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Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
(Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (22 December 1666 – 7 October 1708),[4][5] born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam,[6][7] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs
Sikhs
at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru.[8] His four sons died during his lifetime in Mughal-Sikh Wars – two in battle, two executed by the Mughal army.[9][10][11] Among his notable contributions to Sikhism
Sikhism
are founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa
Khalsa
in 1699[2][12][13] and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs
Sikhs
wear at all times. Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
also continued the formalisation of the religion, wrote important Sikh
Sikh
texts,[14][15] and enshrined the scripture the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
as Sikhism's eternal Guru.[16]

Contents

1 Family and early life 2 Founding the Khalsa 3 Sikh
Sikh
scriptures 4 Wars

4.1 Significant battles 4.2 Death of family members 4.3 Mughal accounts

5 Post-war years

5.1 Zafarnama

6 Final days 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Family and early life[edit]

Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh's birthplace

Gobind Singh
Singh
was the only son of Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh guru, and Mata Gujri. He was born in Patna, Bihar
Bihar
in the Sodhi Jat family [17] while his father was visiting Bengal
Bengal
and Assam.[4] His birth name was Gobind Rai, and a shrine named Takht Sri Patna Harimandar Sahib marks the site of the house where he was born and spent the first four years of his life.[4] In 1670, his family returned to Punjab, and in March 1672 they moved to Chakk Nanaki in the Himalayan foothills of north India, called the Sivalik range, where he was schooled.[4][12] His father Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
was petitioned by Kashmiri Pandits[18] in 1675 for protection from the fanatic persecution by Iftikar Khan, an Islamic satrap of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.[4] Tegh Bahadur considered a peaceful resolution by meeting Aurangzeb, but was cautioned by his advisors that his life may be at risk. The young Gobind Rai – to be known as Gobind Singh
Singh
after 1699[5] – advised his father that no one was more worthy to lead and make a sacrifice than him.[4] His father made the attempt, but was arrested then publicly beheaded in Delhi
Delhi
on 11 November 1675 under the orders of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
for refusing to convert to Islam and the ongoing conflicts between Sikhism
Sikhism
and the Islamic Empire.[19][20] After this martyrdom, the young Gobind Rai was installed by the Sikhs
Sikhs
as the tenth Sikh
Sikh
Guru on Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
on 29 March 1676.[21] The education of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
continued after he became the 10th Guru, both in reading and writing as well as martial arts such as horse riding and archery. In 1684, he wrote the Chandi di Var
Chandi di Var
in Punjabi language
Punjabi language
– a legendary war between the good and the evil, where the good stands up against injustice and tyranny, as described in the ancient Sanskrit text Markandeya Purana.[4] He stayed in Paonta, near the banks of river Yamuna, till 1685.[4] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
had three wives:[3][22]

at age 10, he married Mata Jito
Mata Jito
on 21 June 1677 at Basantgaṛh, 10 km north of Anandpur. The couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh (b. 1691), Zorawar Singh
Singh
(b. 1696) and Fateh Singh
Singh
(b. 1699).[23] at age 17, he married Mata Sundari
Mata Sundari
on 4 April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh
Singh
(b. 1687).[24] at age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan
Mata Sahib Devan
on 15 April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children, but she had an influential role in Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh
Singh
proclaimed her as the Mother of the Khalsa.[25]

The life example and leadership of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
has been of historic importance to the Sikhs. He institutionalized the Khalsa (literally, Pure Ones), which played the key role in protecting the Sikhs
Sikhs
long after his death, such as during the nine invasions of Panjab and holy war led by Ahmad Shah Abdali from Afghanistan between 1747 and 1769.[5] Founding the Khalsa[edit]

Keshgarh Sahib
Keshgarh Sahib
Gurudwara at Anandpur Sahib, Punjab, the birthplace of Khalsa

A Fresco of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and The Panj Piare
Panj Piare
in Gurdwara
Gurdwara
Bhai Than Singh
Singh
built in the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

In 1699, the Guru
Guru
requested the Sikhs
Sikhs
to congregate at Anandpur on Vaisakhi
Vaisakhi
(the annual spring harvest festival).[26] According to the Sikh
Sikh
tradition, he asked for a volunteer from those who gathered, someone willing to sacrifice his head. One came forward, whom he took inside a tent. The Guru
Guru
returned to the crowd without the volunteer, but with a bloody sword.[26] He asked for another volunteer, and repeated the same process of returning from the tent without anyone and with a bloodied sword four more times. After the fifth volunteer went with him into the tent, the Guru
Guru
returned with all five volunteers, all safe. He called them the Panj Pyare
Panj Pyare
and the first Khalsa
Khalsa
in the Sikh
Sikh
tradition.[26] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
then mixed water and sugar into an iron bowl, stirring it with a double-edged sword to prepare what he called Amrit ("nectar"). He then administered this to the Panj Pyare, accompanied with recitations from the Adi Granth, thus founding the khande ka pahul (baptization ceremony) of a Khalsa
Khalsa
– a warrior community.[26][27] The Guru
Guru
also gave them a new surname "Singh" (lion). After the first five Khalsa
Khalsa
had been baptized, the Guru
Guru
asked the five to baptize him as a Khalsa. This made the Guru
Guru
the sixth Khalsa, and his name changed from Guru
Guru
Gobind Rai to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh.[26]

