1 Etymology 2 History 3 FIG-recognized disciplines
3.1 Artistic gymnastics
3.1.1 Artistic events for women
220.127.116.11 Vault 18.104.22.168 Uneven bars 22.214.171.124 Balance beam 126.96.36.199 Floor
3.1.2 Artistic events for men
188.8.131.52 Floor 184.108.40.206 Pommel horse 220.127.116.11 Still rings 18.104.22.168 Vault 22.214.171.124 Parallel bars 126.96.36.199 Horizontal bar
3.1.3 Scoring (code of points)
3.2 Rhythmic gymnastics
188.8.131.52 Individual trampoline 184.108.40.206 Synchronized trampoline 220.127.116.11 Double-mini trampoline
3.4 Acrobatic gymnastics 3.5 Aerobic gymnastics 3.6 Parkour
4 Other disciplines
4.1 Aesthetic group gymnastics 4.2 Men's rhythmic gymnastics 4.3 TeamGym 4.4 Wheel Gymnastics 4.5 Mallakhamba
5 Non-competitive gymnastics 6 Former apparatus and events
6.1 Rope (rhythmic gymnastics) 6.2 Rope climbing 6.3 Flying rings 6.4 Club Swinging 6.5 Other (men's artistic) 6.6 Other (women's artistic)
7 Popular culture
7.1 Books 7.2 Films 7.3 Television 7.4 Video games
8 See also 9 References 10 External links
The word gymnastics derives from the common Greek adjective
Greek(gymnos) , by way of the related verb γυμνάζω
(gymnazo), whose meaning is to "train naked", "train in gymnastic
exercise", generally "to train, to exercise". The verb had this
meaning, because athletes in ancient times exercised and competed
without clothing. It came into use in the 1570s, from Latin
gymnasticus, from Greek gymnastikos "fond of or skilled in bodily
exercise," from gymnazein "to exercise or train" (see gymnasium).
Early 20th-century gymnastics in Stockholm, Sweden
The Federation of International
Piked Tsukahara vault.
Vault Main article: Vault In the vaulting events, gymnasts sprint down a 25 metres (82 ft) runway, jump onto a springboard (or perform a roundoff or handspring entry onto a springboard), land momentarily inverted on the hands on the vaulting horse or vaulting table (pre-flight segment), then propel themselves forward or backward off that platform to a two-footed landing (post-flight segment). Every gymnast starts at a different point on the vault runway depending on their height and strength. The post-flight segment may include one or more multiple saltos, somersaults, or twisting movements. A round-off entry vault, called a Yurchenko, is the most common vault in the higher levels in gymnastics. When performing a Yurchenko, gymnasts "round off" so their hands are on the runway while their feet land on the springboard. From the roundoff position, the gymnast travels backwards and executes a back handspring so that the hands land on the vaulting table. The gymnast then blocks off the vaulting platform into various twisting and/or somersaulting combinations. The post-flight segment brings the gymnast to her feet. In the lower levels of gymnastics, the gymnasts do not perform this move. These gymnasts will jump onto the springboard with both feet at the same time and either do a front handspring onto the vault or a roundoff onto the vault. In 2001, the traditional vaulting horse was replaced with a new apparatus, sometimes known as a tongue, horse or vaulting table. The new apparatus is more stable, wider, and longer than the older vaulting horse, approximately 1 m in length and 1 m in width, giving gymnasts a larger blocking surface. This apparatus is thus considered safer than the vaulting horse used in the past. With the addition of this new, safer vaulting table, gymnasts are attempting more difficult and dangerous vaults.
