship. This ought to have been a comfortable sum of money (at the time many working class families had "round about a pound a week" as their entire household income)[22] yet in his Experiment in Autobiography, Wells speaks of constantly being hungry, and indeed, photographs of him at the time show a youth who is very thin and malnourished.[23]

H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
in 1907 at the door of his house at Sandgate

He soon entered the Debating Society of the school. These years mark the beginning of his interest in a possible reformation of society. At first approaching the subject through Plato's Republic, he soon turned to contemporary ideas of socialism as expressed by the recently formed Fabian Society
Fabian Society
and free lectures delivered at Kelmscott House, the home of William Morris. He was also among the founders of The Science School Journal, a school magazine that allowed him to express his views on literature and society, as well as trying his hand at fiction; a precursor to his novel The Time Machine
The Time Machine
was published in the journal under the title The Chronic Argonauts. The school year 1886–87 was the last year of his studies.[21] During 1888, Wells stayed in Stoke-on-Trent, living in Basford. The unique environment of The Potteries
The Potteries
was certainly an inspiration. He wrote in a letter to a friend from the area that "the district made an immense impression on me." The inspiration for some of his descriptions in The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
is thought to have come from his short time spent here, seeing the iron foundry furnaces burn over the city, shooting huge red light into the skies. His stay in The Potteries also resulted in the macabre short story "The Cone" (1895, contemporaneous with his famous The Time Machine), set in the north of the city.[24] After teaching for some time, Wells found it necessary to supplement his knowledge relating to educational principles and methodology and entered the College of Preceptors (College of Teachers). He later received his Licentiate and Fellowship FCP diplomas from the College. It was not until 1890 that Wells earned a Bachelor of Science degree in zoology from the University of London
University of London
External Programme. In 1889–90, he managed to find a post as a teacher at Henley House School, where he taught A. A. Milne.[25][26] His first published work was a Text-Book of Biology
in two volumes (1893).[27] Upon leaving the Normal School of Science, Wells was left without a source of income. His aunt Mary—his father's sister-in-law—invited him to stay with her for a while, which solved his immediate problem of accommodation. During his stay at his aunt's residence, he grew increasingly interested in her daughter, Isabel. He would later go on to court her. To earn money he began writing short humorous articles for journals such as The Pall Mall Gazette, later collecting these in volume form as Select Conversations with an Uncle (1895) and Certain Personal Matters (1897). So prolific did Wells become at this mode of journalism that many of his early pieces remain unidentified. According to David C Smith, "Most of Wells's occasional pieces have not been collected, and many have not even been identified as his. Wells did not automatically receive the byline his reputation demanded until after 1896 or so ... As a result, many of his early pieces are unknown. It is obvious that many early Wells items have been lost."[28] His success with these shorter pieces encouraged him to write book-length work, and he published his first novel, The Time Machine, in 1895.[29] Personal life[edit]

141 Maybury Rd, Woking, where Wells lived from May 1895 until late 1896.[30]

In 1891, Wells married his cousin Isabel Mary Wells. The couple agreed to separate in 1894 when he fell in love with one of his students, Amy Catherine Robbins (later known as Jane), with whom he moved to Woking, Surrey in May 1895. They lived in a rented house, 'Lynton', (now No.141) Maybury Road in the town centre for just under 18 months[31] and married at St Pancras register office in October 1895.[32] His short period in Woking
was perhaps the most creative and productive of his whole writing career,[31] for while there he planned and wrote The War of the Worlds
War of the Worlds
and The Time Machine, completed The Island of Dr Moreau, wrote and published The Wonderful Visit
The Wonderful Visit
and The Wheels of Chance, and began writing two other early books, When The Sleeper Wakes and Love and Mr Lewisham.[31][33] In late summer 1896, Wells and Jane moved to a larger house in Worcester Park, near Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames
for two years until his poor health took them to Sandgate, near Folkestone, where in 1901 he constructed a large family home: Spade House. He had two sons with Jane: George Philip (known as "Gip") in 1901 (died 1985) and Frank Richard in 1903 (died 1982).[34] With his wife Jane's consent, Wells had affairs with a number of women, including the American birth control activist Margaret Sanger, adventurer and writer Odette Keun, Soviet spy Moura Budberg
Moura Budberg
and novelist Elizabeth von Arnim.[35] In 1909, he had a daughter, Anna-Jane, with the writer Amber Reeves,[36] whose parents, William and Maud Pember Reeves, he had met through the Fabian Society; and in 1914, a son, Anthony West (1914–1987), by the novelist and feminist Rebecca West, 26 years his junior.[37] After Beatrice Webb
Beatrice Webb
voiced disapproval of Wells' "sordid intrigue" with the daughter of veteran Fabian Sidney Olivier, he responded by lampooning Beatrice Webb
Beatrice Webb
and her husband Sidney Webb in his 1911 novel The New Machiavelli as 'Altiora and Oscar Bailey', a pair of short-sighted, bourgeois manipulators. In Experiment in Autobiography
Experiment in Autobiography
(1934), Wells wrote: "I was never a great amorist, though I have loved several people very deeply".[38] David Lodge's novel A Man of Parts (2011) – a 'narrative based on factual sources' (author's note) – gives a convincing and generally sympathetic account of Wells's relations with the women mentioned above, and others.[39] Director Simon Wells (born 1961), the author's great-grandson, was a consultant on the future scenes in Back to the Future Part II
Back to the Future Part II
(1989).[40] Artist[edit] One of the ways that Wells expressed himself was through his drawings and sketches. One common location for these was the endpapers and title pages of his own diaries, and they covered a wide variety of topics, from political commentary to his feelings toward his literary contemporaries and his current romantic interests. During his marriage to Amy Catherine, whom he nicknamed Jane, he drew a considerable number of pictures, many of them being overt comments on their marriage. During this period, he called these pictures "picshuas".[41] These picshuas have been the topic of study by Wells scholars for many years, and in 2006, a book was published on the subject.[42] Writer[edit]

Statue of a tripod from The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
in Woking, England, the hometown of H. G. Wells. The book is a seminal depiction of a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race.

Some of his early novels, called "scientific romances", invented several themes now classic in science fiction in such works as The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds, When the Sleeper Wakes, and The First Men in the Moon. He also wrote realistic novels that received critical acclaim, including Kipps and a critique of English culture during the Edwardian period, Tono-Bungay. Wells also wrote dozens of short stories and novellas, including, "The Flowering of the Strange Orchid", which helped bring the full impact of Darwin's revolutionary botanical ideas to a wider public, and was followed by many later successes such as "The Country of the Blind" (1904).[43] According to James Gunn, one of Wells's major contributions to the science fiction genre was his approach, which he referred to as his "new system of ideas".[44] In his opinion, the author should always strive to make the story as credible as possible, even if both the writer and the reader knew certain elements are impossible, allowing the reader to accept the ideas as something that could really happen, today referred to as "the plausible impossible" and "suspension of disbelief". While neither invisibility nor time travel was new in speculative fiction, Wells added a sense of realism to the concepts which the readers were not familiar with. He conceived the idea of using a vehicle that allows an operator to travel purposely and selectively forwards or backwards in time. The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now almost universally used to refer to such a vehicle.[20] He explained that while writing The Time Machine, he realized that "the more impossible the story I had to tell, the more ordinary must be the setting, and the circumstances in which I now set the Time Traveller were all that I could imagine of solid upper-class comforts."[45] In "Wells's Law", a science fiction story should contain only a single extraordinary assumption. Being aware the notion of magic as something real had disappeared from society, he, therefore, used scientific ideas and theories as a substitute for magic to justify the impossible. Wells's best-known statement of the "law" appears in his introduction to The Scientific Romances of H.G. Wells (1933),