Kanga, Kara and Kirpan
Kirpan
– three of the five Ks

Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
initiated the Five K's
Five K's
tradition of the Khalsa,[28]

Kesh: uncut hair. Kangha: a wooden comb. Kara: an iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist. Kirpan: a sword or dagger. Kacchera: short breeches.

He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa
Khalsa
warriors. Tobacco, eating 'halal' meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal's throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden.[28][29] The Khalsas also agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors.[28] The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa
Khalsa
also institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism
Sikhism
regardless of one's caste or gender.[29] Guru Gobind Singh's significance to the Sikh
Sikh
tradition has been very important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, and continued "the defence of Sikhism
Sikhism
and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb".[30] He introduced ideas that indirectly challenged the discriminatory taxes imposed by Islamic authorities. For example, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
had imposed taxes on non-Muslims that were collected from the Sikhs
Sikhs
as well, for example the jizya (poll tax on non-Muslims), pilgrim tax and Bhaddar tax – the last being a tax to be paid by anyone following the Hindu ritual of shaving the head after the death of a loved one and cremation.[2] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
declared that Khalsa
Khalsa
do not need to continue this practice, because Bhaddar is not dharam, but a bharam (illusion).[2][31] Not shaving the head also meant not having to pay the taxes by Sikhs
Sikhs
who lived in Delhi
Delhi
and other parts of the Mughal Empire.[2] However, the new code of conduct also led to internal disagreements between Sikhs
Sikhs
in the 18th century, particularly between the Nanakpanthi and the Khalsa.[2] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
had deep respect for the Khalsa, and stated that there is no difference between the True Guru
Guru
and the sangat (panth).[32] Before his founding of the Khalsa, the Sikh
Sikh
movement had used the Sanskrit word Sisya (literally, disciple or student), but the favored term thereafter became Khalsa.[33] Additionally, prior to the Khalsa, the Sikh
Sikh
congregations across India
India
had a system of Masands appointed by the Sikh
Sikh
Gurus. The Masands led the local Sikh communities, local temples, collected wealth and donations for the Sikh
Sikh
cause.[33] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
concluded that the Masands system had become corrupt, he abolished them and introduced a more centralized system with the help of Khalsa
Khalsa
that was under his direct supervision.[33] These developments created two groups of Sikhs, those who initiated as Khalsa, and others who remained Sikhs
Sikhs
but did not undertake the initiation.[33] The Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikhs
Sikhs
saw themselves as a separate religious entity, while the Nanak-panthi Sikhs
Sikhs
retained their different perspective.[34][35] The Khalsa
Khalsa
warrior community tradition started by Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh has contributed to modern scholarly debate on pluralism within Sikhism. His tradition has survived into the modern times, with initiated Sikh
Sikh
referred to as Khalsa
Khalsa
Sikh, while those who do not get baptized referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs.[36][37][38] Sikh
Sikh
scriptures[edit]

The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
is attributed to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. It incorporates the warrior-saint mythologies of ancient India.[39][40]

In the 16th and 17th century, multiple and different versions of the Sikh
Sikh
scripture by unknown authors, all claiming to be the words of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
were in circulation. Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
(d. 1606) attempted to remove corruption and interpolation of the text, and compiled a purer version of the Adi Granth.[41] In the 17th century, the text was called the Pothi, and three manuscripts claimed to be authentic, one Kartarpur version (dated 1604), the other a bit larger Khara Mangat version (dated 1642), and the third quite different Lahore version of the Adi Granth
Adi Granth
(date unknown).[42] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
is credited in the Sikh
Sikh
tradition with finalizing the Kartarpur Pothi into the Guru Granth Sahib
Guru Granth Sahib
in Bathinda
Bathinda
and releasing it in 1706.[42] The final version did not accept the extraneous hymns in other versions, and included the compositions of his father Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur.[42] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
also declared this text to be the eternal Guru
Guru
for Sikhs.[16] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
composed other texts, particularly the Dasam Granth which many Sikhs
Sikhs
consider to be a scripture next in importance after the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib.[43][44] The Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
includes compositions such as the Jaap Sahib, Amrit Savaiye
Amrit Savaiye
and Benti Chaupai which are part of the daily prayers/lessons (Nitnem) of Sikhs.[45] The Dasam Granth is largely versions of Indian theology from the Puranas
Puranas
and secular stories.[46][47][48] The Sarbloh Granth
Sarbloh Granth
has also been attributed to the Guru. Wars[edit]

When all other means have failed, It is but lawful to take to the sword.

Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, Zafarnamah[49][50]

The period following the execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur
Guru Tegh Bahadur
– the father of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, was a period where the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
under Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was an increasingly hostile enemy of the Sikh
Sikh
people.[51] The Sikh
Sikh
resisted, led by Gobind Singh, and the Muslim- Sikh
Sikh
conflicts peaked during this period.[51] Both Mughal administration and Aurangzeb's army had an active interest in Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
issued an order to exterminate Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and his family.[52] Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
believed in a Dharam Yudh (war in defence of righteousness), something that is fought as a last resort, neither out of a wish for revenge nor for greed nor for any destructive goals.[53] To Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh, one must be prepared to die to stop tyranny, end persecution and to defend one's own religious values.[53] He led fourteen wars with these objectives, but never took captives nor damaged anyone's place of worship.[53] Significant battles[edit]

Battle of Bhangani (1688), which states chapter 8 of Gobind Singh's Bicitra Natak, when Fateh Shah, along with mercenary commanders Hayat Khan and Najabat Khan,[54] attacked his forces without any purpose. The Guru
Guru
was aided by forces of Kripal (his maternal uncle) and a Brahmin named Daya Ram, both of whom he praises as heroes in his text.[55] The Guru's cousin named Sango Shah was killed in the battle, a cousin from Guru
Guru
Hargobind's daughter.[54] Battle of Nadaun (1691), against the Islamic armies of Mian Khan and his son Alif Khan, who were defeated by the allied forces of Guru Gobind Singh, Bhim Chand and other Hindu kings of Himalayan foothills.[56] The non-Muslims aligned to the Guru
Guru
had refused to pay tribute to the Islamic officials based in Jammu.[54]

In 1693, Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was fighting the Hindu Marathas in the Deccan region of India, and he issued orders that Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and Sikhs should be prevented from gathering in Anandpur in large numbers.[54][57]

Battle of Guler (1696), first against the Muslim commander Dilawar Khan's son Rustam Khan, near Sutlej river, where the Guru
Guru
teamed up with the Hindu king of Guler and routed the Muslim army.[58] The commander sent his general Hussain Khan against the armies of the Guru and the Guler kingdom, a war fought near Pathankot, and Hussain Khan was defeated and killed by the joint forces.[58] First Battle of Anandpur (1700), against the Mughal army of Aurangzeb, who had sent 10,000 soldiers under the command of Painda Khan and Dina Beg.[59] In a direct combat between Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and Painda Khan, the latter was killed. His death led to the Mughal army fleeing the battlefield.[59] Battle of Anandpur Sahib
Anandpur Sahib
(1701), against the neighbouring Hindu kingdom chiefs who controlled the mountain kingdoms. This was accompanied by a battle wherein Jagatullah was killed by Sikh forces.[59] The hill chiefs laid a siege of Anandpur, and the Guru
Guru
had to temporarily leave Anandpur as a condition for peace.[60] According to Louis Fenech, his wars with kings of the Himalayan kingdoms was likely triggered by the growing army of Sikhs, which then raided and plundered villages in nearby mountainous kingdoms for supplies; the Hindu kings joined forces and blockaded Anandpur.[57] Battle of Nirmohgarh (1702), against the forces of Aurangzeb, led by Wazir Khan on the banks of Nirmohgarh. The battle continued for two days, with heavy losses on both sides, and Wazir Khan army left the battlefield. Battle of Basoli (1702), against the Mughal army; named after the kingdom of Basoli whose Raja Dharampul supported the Guru
Guru
in the battle.[61] The Mughal army was supported by rival kingdom of Kahlur led by Raja Ajmer Chand. The battle ended when the two sides reached a tactical peace.[61] Battle of Anandpur (1704), against the Mughal army led first by Saiyad Khan and then by Ramjan Khan;[59] The Mughal general was fatally wounded by Sikh
Sikh
soldiers, and the army withdrew. Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
then sent a larger army with two generals, Wazir Khan and Zaberdast Khan in May 1704, to destroy the Sikh
Sikh
resistance.[59] The approach the Islamic army took in this battle was to lay a protracted siege against Anandpur, from May to December, cutting off all food and other supplies moving in and out, along with repeated battles.[62] Some Sikh men deserted the Guru
Guru
during Anandpur siege in 1704, and escaped to their homes where their women shamed them and they rejoined the Guru's army and died fighting with him in 1705.[63][64] Towards the end, the Guru, his family and followers accepted an offer by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
of safe passage out of Anandpur.[65] However, as they left Anandpur in two batches, they were attacked, and one of the batches with Mata Gujari and Guru's two sons – Zorawar Singh
Singh
aged 8 and Fateh Singh
Singh
aged 5 – were taken captive by the Mughal army.[60][66] Both his children were executed by burying them alive into a wall.[62][67] The grandmother Mata Gujari died there as well.[60] Battle of Sarsa (1704), against the Mughal army led by general Wazir Khan; the Muslim commander had conveyed Aurangzeb's promise of a safe passage to Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and his family in early December.[66] However, when the Guru
Guru
accepted the offer and left, Wazir Khan took captives, executed them and pursued the Guru.[68] The retreating troops he was with were repeated attacked from behind, with heavy casualties to the Sikhs, particularly while crossing the Sarsa river.[68] Battle of Chamkaur (1704) Regarded as one of the most important battle of the Sikh
Sikh
history. It was against the Mughal army led by Nahar Khan;[69] the Muslim commander was killed,[69] while on Sikh
Sikh
side the remaining two elder sons of the Guru
Guru
– Ajit Singh
Singh
and Jujhar Singh, along with other Sikh
Sikh
soldiers were killed in this battle.[60][70] Battle of Muktsar
Battle of Muktsar
(1705), the Guru's army was re-attacked by the Mughal army, being hunted down by general Wazir Khan, in the arid area of Khidrana-ki-Dhab. The Mughals were blocked again, but with many losses of Sikh
Sikh
lives – particularly the famous Chalis Mukte (literally, the "forty liberated ones"),[64] and this was the last battle led by Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh.[71] The place of battle called Khidrana was renamed about a 100 years later by Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
to Mukt-sar (literally, "lake of liberation"), after the term "Mukt" (moksha) of the ancient Indian tradition, in honour of those who gave their lives for the cause of liberation.[72]