Uneven bars Main article: Uneven bars On the uneven bars, the gymnast performs a timed routine on two parallel horizontal bars set at different heights. These bars are made of fiberglass covered in wood laminate, to prevent them from breaking. In the past, bars were made of wood, but the bars were prone to breaking, providing an incentive to switch to newer technologies. The width and height of the bars may be adjusted to the size needed by individual gymnasts. In the past, the uneven parallel bars were closer together. The bars have been moved increasingly further apart, allowing gymnasts to perform swinging, circling, transitional, and release moves that may pass over, under, and between the two bars. At the Elite level, movements must pass through the handstand. Gymnasts often mount the uneven bars using a springboard or a small mat. Chalk (MgCO3) and grips (a leather strip with holes for fingers to protect hands and improve performance) may be used by gymnasts performing this event. The chalk helps take the moisture out of gymnasts' hands to decrease friction and prevent rips (tears to the skin of the hands); dowel grips help gymnasts grip the bar. Balance beam
Main article: Balance beam The gymnast performs a choreographed routine of up to 90 seconds in length consisting of leaps, acrobatic skills, somersaults, turns and dance elements on a padded beam. The beam is 125 centimetres (4 ft 1 in) from the ground, 500 centimetres (16 ft 5 in) long, and 10 centimetres (3.9 in) wide. This stationary object can also be adjusted, to be raised higher or lower. The event requires balance, flexibility, grace, poise, and strength. Floor
Main article: Floor The event in gymnastics performed on floor is called floor exercise. The English abbreviation for the event in gymnastics scoring is FX. In the past, the floor exercise event was executed on the bare floor or mats such as wrestling mats. The floor event now occurs on a carpeted 12m × 12m square, usually consisting of hard foam over a layer of plywood, which is supported by springs generally called a "spring" floor. This provides a firm surface that provides extra bounce or spring when compressed, allowing gymnasts to achieve greater height and a softer landing after the composed skill. Gymnasts perform a choreographed routine up to 90 seconds in the floor exercise event; Depending on the level, they may choose their own, or, if known as a "compulsory gymnast," default music must be played. Levels three to six the music is the same for each levels along with the skills within the routine. However, recently, the levels have switched. Now, levels 6-10 are optional levels and they get to have custom routines made. In the optional levels (levels six to ten) there are skill requirements for the routine but the athlete is able to pick her own music without any words. The routine should consist of tumbling passes, series of jumps, leaps, dance elements, acrobatic skills, and turns, or pivots, on one foot. A gymnast can perform up to four tumbling passes that usually includes at least one flight element without hand support. Each level of gymnastics requires the athlete to perform a different number of tumbling passes. In level 7 in the United States, a gymnast is required to do 2–3, and in levels 8–10, at least 3–4 tumbling passes are required. Artistic events for men Floor Main article: Floor Male gymnasts also perform on a 12meter x 12meter spring floor. A series of tumbling passes are performed to demonstrate flexibility, strength, and balance. Strength skills include circles, scales, and press handstands. Men's floor routines usually have multiple passes that have to total between 60–70 seconds and are performed without music, unlike the women's event. Rules require that male gymnasts touch each corner of the floor at least once during their routine.
Chris Cameron on the pommel horse
Pommel horse Main article: Pommel Horse A typical pommel horse exercise involves both single leg and double leg work. Single leg skills are generally found in the form of scissors, an element often done on the pommels. Double leg work however, is the main staple of this event. The gymnast swings both legs in a circular motion (clockwise or counterclockwise depending on preference) and performs such skills on all parts of the apparatus. To make the exercise more challenging, gymnasts will often include variations on a typical circling skill by turning (moores and spindles) or by straddling their legs (Flares). Routines end when the gymnast performs a dismount, either by swinging his body over the horse, or landing after a handstand variation. Still rings Main article: Still Rings The rings are suspended on wire cable from a point 5.75 meters from the floor. The gymnasts must perform a routine demonstrating balance, strength, power, and dynamic motion while preventing the rings themselves from swinging. At least one static strength move is required, but some gymnasts may include two or three. A routine ends with a dismount. Vault Main article: Vault Gymnasts sprint down a runway, which is a maximum of 25 meters in length, before hurdling onto a spring board. The gymnast is allowed to choose where they start on the runway. The body position is maintained while "punching" (blocking using only a shoulder movement) the vaulting platform. The gymnast then rotates to a standing position. In advanced gymnastics, multiple twists and somersaults may be added before landing. Successful vaults depend on the speed of the run, the length of the hurdle, the power the gymnast generates from the legs and shoulder girdle, the kinesthetic awareness in the air, how well they stuck the landing and the speed of rotation in the case of more difficult and complex vaults. Parallel bars Main article: Parallel Bars Men perform on two bars executing a series of swings, balances, and releases that require great strength and coordination. The width between the bars is adjustable dependent upon the actual needs of the gymnasts and usually 2m high,. Horizontal bar Main article: Horizontal bar A 2.8 cm thick steel or fiberglass bar raised 2.5 m above the landing area is all the gymnast has to hold onto as he performs giant swings or giants (forward or backward revolutions around the bar in the handstand position), release skills, twists, and changes of direction. By using all of the momentum from giants and then releasing at the proper point, enough height can be achieved for spectacular dismounts, such as a triple-back salto. Leather grips are usually used to help maintain a grip on the bar. As with women, male gymnasts are also judged on all of their events including their execution, degree of difficulty, and overall presentation skills. Scoring (code of points) Main article: Code of Points A gymnast's score comes from deductions taken from their start value. The start value of a routine is based on the difficulty of the elements the