"As soon as the magic trick has been done the whole business of the fantasy writer is to keep everything else human and real. Touches of prosaic detail are imperative and a rigorous adherence to the hypothesis. Any extra fantasy outside the cardinal assumption immediately gives a touch of irresponsible silliness to the invention."[46]

Dr. Griffin / The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
is a brilliant research scientist who discovers a method of invisibility, but finds himself unable to reverse the process. An enthusiast of random and irresponsible violence, Griffin has become an iconic character in horror fiction.[47] The Island of Doctor Moreau
The Island of Doctor Moreau
sees a shipwrecked man left on the island home of Doctor Moreau, a mad scientist who creates human-like hybrid beings from animals via vivisection.[48] The earliest depiction of uplift, the novel deals with a number of philosophical themes, including pain and cruelty, moral responsibility, human identity, and human interference with nature.[49] Though Tono-Bungay
is not a science-fiction novel, radioactive decay plays a small but consequential role in it. Radioactive decay plays a much larger role in The World Set Free (1914). This book contains what is surely his biggest prophetic "hit", with the first description of a nuclear weapon.[50] Scientists of the day were well aware that the natural decay of radium releases energy at a slow rate over thousands of years. The rate of release is too slow to have practical utility, but the total amount released is huge. Wells's novel revolves around an (unspecified) invention that accelerates the process of radioactive decay, producing bombs that explode with no more than the force of ordinary high explosives—but which "continue to explode" for days on end. "Nothing could have been more obvious to the people of the earlier twentieth century", he wrote, "than the rapidity with which war was becoming impossible ... [but] they did not see it until the atomic bombs burst in their fumbling hands".[50] In 1932, the physicist and conceiver of nuclear chain reaction Leó Szilárd
Leó Szilárd
read The World Set Free (the same year Sir James Chadwick
James Chadwick
discovered the neutron), a book which he said made a great impression on him.[51]

The H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
crater, located on the far side of the Moon, was named after the author of The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon
(1901) in 1970

Wells also wrote nonfiction. Wells's first nonfiction bestseller was Anticipations
of the Reaction of Mechanical and Scientific Progress upon Human Life and Thought (1901). When originally serialised in a magazine it was subtitled, "An Experiment in Prophecy", and is considered his most explicitly futuristic work. It offered the immediate political message of the privileged sections of society continuing to bar capable men from other classes from advancement until war would force a need to employ those most able, rather than the traditional upper classes, as leaders. Anticipating what the world would be like in the year 2000, the book is interesting both for its hits (trains and cars resulting in the dispersion of populations from cities to suburbs; moral restrictions declining as men and women seek greater sexual freedom; the defeat of German militarism, and the existence of a European Union) and its misses (he did not expect successful aircraft before 1950, and averred that "my imagination refuses to see any sort of submarine doing anything but suffocate its crew and founder at sea").[52][53] His bestselling two-volume work, The Outline of History
The Outline of History
(1920), began a new era of popularised world history. It received a mixed critical response from professional historians.[54] However, it was very popular amongst the general population and made Wells a rich man. Many other authors followed with "Outlines" of their own in other subjects. Wells reprised his Outline in 1922 with a much shorter popular work, A Short History of the World, a history book praised by Albert Einstein,[55] and two long efforts, The Science of Life
The Science of Life
(1930) and The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind (1931).[56][57] The "Outlines" became sufficiently common for James Thurber
James Thurber
to parody the trend in his humorous essay, "An Outline of Scientists"—indeed, Wells's Outline of History remains in print with a new 2005 edition, while A Short History of the World has been re-edited (2006).[58] From quite early in his career, he sought a better way to organise society and wrote a number of Utopian novels. The first of these was A Modern Utopia
(1905), which shows a worldwide utopia with "no imports but meteorites, and no exports at all";[59] two travellers from our world fall into its alternate history. The others usually begin with the world rushing to catastrophe, until people realise a better way of living: whether by mysterious gases from a comet causing people to behave rationally and abandoning a European war (In the Days of the Comet
(1906)), or a world council of scientists taking over, as in The Shape of Things to Come
Things to Come
(1933, which he later adapted for the 1936 Alexander Korda
Alexander Korda
film, Things to Come). This depicted, all too accurately, the impending World War, with cities being destroyed by aerial bombs. He also portrayed the rise of fascist dictators in The Autocracy of Mr Parham (1930) and The Holy Terror (1939). Men Like Gods (1923) is also a utopian novel. Wells in this period was regarded as an enormously influential figure; the critic Malcolm Cowley
Malcolm Cowley
stated: "by the time he was forty, his influence was wider than any other living English writer".[60]

H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
c. 1918

Wells contemplates the ideas of nature and nurture and questions humanity in books such as The Island of Doctor Moreau. Not all his scientific romances ended in a Utopia, and Wells also wrote a dystopian novel, When the Sleeper Wakes
When the Sleeper Wakes
(1899, rewritten as The Sleeper Awakes, 1910), which pictures a future society where the classes have become more and more separated, leading to a revolt of the masses against the rulers.[61] The Island of Doctor Moreau
The Island of Doctor Moreau
is even darker. The narrator, having been trapped on an island of animals vivisected (unsuccessfully) into human beings, eventually returns to England; like Gulliver on his return from the Houyhnhnms, he finds himself unable to shake off the perceptions of his fellow humans as barely civilised beasts, slowly reverting to their animal natures.[62] Wells also wrote the preface for the first edition of W. N. P. Barbellion's diaries, The Journal of a Disappointed Man, published in 1919. Since "Barbellion" was the real author's pen name, many reviewers believed Wells to have been the true author of the Journal; Wells always denied this, despite being full of praise for the diaries.[63] In 1927, a Canadian teacher and writer Florence Deeks
Florence Deeks
unsuccessfully sued Wells for infringement of copyright and breach of trust, claiming that much of The Outline of History
The Outline of History
had been plagiarised from her unpublished manuscript,[64] The Web of the World's Romance, which had spent nearly nine months in the hands of Wells's Canadian publisher, Macmillan Canada.[65] However, it was sworn on oath at the trial that the manuscript remained in Toronto in the safekeeping of Macmillan, and that Wells did not even know it existed, let alone having seen it.[66] The court found no proof of copying, and decided the similarities were due to the fact that the books had similar nature and both writers had access to the same sources.[67] In 2000, A. B. McKillop, a professor of history at Carleton University, produced a book on the case, The Spinster & The Prophet: Florence Deeks, H. G. Wells, and the Mystery of the Purloined Past.[68] According to McKillop, the lawsuit was unsuccessful due to the prejudice against a woman suing a well-known and famous male author, and he paints a detailed story based on the circumstantial evidence of the case.[69] In 2004, Denis N. Magnusson, Professor Emeritus of the Faculty of Law, Queen's University, Ontario, published an article on Deeks v. Wells. This re-examines the case in relation to McKillop's book. While having some sympathy for Deeks, he argues that she had a weak case that was not well presented, and though she may have met with sexism from her lawyers, she received a fair trial, adding that the law applied is essentially the same law that would be applied to a similar case today (i.e., 2004).[70]

Plaque by the H. G. Wells Society
H. G. Wells Society
at Chiltern Court, Baker Street in the City of Westminster, London, where Wells lived between 1930 and 1936

