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Gwadar
Gwadar
(Balochi and Urdu: گوادر‬‎; pronounced [ɡʷɑːd̪əɾ]) is a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan, Pakistan. The city is located on the shores of the Arabian Sea, approximately 700 kilometres to the west of Pakistan's largest city, Karachi. Gwadar
Gwadar
is near the border with Iran, and is located to the east of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and opposite Oman. It was an overseas possession of Oman
Oman
from 1783 to 1958. For most of its history, Gwadar
Gwadar
was a small to medium-sized settlement with an economy largely based on artisanal fishing. The strategic value of its location was first recognized in 1954 when it was identified as a suitable site for a deep water port by the United States Geological Survey at the request of Pakistan
Pakistan
while the territory was still under Omani
Omani
rule.[2] The area's potential to be a major deep water port remained untapped under successive Pakistani governments until 2001, when construction on the first phase of Gwadar Port was initiated.[3] The first phase was inaugurated by General Parvez Musharraf
Parvez Musharraf
in 2007 at a total cost of $248 million.[4] The port remained underutilized after construction for a variety of reasons, including lack of investment, security concerns, and the Government of Pakistan's failure to transfer land as promised to the port operator, Port of Singapore Authority.[5] In April 2015, Pakistan
Pakistan
and China
China
announced their intention to develop the $46 billion China– Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor (CPEC),[6] which in turn forms part of China's ambitious One Belt, One Road.[7] Gwadar features heavily in CPEC, and is also envisaged to be the link between the One Belt, One Road
One Belt, One Road
and Maritime Silk Road
Maritime Silk Road
project.[8] $1.153 billion worth of infrastructure projects will be invested into the city as part of CPEC,[9] with the aim of linking northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and western China
China
to the deep water seaport.[10] The city will also be the site of a floating liquefied natural gas facility that will be built as part of the larger $2.5 billion Gwadar-Nawabshah segment of the Iran– Pakistan
Pakistan
gas pipeline project.[11] In addition to investments directly under the aegis of CPEC in Gwadar
Gwadar
city, the China
China
Overseas Port Holding Company in June 2016 began construction on the $2 billion Gwadar
Gwadar
Special
Special
Economic Zone,[12] which is being modelled on the lines of the Special
Special
Economic Zones of China.[13] In September 2016 the Gwadar
Gwadar
Development Authority published a request for tenders for the preparation of expropriation and resettlement of Old Town
Town
Gwadar.[14]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Ancient 2.2 Enclave of Gwadar 2.3 Pakistan 2.4 Gwadar
Gwadar
Port

3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Population 3.3 Climate

4 Administration

4.1 Neighbourhoods

5 Culture 6 Strategic importance 7 Economy

7.1 Gwadar
Gwadar
Free Zone

8 See also 9 References

Etymology[edit] The word "Gwadar" is a combination of two Balochi words – Gwat meaning wind and Dar meaning Gateway, thus Gwadar
Gwadar
means "The Gateway of wind".[citation needed] A different theory is that the name is derived from the ancient name of Baluchistan, Gedrosia, which was given by the Greeks to the arid area of southern Baluchistan.[citation needed] History[edit] Ancient[edit] Inhabitation of Gwadar, like most areas of Balochistan, appears to be ancient. The area shows inhabitation as early as the bronze age with settlements around some of the area's oases. It is from this settlement pattern that word Makran, the original name of Balochistan, is derived. For a period, it was a region of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Persian Empire. It is believed to have been conquered by the founder of the Persian Empire, Cyrus the Great. The capital of the satrapy of Gedrosia
Gedrosia
was Pura, which is thought to have been located near the modern Bampūr, in Iranian Balochistan. During the homeward march of Alexander the Great, his admiral, Nearchus, led a fleet along the modern-day Makran
Makran
coast and recorded that the area was dry, mountainous, and inhabited by the "Ichthyophagoi" (or "fish eaters"), an ancient Greek rendering of the ancient Persian phrase "Mahi khoran," which has itself become the modern word "Makran".[15] After the collapse of Alexander's empire the area was ruled by Seleucus Nicator, one of Alexander's generals. The region then came under Mauryan rule around 303 BCE, after Seleucus made peace with Emperor Chandragupta and ceded the territory to the Mauryans. Enclave of Gwadar[edit]

Gwadar

Omani
Omani
overseas possession

1783–1958

Flag

Coat of Arms

Capital Gwadar

Languages Balochi Also spoken; Brahui, Arabic, others

Political structure Omani
Omani
overseas possession

Sultan

 •  1783 Sultan bin Ahmad (first)