gymnast attempts and whether or not the gymnast meets composition requirements. The composition requirements are different for each apparatus; this score is called the D score. Deductions in execution and artistry are taken from a maximum of 10.0. This score is called the E score. The final score is calculated by taking deductions from the E score, and adding the result to the D score. Since 2007, the scoring system has changed by adding bonus plus the execution and then adding those two together to get the final score. Landing In a tumbling pass, dismount or vault, landing is the final phase, following take off and flight This is a critical skill in terms of execution in competition scores, general performance, and injury occurrence. Without the necessary magnitude of energy dissipation during impact, the risk of sustaining injuries during somersaulting increases. These injuries commonly occur at the lower extremities such as: cartilage lesions, ligament tears, and bone bruises/fractures. To avoid such injuries, and to receive a high performance score, proper technique must be used by the gymnast. "The subsequent ground contact or impact landing phase must be achieved using a safe, aesthetic and well-executed double foot landing." A successful landing in gymnastics is classified as soft, meaning the knee and hip joints are at greater than 63 degrees of flexion. A higher flight phase results in a higher vertical ground reaction force. Vertical ground reaction force represents external force which the gymnasts have to overcome with their muscle force and affects the gymnasts' linear and angular momentum. Another important variable that affects linear and angular momentum is time the landing takes. Gymnasts can decrease the impact force by increasing the time taken to perform the landing. Gymnasts can achieve this by increasing hip, knee and ankle amplitude. Rhythmic gymnastics
Russian rhythmic gymnast
Main article: Rhythmic gymnastics
According to FIG rules, only women compete in rhythmic gymnastics.
This is a sport that combines elements of ballet, gymnastics, dance,
and apparatus manipulation. The sport involves the performance of five
separate routines with the use of five apparatus; ball, ribbon, hoop,
clubs, rope—on a floor area, with a much greater emphasis on the
aesthetic rather than the acrobatic. There are also group routines
consisting of 5 gymnasts and 5 apparatuses of their choice. Rhythmic
routines are scored out of a possible 30 points; the score for
artistry (choreography and music) is averaged with the score for
difficulty of the moves and then added to the score for execution.
International competitions are split between Juniors, under sixteen by
their year of birth; and Seniors, for women sixteen and over again by
their year of birth. Gymnasts in Russia and Europe typically start
training at a very young age and those at their peak are typically in
their late teens (15–19) or early twenties. The largest events in
the sport are the Olympic Games, World Championships, European
Championships, World Cup and Grand-Prix Series. The first World
Championships were held in 1963 with its first appearance at the
Olympics in 1984.
Soviet Galina Shugurova performing an Attitude balance in her ball apparatus
Ball It is made of either rubber or synthetic material (pliable plastic) provided it possesses the same elasticity as rubber. It is from 18 to 20 cm in diameter and must have a minimum weight of 400g. The ball can be of any colour and should rest in the gymnast's hand, not the wrist. Fundamental elements of a ball routine include throwing, bouncing, and rolling. The gymnast must use both hands and work on the whole floor area while showing continuous flowing movement. The ball is to emphasize the gymnast's flowing lines and body difficulty. Hoop A hoop is an apparatus in rhythmic gymnastics and may be made of plastic or wood, provided that it retains its shape during the routine. The interior diameter is from 51 to 90 cm, and the hoop must weigh a minimum of 300g. The hoop may be of a natural colour or be partially of fully covered by one or several colours, and it may be covered with adhesive tape either of the same or different colour as the hoop. Fundamental requirements of a hoop routine include rotation around the hand or body and rolling, as well as swings, circles, throws, and passes through and over the hoop. The routines in hoop involves mastery in both apparatus handling and body difficulty like leaps, jumps and pivots. Ribbon It is made of satin or another similar material cloth of any colour and may be multi-coloured as well as have designs on it. The ribbon itself must be at least 35g (1 oz), 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4") in width and for senior category a minimum length of 6m (20') (5m (16.25') for juniors). The ribbon must be in one piece. The end that is attached to the stick is doubled for a maximum length of 1m (3'). This is stitched down both sides. At the top, a very thin reinforcement or rows of machine stitching for a maximum length of 5 cm is authorized. This extremity may end in a strap, or have an eyelet (a small hole, edged with buttonhole stitch or a metal circle), to permit attaching the ribbon. The ribbon is fixed to the stick by means of a supple attachment such as thread, nylon cord, or a series of articulated rings. The attachment has a maximum length of 7 cm (2.8"), not counting the strap or metal ring at the end of the stick where it will be fastened. Compulsory elements for the ribbon include flicks, circles, snakes and spirals, and throws. It requires a high degree of co-ordination to form the spirals and circles as any knots which may accidentally form in the ribbon are penalised. During a ribbon routine, large, smooth and flowing movements are looked for. Clubs Multi-piece clubs are the most popular clubs. The club is built along an internal rod, providing a base on which a handle made of polyolefin plastic is wrapped, providing an airspace between it and the internal rod. This airspace provides flex, cushioning impact, making the club softer on the hands. Foam ends and knobs further cushion the club. Multi-piece clubs are made in both a thin European style or larger bodied American style and in various lengths, generally ranging from 19 to 21 inches (480 to 530 mm). The handles and bodies are typically wrapped with decorative plastics and tapes. The skills involved are apparatus mastery and body elements, Clubs are thrown from alternate hands; each passes underneath the other clubs and is caught in the opposite hand to the one from which it was thrown. At its simplest, each club rotates once per throw, the handle moving down and away from the throwing hand at first. However, double and triple spins are frequently performed, allowing the club to be thrown higher for more advanced patterns and to allow tricks such as 360s to be performed underneath.