In 1933, Wells predicted in The Shape of Things to Come
The Shape of Things to Come
that the world war he feared would begin in January 1940,[71] a prediction which ultimately came true four months early, in September 1939, with the outbreak of World War II.[72] In 1936, before the Royal Institution, Wells called for the compilation of a constantly growing and changing World Encyclopaedia, to be reviewed by outstanding authorities and made accessible to every human being. In 1938, he published a collection of essays on the future organisation of knowledge and education, World Brain, including the essay, "The Idea of a Permanent World Encyclopaedia".[73] Prior to 1933, Wells's books were widely read in Germany and Austria, and most of his science fiction works had been translated shortly after publication.[74] By 1933, he had attracted the attention of German officials because of his criticism of the political situation in Germany, and on 10 May 1933, Wells's books were burned by the Nazi youth in Berlin's Opernplatz, and his works were banned from libraries and bookstores.[74] Wells, as president of PEN International
PEN International
(Poets, Essayists, Novelists), angered the Nazis by overseeing the expulsion of the German PEN club from the international body in 1934 following the German PEN's refusal to admit non- Aryan
writers to its membership. At a PEN conference in Ragusa, Wells refused to yield to Nazi sympathisers who demanded that the exiled author Ernst Toller
Ernst Toller
be prevented from speaking.[74] Near the end of the World War II, Allied forces discovered that the SS had compiled lists of people slated for immediate arrest during the invasion of Britain in the abandoned Operation Sea Lion, with Wells included in the alphabetical list of "The Black Book".[75] Seeking a more structured way to play war games, Wells also wrote Floor Games (1911) followed by Little Wars
Little Wars
(1913), which set out rules for fighting battles with toy soldiers (miniatures).[76] Little Wars is recognised today as the first recreational war game and Wells is regarded by gamers and hobbyists as "the Father of Miniature War Gaming".[77] A pacifist prior to WWI, Wells stated "how much better is this amiable miniature [war] than the real thing".[76] According to Wells, the idea of the miniature war game developed from a visit by his friend Jerome K. Jerome. After dinner, Jerome began shooting down toy soldiers with a toy cannon and Wells joined in to compete.[76] Final years[edit]

H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
in 1943

Wells's literary reputation declined as he spent his later years promoting causes that were rejected by most of his contemporaries as well as by younger authors whom he had previously influenced. In this connection, George Orwell
George Orwell
described Wells as "too sane to understand the modern world".[78] G. K. Chesterton
G. K. Chesterton
quipped: "Mr Wells is a born storyteller who has sold his birthright for a pot of message".[79] Wells had diabetes,[80] and was a co-founder in 1934 of The Diabetic Association (now Diabetes UK, the leading charity for people with diabetes in the UK).[81] On 28 October 1940, on the radio station KTSA in San Antonio, Texas, Wells took part in a radio interview with Orson Welles, who two years previously had performed a famous radio adaptation of The War of the Worlds. During the interview, by Charles C Shaw, a KTSA radio host, Wells admitted his surprise at the widespread panic that resulted from the broadcast but acknowledged his debt to Welles for increasing sales of one of his "more obscure" titles.[82] Death[edit]

Wells’ final home in Regent’s Park, London

Wells died of unspecified causes on 13 August 1946, aged 79, at his home at 13 Hanover Terrace, overlooking Regent's Park, London.[83][84] Some reports also say he died of a heart attack at the flat of a friend in London. In his preface to the 1941 edition of The War in the Air, Wells had stated that his epitaph should be: "I told you so. You damned fools".[85] Wells' body was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium on 16 August 1946; its ashes were subsequently scattered into the English Channel
English Channel
at "Old Harry Rocks".[86] A commemorative blue plaque in his honour was installed at his home in Regent's Park
Regent's Park
in 1966.[87] Political views[edit] Main article: Political views of H.G. Wells

An avid reader of Wells' books, Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
wrote to the author in 1906, stating "I owe you a great debt", two days before giving an early landmark speech that the state should support its citizens, providing pensions, insurance and child welfare.[88]

Wells's contemporary political impact was limited, excluding his fiction's positivist stance on the leaps that could be made by physics towards world peace. Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
was an avid reader of Wells' books, and after they first met in 1902 they kept in touch until Wells died in 1946.[88] As a junior minister Churchill borrowed lines from Wells for one of his most famous early landmark speeches in 1906, and as Prime Minister the phrase "the gathering storm" — used by Churchill to describe the rise of Nazi Germany — had been written by Wells in The War of the Worlds, which depicts an attack on Britain by Martians.[88] Wells's extensive writings on equality and human rights, most notably his most influential work, The Rights of Man (1940), laid the groundwork for the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which was adopted by the United Nations shortly after his death.[89][90] His efforts regarding the League of Nations, on which he collaborated on the project with Leonard Woolf
Leonard Woolf
with the booklets The Idea of a League of Nations, Prolegomena to the Study of World Organization, and The Way of the League of Nations, became a disappointment as the organization turned out to be a weak one unable to prevent the Second World War, which itself occurred towards the very end of his life and only increased the pessimistic side of his nature.[91] In his last book Mind at the End of Its Tether
Mind at the End of Its Tether
(1945), he considered the idea that humanity being replaced by another species might not be a bad idea. He referred to the era between the two World Wars as "The Age of Frustration".[92] Religious views[edit] Wells wrote in his book God the Invisible King (1917) that his idea of God did not draw upon the traditional religions of the world:

This book sets out as forcibly and exactly as possible the religious belief of the writer. [Which] is a profound belief in a personal and intimate God. ... Putting the leading idea of this book very roughly, these two antagonistic typical conceptions of God may be best contrasted by speaking of one of them as God-as-Nature or the Creator, and of the other as God-as-Christ or the Redeemer. One is the great Outward God; the other is the Inmost God. The first idea was perhaps developed most highly and completely in the God of Spinoza. It is a conception of God tending to pantheism, to an idea of a comprehensive God as ruling with justice rather than affection, to a conception of aloofness and awestriking worshipfulness. The second idea, which is opposed to this idea of an absolute God, is the God of the human heart. The writer would suggest that the great outline of the theological struggles of that phase of civilisation and world unity which produced Christianity, was a persistent but unsuccessful attempt to get these two different ideas of God into one focus.[93]

Later in the work, he aligns himself with a "renascent or modern religion ... neither atheist nor Buddhist nor Mohammedan nor Christian ... [that] he has found growing up in himself".[94] Of Christianity, he said: "it is not now true for me. ... Every believing Christian is, I am sure, my spiritual brother ... but if systemically I called myself a Christian I feel that to most men I should imply too much and so tell a lie". Of other world religions, he writes: "All these religions are true for me as Canterbury Cathedral is a true thing and as a Swiss chalet is a true thing. There they are, and they have served a purpose, they have worked. Only they are not true for me to live in them. ... They do not work for me".[95] In The Fate of Homo Sapiens, published in 1939, Wells criticised almost all world religions and philosophies, stating "there is no creed, no way of living left in the world at all, that really meets the needs of the time… When we come to look at them coolly and dispassionately, all the main religions, patriotic, moral and customary systems in which human beings are sheltering today, appear to be in a state of jostling and mutually destructive movement, like the houses and palaces and other buildings of some vast, sprawling city overtaken by a landslide.[96] Literary influence[edit]

H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
as depicted in Gernsback's Science Wonder Stories
Science Wonder Stories
in 1929

The science fiction historian John Clute
John Clute
describes Wells as "the most important writer the genre has yet seen", and notes his work has been central to both British and American science fiction.[97] Science fiction author and critic Algis Budrys
Algis Budrys
said Wells "remains the outstanding expositor of both the hope, and the despair, which are embodied in the technology and which are the major facts of life in our world".[98] He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature
Nobel Prize in Literature
in 1921, 1932, 1935, and 1946.[9] In Britain, Wells's work was a key model for the British "Scientific Romance", and other writers in that mode, such as Olaf Stapledon,[99] J. D. Beresford,[100] S. Fowler Wright,[101] and Naomi Mitchison,[102] all drew on Wells's example. Wells was also an important influence on British science fiction of the period after the Second World War, with Arthur C. Clarke[103] and Brian Aldiss[104] expressing strong admiration for Wells's work. He also had a strong influence on British scientist J. B. S. Haldane, who wrote Daedalus; or, Science and the Future
(1924), "The Last Judgement" and "On Being the Right Size" from the essay collection Possible Worlds (1927), and Biological Possibilities for the Human Species in the Next Ten Thousand Years (1963), which are speculations about the future of human evolution and life on other planets. Haldane gave several lectures about these topics which in turn influenced other science fiction writers.[105][106]