 •  1932 Said bin Taimur
Said bin Taimur
(last)

Wali Saif bin Ali (first)[16]

History

 •  Cessation by the Khan of Kalat 1783

 •  Purchase and annexation by Pakistan; 1958

Currency Omani
Omani
Rial Pakistani Rupee

Preceded by Succeeded by

Khanate of Kalat

Balochistan
Balochistan
Province

Today part of Balochistan, Pakistan

Warning: Value not specified for "common_name"

The region remained on the sidelines of history for a millennium until the Arab- Muslim
Muslim
army of Umar
Umar
captured Makran
Makran
in AD 643 and over the intervening (and nearly equivalent) amount of time the area was contested by various powers. This was then followed by almost two centuries of local rule by the various Baloch tribes. The city was visited by Ottoman Admiral
Admiral
Seydi Ali Reis
Seydi Ali Reis
in the 1550s and mentioned in his book Mirat ul Memalik (The Mirror of Countries), 1557.[17] According to Seydi Ali Reis, the inhabitants of Gwadar
Gwadar
were Baloch and their chief was Malik Jelaleddin, son of Malik Dinar.

In the 15th century the Portuguese conquered many parts of India and Oman. They planned to proceed with annexation of the coastal area of Makran. They attacked Gwadar
Gwadar
under the leadership of Vasco de Gama, but under the supervision of Commander Mir Ismaheel Baloch, the Portuguese were defeated by the Baloch. A few times the Portuguese looted and set the coastal villages on fire, but they failed to capture Gwadar. Cannons of the Portuguese army were found lying near the Central Jail of Gwadar, heirless. The grave of Mir Ismaheel Baloch is situated near the Mountain of Batal Gwadar, constructed by Mir Ismaheel Baloch himself during life. He died in 873 Hijri.[18] In 1783, the Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat
Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch granted suzerainty over Gwadar
Gwadar
to Taimur Sultan, the defeated ruler of Muscat.[19] When the sultan subsequently retook Muscat, he was to continue his rule in Gwadar
Gwadar
by appointing a wali (or "governor"). This wali was then ordered to subjugate the nearby coastal town of Chah Bahar (now in Iran). The Gwadar
Gwadar
fort was built during Omani
Omani
rule, whilst telegraph lines were later extended into the town courtesy of the British. In the middle of the 18th century, Mir Noori Naseer Khan Baloch captured Gwadar
Gwadar
and its surrounding areas after defeating the Gichki Baloch tribe and included it in the Kalat Khanate. However, realizing that maintaining control of the area will be difficult without the support of the Gichkis, Mir Nasir entered into an agreement with the local Gichki Chief, which allowed the Gichkis to maintain administrative control of the area, in return for furnishing half the collected revenues to Kalat, this arrangement continued till 1783. When Saiad Sultan
Sultan
fell out with his brother, the ruler of Muscat, and asked for help, Mir Noori Naseer Khan handed over Gwadar, as part of his share of revenues, to Saiad Sultan
Sultan
for his maintenance with the understanding that the area be returned to Kalat, when Saiad Sultan
Sultan
acquires the throne. Saiad Sultan
Sultan
ascended to the throne of Muscat in 1797 but never returned Gwadar
Gwadar
enclave to Kalat. The ensuing struggle between the heirs of the Sultan
Sultan
and Khan of Kalat
Khan of Kalat
for possession of Gwadar, allowed the British to intervene. The British after extracting concessions from the Sultan
Sultan
for the use of the area facilitated Muscat to retain Gwadar. Later on, the British claimed that the area was granted to the Sultan
Sultan
by Mir Nasir, however, local accounts and the declassified documents of that time challenge this claim.[20] From 1863 to 1879 Gwadar
Gwadar
was the headquarters of a British Assistant Political Agent.[citation needed] Gwadar
Gwadar
was a fortnightly port of call for the British India Steamship Navigation Company’s steamers and included a combined Post & Telegraph
Telegraph
Office.[citation needed] Sultan
Sultan
was the sovereign of Gwadar
Gwadar
until negotiations were held with the government of Pakistan
Pakistan
in the 1950s.[citation needed] Pakistan[edit]