Double mini-trampoline competitor
Acrobatic Women's Pair performing a skill.
Main article: Acrobatic gymnastics
10.00 for routine difficulty (valued from the tables of difficulties) 10.00 for technical performance (how well the skills are executed) 10.00 for artistry (the overall performance of the routine, namely choreography)
The events consist of:
Women's Pairs Mixed Pairs Men's Pairs Women's Group of 3 Men's Group of 4
Most competitions require a balance and dynamic routine for each
event, though some will do a single mixed event.
The World Championships have been held since 1974.
Main article: Aerobic gymnastics
Individual Women Individual Men Mixed Pairs Trios Groups Dance Step
Main article: Parkour
On January 28, 2018
The following disciplines are not currently recognized by the
Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique.
Aesthetic group gymnastics
Main article: Aesthetic group gymnastics
Stick Clubs Rope Double Rings Group
Main article: TeamGym
TeamGym is a form of competition created by the European Union of
Gymnastics, named originally EuroTeam. The first official competition
was held in Finland in 1996.
TeamGym events consist of three sections:
women, men and mixed teams. Athletes compete in three different
disciplines: floor, tumbling and trampette. In common for the
performance is effective teamwork, good technique in the elements and
spectacular acrobatic skills. There is no World Championships
however there has been a European Championships held since 2010. 
Main article: Wheel gymnastics
Wheel gymnasts do exercises in a large wheel known as the Rhönrad,
gymnastics wheel, gym wheel, or German wheel, in the beginning also
known as ayro wheel, aero wheel, and Rhon rod.
There are four core categories of exercise: straight line, spiral,
vault and cyr wheel. The first World Championships was held in 1995.
Main article: Mallakhamba
Team horizontal bar and parallel bar in the 1896 Summer Olympics Team free and Swedish system in the 1912 and 1920 Summer Olympics Combined and triathlon in the 1904 Summer Olympics Side horse vault in 1924 Summer Olympics Tumbling in the 1932 Summer Olympics
Other (women's artistic)
Team exercise at the 1928, 1936, and 1948 Summer Olympics
Popular culture Books
Little Girls in Pretty Boxes The Spirit of Gymnastics: The Biography of Hartley D'Oyley Price, by Tom Conkling, (1982);
A 2nd Chance
A State of Mind
Chalk It Up
Little Girls in Pretty Boxes
McKenna Shoots for the Stars
The Gabby Douglas Story
Make It or Break It
Barbie Team Gymnastics
Capcom's Gold Medal Challenge '92
Glossary of gymnastics terms
Gymnasium (ancient Greece)
^ Loken, Newton C.; Willoughby, Robert J. (1977). The Complete Book of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gymnastics.
Look up gymnastics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
International Federation of Gymnastics
"Gymnastics". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.
v t e
Acrobatics Code of Points Glossary of terms Gym
Olympic Games Youth Olympics World Games World Championships World Cup
World Cup Final Four Continents Championships
Commonwealth Pacific Rim Universiade Grand Prix
List of gymnasts
FIG World Rankings
Aesthetic group gymnastics Equestrian vaulting TeamGym Wheel gymnastics
v t e
Summer Olympic sports
Diving Marathon swimming Swimming Water polo Synchronised swimming
Athletics Badminton Basketball Boxing Canoeing
Canoe slalom Canoe sprint
BMX racing Freestyle BMX Mountain bike Road cycling Track cycling
Dressage Eventing Show jumping
Fencing Field hockey Football Golf Gymnastics
Artistic gymnastics Rhythmic gymnastics Trampolining
Handball Judo Modern pentathlon Rowing Rugby sevens Sailing Shooting Table tennis Taekwondo Tennis Triathlon Volleyball
Freestyle wrestling Greco-Roman wrestling
Karate Skateboarding Sport climbing Surfing