Wells's works were reprinted in American science fiction magazines as late as the 1950s

In the United States, Hugo Gernsback
Hugo Gernsback
reprinted most of Wells's work in the pulp magazine Amazing Stories, regarding Wells's work as "texts of central importance to the self-conscious new genre".[97] Later American writers such as Ray Bradbury,[107] Isaac Asimov,[108] Frank Herbert[109] and Ursula K. Le Guin[110] all recalled being influenced by Wells's work. Sinclair Lewis's early novels were strongly influenced by Well's realistic social novels, such as The History of Mr Polly; Lewis would also name his first son Wells after the author.[111] In an interview with The Paris Review,[112] Vladimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov
described Wells as his favourite writer when he was a boy and as "a great artist."[112] He went on to cite The Passionate Friends, Ann Veronica, The Time Machine, and The Country of the Blind
The Country of the Blind
as superior to anything else written by Wells's British contemporaries. In an apparent allusion to Wells's socialism and political themes, Nabokov said: "His sociological cogitations can be safely ignored, of course, but his romances and fantasies are superb."[112]

2016 illustrated postal envelope with an image from The War of the Worlds, Russian Post, commemorating the 150th anniversary of the author's birth

Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
wrote many short pieces on Wells in which he demonstrates a deep familiarity with much of Wells's work.[113] While Borges wrote several critical reviews, including a mostly negative review of Wells's film Things to Come,[114] he regularly treated Wells as a canonical figure of fantastic literature. Late in his life, Borges included The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
and The Time Machine
The Time Machine
in his Prologue to a Personal Library,[115] a curated list of 100 great works of literature that he undertook at the behest of the Argentine publishing house Emecé. Canadian author Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood
read Wells' books,[62] and he also inspired writers of European speculative fiction such as Karel Čapek[110] and Yevgeny Zamyatin.[110]

Representations[edit] Literary[edit]

The superhuman protagonist of J. D. Beresford's 1911 novel, The Hampdenshire Wonder, Victor Stott, was based on Wells.[100] In M. P. Shiel's short story "The Primate of the Rose" (1928), there is an unpleasant womaniser named E. P. Crooks, who was written as a parody of Wells.[116] Wells had attacked Shiel's Prince Zaleski when it was published in 1895, and this was Shiel's response.[116] Wells praised Shiel's The Purple Cloud
The Purple Cloud
(1901); in turn Shiel expressed admiration for Wells, referring to him at a speech to the Horsham Rotary Club
Rotary Club
in 1933 as "my friend Mr. Wells".[116] In C. S. Lewis's novel That Hideous Strength
That Hideous Strength
(1945), the character Jules is a caricature of Wells,[117] and much of Lewis's science fiction was written both under the influence of Wells and as an antithesis to his work (or, as he put it, an "exorcism"[118] of the influence it had on him). In Brian Aldiss's novella The Saliva Tree (1966), Wells has a small off screen guest role.[119] In Saul Bellow's novel Mr. Sammler's Planet
Mr. Sammler's Planet
(1970), Wells is one of several historical figures the protagonist met when he was a young man.[120] In The Map of Time (2008) by Spanish author Félix J. Palma; Wells is one of several historical characters.[121] Wells is one of the two George's in Paul Levinson's 2013 time-travel novelette, "Ian, George, and George," published in Analog magazine.[122]


Rod Taylor
Rod Taylor
portrays Wells[123][124] in the 1960 science fiction film The Time Machine
The Time Machine
(based on the novel of the same name), in which Wells uses his time machine to try and find his Utopian society.[124] Malcolm McDowell
Malcolm McDowell
portrays Wells in the 1979 science fiction film Time After Time, in which Wells uses a time machine to pursue Jack the Ripper to the present day.[124] In the film, Wells meets "Amy" in the future who then returns to 1893 to become his second wife Amy Catherine Robbins. Wells is portrayed in the 1985 story Timelash
from the 22nd season of the BBC
science-fiction television series Doctor Who. In this story, Herbert, an enthusiastic temporary companion to the Doctor, is revealed to be a young H. G. Wells. The plot is loosely based upon the themes and characters of The Time Machine
The Time Machine
with references to The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
and The Island of Doctor Moreau. The story jokingly suggests that Wells's inspiration for his later novels came from his adventure with the Sixth Doctor.[125] In the BBC2
anthology series Encounters about imagined meetings between historical figures, Beautiful Lies, by Paul Pender (15 August 1992) centred on an acrimonious dinner party attended by Wells (Richard Todd), George Orwell
George Orwell
(Jon Finch), and William Empson (Patrick Ryecart). The character of Wells also appeared in several episodes of Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman
(1993–1997), usually pitted against the time-traveling villain known as Tempus (Lane Davies). Wells's younger self was played by Terry Kiser, and the older Wells was played by Hamilton Camp. In the British TV mini-series The Infinite Worlds of H.G. Wells (2001), several of Wells's short stories are dramatised but are adapted using Wells himself (Tom Ward) as the main protagonist in each story. In the Disney Channel Original Series Phil of the Future, which centers around time-travel, the present-day high school that the main characters attend is named "H.G. Wells".[126] In the 2006 television docudrama H G Wells: War with the World, Wells is played by Michael Sheen.[127] On the science fiction television series Warehouse 13
Warehouse 13
(2009–2014), there is a female version Helena G. Wells. When she appeared she explained that her brother was her front for her writing because a female science fiction author would not be accepted.[128] Comedian Paul F. Tompkins
Paul F. Tompkins
portrays a fictional Wells as the host of The Dead Authors Podcast, wherein Wells uses his time machine to bring dead authors (played by other comedians) to the present and interview them.[129][130] H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
as a young boy appears in the Legends of Tomorrow
Legends of Tomorrow
episode "The Magnificent Eight". In this story, the boy Wells is dying of consumption but is cured by a time-travelling Martin Stein. In the four part series The Nightmare Worlds of H. G. Wells (2016), Wells is played by Ray Winstone.[131] In the 2017 television series version of Time After Time, based on the 1979 film, H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
is portrayed by Freddie Stroma.[132]

Literary papers[edit] In 1954, the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
purchased the H. G Wells literary papers and correspondence collection.[133] The University's Rare Book & Manuscript Library holds the largest collection of Wells manuscripts, correspondence, first editions and publications in the United States.[134] Among these is an unpublished material and the manuscripts of such works as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. The collection includes first editions, revisions, translations. The letters contain general family correspondence, communications from publishers, material regarding the Fabian Society, and letters from politicians and public figures, most notably George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw
and Joseph Conrad.[133] Bibliography[edit] Main article: H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
bibliography Notes[edit]

^ Science fiction
Science fiction
magazine editors Hugo Gernsback
Hugo Gernsback
and John W. Campbell were the inaugural deceased members of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame, inducted in 1996 and followed annually by fiction writers Wells and Isaac Asimov, C. L. Moore
C. L. Moore
and Robert Heinlein, Abraham Merritt
Abraham Merritt
and Jules Verne.[135]