Gwadar
Gwadar
Port

In 1948, Makran
Makran
acceded to Pakistan
Pakistan
and was made a district – Gwadar then, was not included in Makran. In 1958, Gwadar
Gwadar
and its surrounding areas were reverted by Maskat to Pakistan. It was given the status of a Tahsil of Makran
Makran
district. It was Feroz Khan Noon's regime when accession of Gwadar
Gwadar
took place[21] and it is propagated that Akbar Bugti, as minister of state for defence, was part of negotiations. On July 1, 1977, Makran
Makran
District was upgraded into a division and was divided into three districts of Turbat
Turbat
(Kech since 1994–95), Panjgur and Gwadar. On 8 September 1958, Pakistan
Pakistan
purchased the Gwadar
Gwadar
enclave from Oman for 5.5 billion Rupees (equivalent to US$1.1 billion in 2015 dollars). The Agreement had two important clauses: (1) All Balochistan
Balochistan
would form a military recruitment source for Oman; as a result, Balochis constitute a major part of Omani
Omani
forces, and (2) the resources of Gwadar
Gwadar
would be further developed. Most of the money for the purchase came from donations, with Prince Karim Agha Khan, the greatest contributor, while the remainder was paid through tax revenue. At the time, Gwadar
Gwadar
was a small and underdeveloped fishing village with a population of a few thousand. The Pakistani government integrated Gwadar
Gwadar
into Balochistan province
Balochistan province
on 1 July 1977 as the district headquarters of the newly formed Gwadar
Gwadar
District. In 1993, the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
formally conceived the plan to develop Gwadar into a major port city with a deep-sea port and to connect it with Pakistan's highway and rail networks. On 22 March 2002, the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
began construction of Gwadar
Gwadar
Port, a modern deep-sea port, Phase I of which was completed in March 2007. Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
was inaugurated on 20 March 2007.[22] Gwadar
Gwadar
underwent major development from 2002 to 2007. In 2002, Pakistan's National Highway Authority (NHA) began construction of the 653 km-long Makran
Makran
Coastal Highway linking Gwadar
Gwadar
with Karachi via Pasni and Ormara
Ormara
and onwards with the rest of the National Highways of Pakistan, which was completed in 2004. In 2003, the Gwadar Development Authority was established to oversee the planning and development of Gwadar
Gwadar
and Gwadar
Gwadar
Industrial Estate Development Authority was established to promote industrial activities in mega port city of Gwadar.[23] In 2004, Pakistan's NHA began construction of the 820-km long M8 motorway linking Gwadar
Gwadar
with Ratodero in Sindh province via Turbat, Hoshab, Awaran
Awaran
and Khuzdar
Khuzdar
and onwards with the rest of the Motorways of Pakistan. In 2006, the Gwadar
Gwadar
Development Authority conceived, developed and adopted a 50-year Master Plan for Gwadar. In 2007, the Civil Aviation Authority of Pakistan
Pakistan
acquired 4,300 acres (17 km2) to construct a new greenfield airport, the New Gwadar International Airport
Gwadar International Airport
6,000 acres (24 km2), at an estimated cost of Rs. 7.5 billion.[citation needed] Gwadar
Gwadar
Port[edit] Main article: Gwadar
Gwadar
Port See also: China
China
Pakistan
Pakistan
Economic Corridor China
China
has a great strategic interest in Gwadar. In 2013, the state-owned China
China
Overseas Port Holdings Limited acquired Gwadar Port.[24] The port is strategically important for China
China
as sixty percent of China's oil comes from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
by ships traveling over 16,000 kilometres in two to three months, confronting pirates, bad weather, political rivals, and other risks up to its only commercial port, Shanghai. Gwadar
Gwadar
will reduce the distance to a mere 5000 kilometres and also serve round the year.[25] China
China
has been instrumental in design of the project. China
China
is providing approximately 80% of the cost of the port in the shape of grants and soft loans.[citation needed] Over 500 Chinese workers have worked on the project on a 24-hour basis to complete the port setup. There are still a large number of Chinese workers and engineers working on the project. China
China
is setting up a dry port at the Pakistan– China
China
border to take advantage of shorter route to sea through Gwadar.[citation needed] China
China
paid US$360 million to Pakistan for expansion and an upgrade for all weather trafficability of Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
linking Pakistan
Pakistan
with China. The contract has been awarded to Frontier Works Organization, who has also started the project. Feasibility and engineering studies to connect China
China
with Gwadar
Gwadar
through a pipeline and railway track have already begun.[citation needed] China
China
is heavily dependent on Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
oil which passes through the Strait of Malacca all the way through the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Once the oil reaches China's east coast ports, it is transported thousands of miles inland to western China. The Gwadar port- Karakoram Highway
Karakoram Highway
(KKH) route is sometimes alleged to be safer, cheaper and shorter than transporting the oil by ocean tanker. However, research suggests that transporting oil from Gwadar
Gwadar
to China would be very expensive, would encounter numerous logistical difficulties such as mountainous terrain, earthquakes, disputes with India, and potential terrorist attacks, and would barely make any impact on China's overall energy security.[26]. Chinese goods flowing in the opposite direction may be able to find an easier, shorter and secure route to the Middle East, increasing trade, but this remains to be seen. The Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
has committed to providing a base to China
China
in Gwadar. This will not only help secure Gwadar
Gwadar
but also take Pakistan- China
China
relations to new heights.[27] Although some analysts claim that China
China
intends to establish a naval presence at Gwadar, others argue that China
China
will be cautious about such a development. A Chinese military presence in Gwadar
Gwadar
may provoke a significant reaction from both the United States and India.[28] Geography[edit] Topography[edit]