^ "Lost daughter of Wells' passion. (writer H.G. Wells) – Version details – Trove". Trove.nla.gov.au. 1996-08-11. Retrieved 2014-03-25.  ^ "Death Notice Summaries Available for Listings at A Memory Tree". Amemorytree.co.nz. Retrieved 2014-03-25.  ^ "Wells, H. G.". Revised 20 May 2015. The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction (sf-encyclopedia.com). Retrieved 2015-08-22. Entry by 'JC/BS', John Clute
John Clute
and Brian Stableford. ^ a b c Parrinder, Patrick (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press.  ^ Adam Charles Roberts (2000), "The History of Science Fiction", page 48. In Science Fiction, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-19204-8. ^ Siegel, Mark Richard (1988). Hugo Gernsback, Father of Modern Science Fiction: With Essays on Frank Herbert
Frank Herbert
and Bram Stoker. Borgo Pr. ISBN 0-89370-174-2.  ^ "HG Wells: A visionary who should be remembered for his social predictions, not just his scientific ones". The Independent. 9 October 2017.  ^ Wagar, W. Warren (2004). H.G. Wells: Traversing Time. Wesleyan University Press. p. 7.  ^ a b "Nomination Database: Herbert G Wells". Nobel Prize.org. Retrieved 19 March 2015. ^ Robert M. Philmus and David Y. Hughes, ed., H. G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1975), p. 179. ^ Vincent Brome, H. G. Wells: A Biography (London, New York, and Toronto: Longmans, Green, 1951). ^ Vincent Brome, H. G. Wells: A Biography (London, New York, and Toronto: Longmans, Green, 1951), p. 99. ^ a b Wells, H. G. (2005) [1905]. Claeys, Gregory; Parrinder, Patrick, eds. A Modern Utopia. Gregory Claeys, Francis Wheen, Andy Sawyer. Penguin Classics. ISBN 978-0-14-144112-2.  ^ a b c Smith, David C. (1986) H. G. Wells: Desperately mortal. A biography. Yale University Press, New Haven and London ISBN 0-300-03672-8 ^ "Sep. 21, 1866: Wells Springs Forth". Wired. 9 October 2017.  ^ Nairn, Ian; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1965). The Buildings of England: Sussex. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. pp. 358–60. ISBN 0-14-071028-0.  ^ "HG Wells: prophet of free love". The Guardian. 11 October 2017.  ^ a b c Wells, Geoffrey H. (1925). The Works of H. G. Wells. London: Routledge. p. xvi. ISBN 0-86012-096-1. OCLC 458934085.  ^ Batchelor, John (1985). H. G. Wells. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0-521-27804-X.  ^ a b Pilkington, Ace G. (2017). Science Fiction and Futurism: Their Terms and Ideas. McFarland. p. 137.  ^ a b Batchelor, John (1985). H. G. Wells. CUP Archive. p. 164.  ^ Reeves, M.S. Round About a Pound a Week. New York: Garland Pub., 1980. ISBN 0-8240-0119-2 Some of the text is available online. ^ Brome, Vincent (2008). H. G. Wells. House of Stratus. p. 180.  ^ John R. Hammond (22 July 2014). A Preface to H G Wells. Routledge. pp. 90–. ISBN 978-1-317-87701-1.  ^ "Hampstead: Education". A History of the County of Middlesex. 9: 159–169. 1989. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "A. A. Milne". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014.  ^ H.G. Wells Under Revision: Proceedings of the International H.G. Wells Symposium, London, July 1986. Associated University Presse. 1990. p. 123.  ^ David C Smith (1986). H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 35. ISBN 0300036728.  ^ Hammond, John R. (2004). H. G. Wells's The Time Machine: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 50. ^ "H.G. Wells and Woking". Celebrate Woking. Woking
Borough Council. 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2017. H.G. Wells arrived in Woking
in May 1895. He lived at 'Lynton', Maybury Road, Woking, which is now numbered 141 Maybury Road. Today, there is an English Heritage blue plaque displayed on the front wall of the property, which marks his period of residence.  ^ a b c Wells In Woking: 150th Anniversary 1866–2016: Free Souvenir Programme (PDF). Woking, Surrey: Woking
Borough Council. 2016. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 5 March 2017.  ^ Batchelor (1985: 165) ^ In the run-up to the 143rd anniversary of Wells's birth Google published a cartoon riddle series with the solution being the coordinates of Woking's nearby Horsell Common – the location of the Martian landings in The War Of The Worlds – described in newspaper article by Schofield, Jack (21 September 2009). "HG Wells – Google reveals answer to teaser doodles". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 March 2017.  ^ Wager, Warren W. (2004). H.G. Wells: Traversing Time. Wesleyan University Press. p. 295.  ^ Lynn, Andrea (2001). Shadow Lovers: The Last Affairs of H. G. Wells. Boulder, CO: Westview. pp. 10; 14; 47 et sec. ISBN 978-0-8133-3394-6.  ^ Margaret Drabble (1 April 2005). "A room of her own". The Guardian.  ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "H. G. Wells". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015.  ^ Wells, Herbert G. (1934). H.G. Wells: Experiment in Autobiography. New York: J. B. Lippincott Co.  ^ Lodge, David (2011). A Man of Parts. Random House.  ^ "Simon Wells". British Film Institute. 22 October 2017.  ^ "H. G. Wells' cartoons, a window on his second marriage, focus of new book Archives News Bureau". University of Illinois. 31 May 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ Rinkel, Gene and Margaret. The Picshuas of H. G. Wells: A burlesque diary. Urbana: University of Illinois
University of Illinois
Press, 2006. ISBN 0-252-03045-1 (cloth : acid-free paper). ^ "British Journal for the History of Science". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 17 June 2016 ^ The Man Who Invented Tomorrow In 1902, when Arnold Bennett was writing a long article for Cosmopolitan about Wells as a serious writer, Wells expressed his hope that Bennett would stress his "new system of ideas." Wells developed a theory to justify the way he wrote (he was fond of theories), and these theories helped others write in similar ways. ^ " The Time Machine
The Time Machine
- Scientists and Gentlemen - WriteWork". www.writework.com.  ^ D. Behlkar, Ratnakar (2009). Science Fiction: Fantasy
and Reality. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 19.  ^ The Science of Fiction and the Fiction of Science: Collected Essays on SF Storytelling and the Gnostic Imagination. McFarland. 2009. pp. 41, 42.  ^ "Novels: The Island of Doctor Moreau". Retrieved 16 October 2017.  ^ Barnes & Noble. "The Island of Doctor Moreau: Original and Unabridged". Barnes & Noble.  ^ a b Wells, Herbert George (2001). The Last War: A World Set Free. University of Nebraska Press. p. XIX.  ^ Richard Rhodes
Richard Rhodes
(1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 24. ISBN 0-684-81378-5.  ^ "Annual HG Wells Award for Outstanding Contributions to Transhumanism". Web.archive.org. 20 May 2009. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ Turner, Frank Miller (1993). "Public Science in Britain 1880–1919". Contesting Cultural Authority: Essays in Victorian Intellectual Life. Cambridge University Press. pp. 219–20. ISBN 0-521-37257-7.  ^ "The Outline of History—H. G. Wells". Cs.clemson.edu. 20 April 2003. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.  ^ Einstein, Albert (1994). "Education and World Peace, A Message to the Progressive Education Association, November 23, 1934". Ideas and Opinions: With An Introduction by Alan Lightman, Based on Mein Weltbild, edited by Carl Seelig, and Other Sources, New Translations and Revisions by Sonja Bargmann. New York: The Modern Library. p. 63.  ^ H.G. Wells, The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind (London: William Heinemann, 1932), p. 812. ^ "Wells, H. G. 1922. A Short History of the World". Bartleby.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.  ^ Wells, H. G. (2006). A Short History of the World. Penguin UK.  ^ A Modern Utopia ^ Cowley, Malcolm. "Outline of Wells's History." The New Republic
The New Republic
Vol. 81 Issue 1041, 14 November 1934 (pp. 22–23). ^ William Steinhoff, " Utopia
Reconsidered: Comments on 1984" 153, in Eric S. Rabkin, Martin H. Greenberg, and Joseph D. Olander, eds., No Place Else: Explorations in Utopian and Dystopian Fiction. ISBN 0-8093-1113-5. ^ a b Wells, H. G. (2005). The Island of Dr Moreau. "Fear and Trembling". Penguin UK. ^ "A Barbellion Chronology". Quotable Barbellion. Retrieved 21 October 2017 ^ At the time of the alleged infringement in 1919–20, unpublished works were protected in Canada under common law.Magnusson, Denis N. (Spring 2004). "Hell Hath No Fury: Copyright Lawyers' Lessons from Deeks v. Wells". Queen's Law Journal. 29: 692, note 39.  ^ Magnusson, Denis N. (Spring 2004). "Hell Hath No Fury: Copyright Lawyers' Lessons from Deeks v. Wells". Queen's Law Journal. 29: 682.  ^ Clarke, Arthur C. (March 1978). "Professor Irwin and the Deeks Affair". p. 91. Science Fiction Studies. SF-TH Inc. 5 ^ Florence A. Deeks v H.G. Wells... Supreme Court, p. 9. ^ McKillop, A. B. (2000) Macfarlane Walter & Ross, Toronto. ^ Deeks, Florence A. (1930s) "Plagiarism?" unpublished typescript, copy in Deeks Fonds, Baldwin Room, Toronto Reference Library, Toronto, Ontario. ^ Magnusson, Denis N. (Spring 2004). "Hell Hath No Fury: Copyright Lawyers' Lessons from Deeks v. Wells". Queen's Law Journal. 29: 680, 684.  ^ "9. The Last War Cyclone, 1940–50". The shape of things to come: the ultimate revolution (Penguin 2005 ed.). 1933. p. 208. ISBN 0-14-144104-6.  ^ Wagar, W. Warren (2004). H. G. Wells: traversing time. Middletown, Conn: Wesleyan University Press. p. 209. ISBN 0-8195-6725-6.  ^ Wells, H.G. (1938). World Brain. London: Methuen & Co., Ltd.; Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc. Ebook: World Brain ^ a b c Patrick Parrinder and John S. Partington (2005). The Reception of H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
in Europe. pp. 106–108. Bloomsbury Publishing. ^ Wells, Frank. H. G. Wells—A Pictorial Biography. London: Jupiter Books, 1977, p. 91. ^ a b c Rundle, Michael (9 April 2013). "How H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
Invented Modern War Games 100 Years Ago". The Huffington Post.  ^ The Miniatures Page. The World of Miniatures—An Overview. ^ Orwell, George (August 1941). "Wells, Hitler and the World State". Horizon. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016.  ^ Chesterton's reference is to the biblical "mess of pottage", implying that Wells had sold out his artistic birthright in mid-career: Rolfe, Christopher; Parrinder, Patrick (1990). H. G. Wells under revision: proceedings of the International H. G. Wells Symposium, London, July 1986. Selinsgrove, PA: Susquehanna University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-945636-05-9.  ^ "HG Wells—Diabetes UK". Diabetes.org.uk. 14 April 2008. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2012.  ^ "Diabetes UK: Our History". diabetes.org.uk. Retrieved 10 December 2015 ^ Flynn, John L. "The legacy of Orson Welles
Orson Welles
and the Radio Broadcast". War of the Worlds: from Wells to Spielberg by. Owens Mills, MD: Galactic. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-9769400-0-5.  ^ " H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
Dies in London". St. Petersburg Times. 13 August 1946. Retrieved 29 October 2008.  ^ "Calendar". Classics & Cheese. Archived from the original on 18 February 2008. Retrieved 12 February 2008.  ^ "Preface to the 1941 edition of The War in the Air". Archived from the original on 22 December 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2008.  ^ West, Anthony. H. G. Wells: Aspects of a Life, p. 153. London: Hutchinson & Co, 1984. ISBN 0-09-134540-5. ^ " H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
(1866 - 1946)". Blue Plaques. English Heritage.  ^ a b c "Churchill 'borrowed' famous lines from books by HG Wells". The Independent. 22 October 2017.  ^ 'Human Rights and Public Accountability in H. G. Wells' Functional World State' John Partington. Academia.edu. Retrieved on 9 August 2013. ^ "The scandalous sex life of HG Wells". The Telegraph. 12 September 2017.  ^ Herbert Wells, The Fate of Homo Sapiens, (London: Secker & Warburg, 1939), p 89-90. ^ Herbert George Wells Newsletter, Volume 2. p. 10. H.G. Wells Society, 1981 ^ Wells, H. G. (1917). "Preface". God the Invisible King. London: Cassell. ISBN 0-585-00604-0. OCLC 261326125.  Link to the online book.. ^ Wells (1917: "The cosmology of modern religion"). ^ Wells, H. G. (1908). First & last things; a confession of faith and rules of life. Putnam. pp. 77–80. OCLC 68958585.  ^ The Fate of Homo Sapiens, p 291. ^ a b John Clute, Science Fiction :The Illustrated Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersley London, ISBN 0751302023 (p. 114–15). ^ Budrys, Algis (September 1968). "Galaxy Bookshelf". Galaxy Science Fiction. pp. 187–193.  ^ Andy Sawyer, "[William] Olaf Stapledon
Olaf Stapledon
(1886–1950)", in Fifty Key Figures in Science Fiction. New York: Routledge, 2010. ISBN 0203874706 (pp. 205–210). ^ a b Richard Bleiler, "John Davis Beresford (1873–1947)" in Darren Harris-Fain, ed. British Fantasy
and Science Fiction Writers Before World War I. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, 1997. pp. 27–34. ISBN 0810399415. ^ Brian Stableford, "Against the New Gods: The Speculative Fiction of S. Fowler Wright". in Against the New Gods and Other Essays on Writers of Imaginative Fiction Wildside Press LLC, 2009 ISBN 1434457435 (pp. 9–90). ^ "Mitchison, Naomi", in Science Fiction and Fantasy
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Further reading[edit]

Dickson, Lovat. H. G. Wells: His Turbulent Life & Times. 1969. Gilmour, David. The Long Recessional: The Imperial Life of Rudyard Kipling. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-374-18702-9); 2003 (paperback, ISBN 0-374-52896-9). Gomme, A. W., Mr. Wells as Historian. Glasgow: MacLehose, Jackson, and Co., 1921. Gosling, John. Waging the War of the Worlds. Jefferson, North Carolina, McFarland, 2009 (paperback, ISBN 0-7864-4105-4). Mackenzie, Norman and Jean, The Time Traveller: the Life of H G Wells, London: Weidenfeld, 1973, ISBN 0-2977-6531-0 Mauthner, Martin. German Writers in French Exile, 1933–1940, London: Vallentine and Mitchell, 2007, ISBN 978-0-85303-540-4. McLean, Steven. 'The Early Fiction of H. G. Wells: Fantasies of Science'. Palgrave, 2009, ISBN 9780230535626. Partington, John S. Building Cosmopolis: The Political Thought of H. G. Wells. Ashgate, 2003, ISBN 978-0754633839. Sherborne. Michael. H. G. Wells: Another Kind of Life. London: Peter Owen, 2010, ISBN 978-0-72061-351-3. Smith, David C., H.G. Wells: Desperately Mortal: A Biography. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986, ISBN 0-3000-3672-8 West, Anthony. H. G. Wells: Aspects of a Life. London: Hutchinson, 1984. Foot, Michael. H. G.: History of Mr. Wells. Doubleday, 1985 (ISBN 978-1-887178-04-4), Black Swan, New edition, Oct 1996 (paperback, ISBN 0-552-99530-4)

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on IMDb


H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
papers at University of Illinois Works by H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at Project Gutenberg Works by Herbert George Wells at Faded Page (Canada) Works by or about H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at Internet Archive Works by H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at Goodreads H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
at the Internet Book List A Short History of the World, at bartleby.com. Quotes by H. G. Wells Free H.G. Wells downloads for iPhone, iPad, Nook, Android, and Kindle in PDF and all popular eBook reader formats (AZW3, EPUB, MOBI) at ebooktakeaway.com H G Wells
H G Wells
at the British Library

Sources—letters, essays and interviews

Archive of Wells's BBC
broadcasts Film interview with H. G. Wells "Stephen Crane. From an English Standpoint", by Wells, 1900. Rabindranath Tagore: In conversation with H. G. Wells. Rabindranath Tagore and Wells conversing in Geneva in 1930. "Introduction", to W. N. P. Barbellion's The Journal of a Disappointed Man, by Wells, 1919. "Woman and Primitive Culture", by Wells, 1895. Letter, to M. P. Shiel, by Wells, 1937. New Statesman – In the footsteps of H G Wells
H G Wells
at www.newstatesman.com, H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
called for a Human Rights Act. H. G. Wells, The Open Conspiracy
The Open Conspiracy


 "Wells, Herbert George". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(11th ed.). 1911.  "H. G. Wells". In Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. Parrinder, Patrick (2011) [2004]. "Wells, Herbert George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/36831.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) " H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
biography". Science Fiction and Fantasy
Hall of Fame. 