Gwadar
Gwadar
is located on a narrow and sandy isthmus which connects the 480 foot tall Gwadar
Gwadar
Promontory to the Makran
Makran
coastline.

Fishing boats in Gwadar
Gwadar
East Bay with the Koh-e-Mehdi Hills in the background

Gwadar
Gwadar
is situated on the southwestern Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
coast of Pakistan in Gwadar District
Gwadar District
of Balochistan
Balochistan
province. Like Ormara
Ormara
further east, Gwadar
Gwadar
is situated on a natural hammerhead-shaped peninsula forming two almost perfect, but naturally curved, semicircular bays on either side. The city is situated on a narrow and sandy 12 kilometers long isthmus which connects the Pakistani coast to rocky outcroppings in the Arabian sea known as the Gwadar
Gwadar
Promontory, or Koh-e-Batil, which reach an altitude of 480 feet and extends seven miles east to west with a breadth of one mile.[29] The 800 foot wide isthmus upon which Gwadar
Gwadar
is located separates the two almost perfect semicircular bays from one another. The western bay is known as the Paddi Zirr, and is generally shallow with an average depth of 12 feet, and a maximum depth of 30 feet.[29] To the east of the isthmus is the deepwater Demi Zirr harbor, where the Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
was built. The area north of the city and Gwadar
Gwadar
Promentory is flate and generally barren. The white clay Koh-e-Mehdi (also known as Jabal-e-Mehdi) is a notable exception, and rises sharply from the plans to the northeast of Gwadar. The Koh-e-Mehdi features a two discernible peaks, with a height of 1,360 and 1,375 feet, and is approximately 4 miles wide and features sharp cliffs that drop precipitously into the Arabian Sea.[29] Following an earthquake in September 2013 a small island called Zalzala Jazeera
Zalzala Jazeera
("Earthquake Island") formed approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) off the coast.[citation needed] Population[edit] The population of the city has risen to approximately 85,000 as of 2014.[30] Generally, Gwadar’s population of primarily Baloch origin.[31][32] Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Gwadar Gwadar
Gwadar
has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), characterised by little precipitation and high variation between summer and winter temperatures. The oceanic influence keeps the temperature lower in summer and higher in winter as compared to the inland. The mean temperature in the hottest month (June) remains between 31 °C and 32 °C. The mean temperature in the coolest month (January) varies from 18 °C to 19 °C. The uniformity of temperature is a unique characteristic of the Makran
Makran
Coastal region. Occasionally, winds moving down the Balochistan
Balochistan
plateau bring brief cold spells, otherwise the winter is pleasant. In Gwadar, winters are shorter than summers. Although Gwadar
Gwadar
is situated outside the monsoon belt, it receives light monsoon showers in summer (June–August). However, in winter, Western Disturbance
Western Disturbance
can cause heavy rainfall. Annual rainfall is only 100 mm (3 inches). In June 2010, Gwadar
Gwadar
was lashed by Cyclone Phet
Cyclone Phet
with record-breaking rains of 372 mm and winds up to 75 mph.

Climate data for Gwadar, Pakistan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 31.1 (88) 33.0 (91.4) 40.5 (104.9) 44.7 (112.5) 45.7 (114.3) 48.0 (118.4) 42.5 (108.5) 39.5 (103.1) 41.1 (106) 41.0 (105.8) 37.0 (98.6) 33.1 (91.6) 48.0 (118.4)

Average high °C (°F) 24.1 (75.4) 25.0 (77) 28.0 (82.4) 31.9 (89.4) 34.2 (93.6) 34.0 (93.2) 32.5 (90.5) 31.5 (88.7) 31.5 (88.7) 32.0 (89.6) 29.0 (84.2) 25.0 (77) 29.9 (85.8)

Average low °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 15.1 (59.2) 18.4 (65.1) 21.7 (71.1) 24.9 (76.8) 26.9 (80.4) 26.9 (80.4) 25.8 (78.4) 24.4 (75.9) 21.7 (71.1) 18.0 (64.4) 15.1 (59.2) 21.1 (70)

Record low °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 1.3 (34.3) 8.0 (46.4) 12.5 (54.5) 15.5 (59.9) 20.0 (68) 20.8 (69.4) 20.5 (68.9) 18.0 (64.4) 13.0 (55.4) 5.5 (41.9) 0.5 (32.9) 0.5 (32.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 25.9 (1.02) 22.7 (0.894) 13.4 (0.528) 4.9 (0.193) 0.1 (0.004) 2.4 (0.094) 6.6 (0.26) 2.8 (0.11) 0.2 (0.008) 0.9 (0.035) 3.7 (0.146) 21.6 (0.85) 89.8 (3.535)

Source: [33]

Administration[edit] Gwadar
Gwadar
serves the headquarters for both Gwadar District
Gwadar District
and Gwadar Tehsil. Gwadar
Gwadar
Tehsil is administratively subdivided into five union councils.[34] Neighbourhoods[edit] Gwadar
Gwadar
is divided into 5 union councils, which are further subdivided into wards:[35]

Gwadar
Gwadar
Central

Gazrawan Komagri Mohallah Zahoor Shah Sohrabi Saleh Muhammad Usmania

South Gwadar

Kamari Mohallah Karim Bakhsh Mohallah Shahdu Band Mullah Band Murad Bakhsh Sarabi Sheikh Umar Tobagh

North Gwadar

Lal Baksh Mohalla Baloch Mohalla Mir Abdul Ghafoor Mujahid

Pishukan Sorbandar

Culture[edit]

Gwadar
Gwadar
is located across the mouth of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
from the Arabian Peninsula.

Gwadar's location and history have given it a unique blend of cultures. The Arabic influence upon Gwadar
Gwadar
is strong as a consequence of the Omani
Omani
era and its close proximity to the Arabian peninsula.[32] The legacy of the Omanis is observed in some of the local population who can trace their lineage to Afro-Arabs
Afro-Arabs
and Zanj slaves,[21] who settled in the town during Omani
Omani
rule. Remnants of Oman
Oman
era buildings can also be found in the city. Strategic importance[edit] The port of Gwadar
Gwadar
can provide China
China
a Listening Post to Observe the Indian naval activities around the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Gulf of Aden. Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia, encompassing the Caspian Region, Central Asian republics, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Iran, and the energy-rich ‘lake’ called the Caspian Sea, is a significant region because of its huge monetary prospective and geographically vital positioning, which has formed the region as a centre piece in the international arena.[36] Iran
Iran
has also declared support for the development of Gwadar
Gwadar
and its port.[37] Economy[edit]

Much of Gwadar's economy is based on artisanal fishing.

Gwadar's economy has, in the past, been dependent mostly on fishing. Its economy, however, is undergoing rapid transformation as a small fishing village is being transformed into a major port city of Pakistan
Pakistan
with improved communication links with the rest of Pakistan. In 1993, the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
commenced a feasibility study for the construction of a deep-sea port at Gwadar. On 22 March 2002, the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
began construction of Gwadar
Gwadar
Port, a modern deep-sea port, the first phase of which was completed in December 2005 and the second in March 2007. Gwadar Port
Gwadar Port
became fully operational in December 2009. The 1400 km Trans-Afghan Gas Pipeline
Trans-Afghan Gas Pipeline
(TAP) from Turkmenistan to Gwadar
Gwadar
(Pakistan), a long-dormant project that would pump Turkmen natural gas to markets in South Asia, may finally be poised to begin at a cost of $3 billion.[citation needed] Gwadar
Gwadar
Free Zone[edit] The construction on a $2 billion 10-square kilometre tax exempt industrial zone began on June 20, 2016.[38] The zone includes a 300MW plant exclusive for the industrial zone.[39] See also[edit]

Gwadar
Gwadar
International Airport Gwadar
Gwadar
Port

References[edit]

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 146952

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