Critical essays

An introduction to The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
by Iain Sinclair on the British Library's Discovering Literature website. "An Appreciation of H. G. Wells", by Mary Austin, 1911. " Socialism
and the Family" (1906) by Belfort Bax, Part 1, Part 2. " H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
warned us how it would feel to fight a War of the Worlds", by Niall Ferguson, in The Telegraph, 24 Jun 2005. "H. G. Wells's Idea of a World Brain: A Critical Re-assessment", by W. Boyd Rayward, in Journal of the American Society for Information Science 50 (15 May 1999): 557–579 "Mr H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
and the Giants", by G. K. Chesterton, from his book Heretics (1908). "The Internet: a world brain?", by Martin Gardner, in Skeptical Inquirer, Jan–Feb 1999. "Science Fiction: The Shape of Things to Come", by Mark Bould, in The Socialist Review, May 2005. "Who needs Utopia? A dialogue with my utopian self (with apologies, and thanks, to H. G. Wells)", by Gregory Claeys in Spaces of Utopia: An Electronic Journal, no 1, Spring 2006. "When H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
Split the Atom: A 1914 Preview of 1945", by Freda Kirchwey, in The Nation, posted 4 Sep 2003 (original 18 Aug 1945 issue). "Evil is in the Eye of the Beholder: Threatening Children in Two Edwardian Speculative Satires," by George M. Johnson. Science Fiction Studies. Vol. 41, No.1 (March 2014): 26–44. "Wells, Hitler and the World State", by George Orwell. First published: Horizon. GB, London. Aug 1941. "War of the Worldviews", by John J. Miller, in The Wall Street Journal Opinion Journal, 21 Jun 2005. "Wells's Autobiography", by John Hart, from New International, Vol.2 No.2, Mar 1935, pp. 75–76 "History in the Science Fiction of H. G. Wells", by Patrick Parrinder, Cycnos, 22.2 (2006). "From the World Brain
World Brain
to the Worldwide Web", by Martin Campbell-Kelly, Gresham College Lecture, 9 Nov 2006. "The Beginning of Wisdom: On Reading H. G. Wells", by Vivian Gornick, "Boston Review", 31.1 (2007). John Hammond, The Complete List of Short Stories of H. G. Wells Biography at a website examining the legacy of The War Of The Worlds " H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells
Predictions Ring True, 143 Years Later" at National Geographic "H.G. Wells, the man I knew" Obituary of Wells by George Bernard Shaw, at the New Statesman "Wells at the World's End", by Adam Roberts

Non-profit organization positions

Preceded by John Galsworthy International President of PEN International 1933–1936 Succeeded by Jules Romains

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Works by H. G. Wells


The Time Machine
The Time Machine
(1895) The Wonderful Visit
The Wonderful Visit
(1895) The Island of Doctor Moreau
The Island of Doctor Moreau
(1896) The Wheels of Chance
The Wheels of Chance
(1896) The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(1897) The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(1898) When the Sleeper Wakes
When the Sleeper Wakes
(1899) Love and Mr Lewisham
Love and Mr Lewisham
(1900) The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon
(1901) The Sea Lady
The Sea Lady
(1902) The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth
The Food of the Gods and How It Came to Earth
(1904) Kipps (1905) A Modern Utopia
(1905) In the Days of the Comet
(1906) The War in the Air
The War in the Air
(1908) Tono-Bungay
(1909) Ann Veronica
Ann Veronica
(1909) The History of Mr Polly
The History of Mr Polly
(1910) The Sleeper Awakes
The Sleeper Awakes
(1910) The New Machiavelli (1911) Marriage (1912) The Passionate Friends
The Passionate Friends
(1913) The Wife of Sir Isaac Harman (1914) The World Set Free
The World Set Free
(1914) Bealby: A Holiday (1915) Boon (1915) The Research Magnificent (1915) Mr Britling Sees It Through (1916) The Soul of a Bishop
The Soul of a Bishop
(1917) Joan and Peter: The Story of an Education (1918) The Undying Fire (1919) The Secret Places of the Heart
The Secret Places of the Heart
(1922) Men Like Gods
Men Like Gods
(1923) The Dream (1924) Christina Alberta's Father
Christina Alberta's Father
(1925) The World of William Clissold
The World of William Clissold
(1926) Meanwhile (1927) Mr. Blettsworthy on Rampole Island
Mr. Blettsworthy on Rampole Island
(1928) The Autocracy of Mr. Parham
The Autocracy of Mr. Parham
(1930) The Bulpington of Blup
The Bulpington of Blup
(1932) The Shape of Things to Come
The Shape of Things to Come
(1933) The Croquet Player
The Croquet Player
(1936) Brynhild (1937) Star Begotten
Star Begotten
(1937) The Camford Visitation
The Camford Visitation
(1937) Apropos of Dolores
Apropos of Dolores
(1938) The Brothers (1938) The Holy Terror (1939) Babes in the Darkling Wood
Babes in the Darkling Wood
(1940) All Aboard for Ararat
All Aboard for Ararat
(1940) You Can't Be Too Careful
You Can't Be Too Careful


Anticipations Certain Personal Matters Crux Ansata The Discovery of the Future An Englishman Looks at the World
An Englishman Looks at the World
(U.S. title: Social Forces in England and America) Experiment in Autobiography The Fate of Man First and Last Things Floor Games The Future
in America: A Search After Realities God the Invisible King Great Ghost Stories (1998) In the Fourth Year Little Wars Mankind in the Making Mind at the End of Its Tether Mr. Belloc Objects to "The Outline of History" The New America: The New World The New World Order New Worlds for Old The Open Conspiracy The Outline of History Russia in the Shadows The Science of Life A Short History of the World The Story of a Great Schoolmaster This Misery of Boots Travels of a Republican Radical in Search of Hot Water War and the Future
(North America: Italy, France and Britain at War) The Way the World is Going The Work, Wealth and Happiness of Mankind World Brain A Year of Prophesying


The Country of the Blind
The Country of the Blind
and Other Stories The Plattner Story and Others Select Conversations with an Uncle The Stolen Bacillus and Other Incidents Tales of Space and Time Twelve Stories and a Dream

Short stories

"Æpyornis Island" "The Argonauts of the Air" "The Beautiful Suit" "The Chronic Argonauts" "The Cone" "The Country of the Blind" "The Crystal Egg" "A Deal in Ostriches" "The Diamond Maker" "A Dream of Armageddon" "The Empire of the Ants" "In the Abyss" "The Land Ironclads" "Mr. Ledbetter's Vacation" "The Lord of the Dynamos" "The Man Who Could Work Miracles" "The New Accelerator" "The Pearl of Love" "The Queer Story of Brownlow's Newspaper" "The Red Room" "The Sea Raiders" "The Star" "The Stolen Body" "A Story of the Days to Come" "A Story of the Stone Age" "Triumphs of a Taxidermist" "The Truth About Pyecraft" "A Vision of Judgment"


Things to Come The Man Who Could Work Miracles

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The London School of Economics
London School of Economics
and Political Science

Campus, buildings and collections

Berrylands British Library of Political and Economic Science

Charles Booth Archive The Women's Library

Clare Market Hall–Carpenter Archives Lincoln's Inn Fields

32 Lincoln's Inn Fields

Peacock Theatre

Research centres

Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy Centre for the Economics of Education Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science Crisis States Research Centre Grantham Research Institute International Bibliography of the Social Sciences International Growth Centre LSE Cities LSE IDEAS POLIS Department of Social Policy STICERD TRIUM EMBA

Student life

Athletics Union The Beaver Clare Market
Clare Market
Review LSE Students' Union Pulse! Radio Student Central


Fabian Society Fabian Window LSE Libya links Rivalry with KCL and UCL The Third Way



The Princess Royal (Chancellor) Dame Nemat Shafik
Nemat Shafik
(Director) Dame Shirley Pearce (Chair of Court and Council) Lord President of the Council
Lord President of the Council


Sidney Webb Beatrice Webb George Bernard Shaw Graham Wallas H. G. Wells List of London School of Economics
London School of Economics
people List of Nobel Laureates Montague Burton Professor of International Relations


Association of Commonwealth Universities CEMS European University Association G5 The General Course Golden triangle Russell Group Universities UK University of London

Category Commons

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Science fiction


Authors Definitions

Hard Soft

History Timeline The Golden Age New Wave


Apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic Biopunk Climate fiction Comedy




Dieselpunk Dying Earth Gothic Military Mundane Planetary romance Science fiction
Science fiction
Western Scientific romance Social Space opera Space Western Steampunk


Conventions Fandom Fanzines Internet Speculative Fiction Database Libraries and museums Science Fiction Museum Studies Women in SF Worldcon


Australian Bengali Brazilian Canadian Chilean Chinese Croatian Czech Estonian French Japanese Norwegian Polish Romanian Russian Serbian Spanish



Aurora Chandler Dragon Hugo Seiun Spectrum


Jules Verne Saturn


Aurealis BSFA Campbell Campbell Memorial Clarke Compton Crook Dick Ditmar Endeavor Gaughan Geffen Golden Duck Grand Master Harland Heinlein Illustrators of the Future Kitschies Kurd-Laßwitz-Preis Lambda Locus Nautilus Nebula Norton Parsec Prometheus Rhysling SFERA Sidewise Skylark Sturgeon Tähtivaeltaja Award Tähtifantasia Award TBD Tiptree Tour-Apollo Translation Urania Vogel Writers of the Future Zajdel



Comics Magazines Novels Publishers Short stories


Opera Theatre


Film history Films India


TV shows Australasian British Canadian European Japanese Anime Japanese Live-action U.S.



Astroengineering AI takeover Artificial intelligence Megastructure

Space stations and habitats

Mind uploading Nanotechnology Prosthetics Robots Organ transplantation Self-replicating machines Simulated consciousness Simulated reality Space warfare Terraforming


Fermi paradox Grandfather paradox Time travel


Biological warfare Extraterrestrials


Genetic engineering Gender Group mind Sex and sexuality



Heim theory Hyperdrive Hyperspace Jump drive Warp drive Einstein–Rosen bridge

Earth The multiverse Parallel universes Planets


Ancient astronauts Alien invasion Alien language Black Cyborgs Evil corporation Feminist First contact Frankenstein complex Galactic empire LGBT Libertarian Political ideas Religious ideas Sci horror Transhumanism Uplifting World government Xenoarchaeology

Related topics

Alternate history Afrofuturism Fantasy Science fantasy Spy-Fi Fictional technology Future Future
history Horror Magic realism Mecha Rubber science Science, technology and society Speculative fiction Superhero Supernatural Weird Techno-thriller Technology and society Utopian and dystopian fiction

Category Portal

Associated subjects

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H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds

Related texts: "The Crystal Egg" Star Begotten


Black smoke Embankment machine Fighting machine Flying machine Handling machine HMS Thunder Child Heat-Ray Red weed


Doctor Clayton Forrester Martians

Derivative works


Fighters from Mars Edison's Conquest of Mars Sherlock Holmes's War of the Worlds The Space Machine War of the Worlds: New Millennium The Martian War War of the Worlds: Retaliation The Massacre of Mankind


The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(1938) The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds


The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(1953) The Night That Panicked America The War of the Worlds: Next Century H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(2005) H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds
War of the Worlds
(2005) War of the Worlds
War of the Worlds
(2005) War of the Worlds
War of the Worlds
2: The Next Wave War of the Worlds: Goliath


Killraven Superman: War of the Worlds The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume II Scarlet Traces H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds


Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds

"Forever Autumn"

Highlights from Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds Jeff Wayne's Musical Version of The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
– The New Generation


"The Night America Trembled" The Great Martian War 1913–1917 War of the Worlds

episodes Mor-Tax Mor-Taxans

Video games

War of the Worlds
War of the Worlds
(1982) The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(1984) Jeff Wayne's The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds
(1998) Jeff Wayne's The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds

Short fiction

War of the Worlds: Global Dispatches

"Mars: The Home Front" "To Mars
and Providence"

Rainbow Mars

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H. G. Wells' The Time Machine
The Time Machine




The Time Machine
The Time Machine
(1960) The Time Machine
The Time Machine
(1978) Time After Time (1979) The Time Machine
The Time Machine

Other media

Escape (radio program) The Rook (comic book series) Time After Time (TV series)

Sequels by others

The Space Machine (1976) Morlock Night (1979) Time After Time (1979) The Time Ships
The Time Ships

Related works

"The Grey Man" "The Chronic Argonauts"

Related articles

Eloi Morlock Time Machine: The Journey Back "Allan and the Sundered Veil"

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H. G. Wells's The Invisible Man


Universal series

The Invisible Man The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
Returns The Invisible Woman Invisible Agent The Invisible Man's Revenge Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein Abbott and Costello Meet the Invisible Man

Hollow Man
Hollow Man

Hollow Man Hollow Man
Hollow Man


The Invisible Mouse Mad Monster Party? Mad Mad Mad Monsters Hotel Transylvania Hotel Transylvania
Hotel Transylvania
2 Hotel Transylvania
Hotel Transylvania
3: Summer Vacation (2018)

Other live-action

The Invisible Avenger Memoirs of an Invisible Man


The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(1958) The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(1975) Gemini Man
Gemini Man
(1976) The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(1984) The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(2000) The Invisible Man
The Invisible Man
(2005) Henry Danger (2016)


Griffin The Nobody Memoirs of an Invisible Man The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen

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H. G. Wells' The Island of Doctor Moreau
The Island of Doctor Moreau


Island of Lost Souls The Island of Doctor Agor The Island of Dr. Moreau (1977) The Island of Dr. Moreau (1996) Dr. Moreau's House of Pain


Dr. Franklin's Island "The Island of Dr. Hibbert"

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The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon
by H. G. Wells


A Trip to the Moon
A Trip to the Moon
(1902) The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon
(1919) First Men in the Moon (1964) The First Men in the Moon
The First Men in the Moon

Other media

Voyage: Inspired by Jules Verne
Jules Verne
(video game)

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H. G. Wells's Kipps (1905)


Kipps (1921) Kipps (1941) Half a Sixpence


Half a Sixpence
Half a Sixpence
(original musical) Half a Sixpence
Half a Sixpence
(revised musical)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 97006424 LCCN: n79063613 ISNI: 0000 0001 2283 2703 GND: 118643266 SELIBR: 101323 SUDOC: 027195104 BNF: cb119290531 (data) BIBSYS: 90059385 MusicBrainz: 84306022-264d-4351-a710-adb828e38a23 NLA: 35599551 NDL: 00460562 NKC: jn19990009045 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV10461 BNE: XX1070