Death of family members[edit]

Gurudwara Parivar Vichora
Parivar Vichora
Sahib, Majri, Rupnagar, Punjab where Mata Gujri with the two youngest Sahibzadas (Fateh Singh
Singh
and Zorawar Singh)[73] were separated from the Guru's regiment. Many Sikhs
Sikhs
drowned or were martyred while crossing the river.

Guru's mother Mata Gujri
Mata Gujri
and his two younger sons were captured by Wazir Khan, the Muslim governor of Sirhind. His youngest sons, aged 5 and 8, were executed by burying them alive into a wall after they refused to convert to Islam, and Mata Gujri
Mata Gujri
collapsed on hearing her grandsons' death.[73] Both his eldest sons, aged 13 and 17, also killed in the battle of December 1704 against the Mughal army.[62] Mughal accounts[edit]

Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh's letter written to Rama and Tiloka. Dated 2 August 1696.

The Muslim historians of the Mughal court wrote about Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
as well as the geopolitics of the times he lived in, and these official Persian accounts were the readily available and the basis of colonial era English-language description of Sikh
Sikh
history.[74][75] According to Dhavan, the Persian texts that were composed by Mughal court historians during the lifetime of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
were hostile to him, but presented the Mughal perspective.[74] They believed that the religious Guru
Guru
tradition of Sikhs
Sikhs
had been corrupted by him, through the creation of a military order willing to resist the Imperial army.[74] Dhavan writes that some Persian writers who wrote decades or a century after the death of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
evolved from relying entirely on court histories of the Mughals which disparage the Guru, to including stories from the Sikh
Sikh
gurbilas text that praise the Guru.[74][76] The Mughal accounts suggest that the Muslim commanders viewed the Sikh panth as one divided into sects with different loyalties, and after the battle of Anandpur, the Mughals felt that the Guru's forces had become a small band of left over warriors.[77] Post-war years[edit]

GGS Marg Map

After the Second Battle of Anandpur
Second Battle of Anandpur
in 1704, the Guru
Guru
and his remaining soldiers moved and stayed in different spots including hidden in places such as the Machhiwara jungle of southern Panjab.[66] Some of the various spots in north, west and central India
India
that the Guru
Guru
lived after 1705, include Hehar with Kirpal Das (maternal uncle), Manuke, Mehdiana, Chakkar, Takhtupura and Madhe and Dina (Malwa (Punjab) region). He stayed with relatives or trusted Sikhs
Sikhs
such as the three grandsons of Rai Jodh, a devotee of Guru
Guru
Har Gobind.[78] Zafarnama[edit] Main article: Zafarnama (letter) Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
saw the war conduct of Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
and his army against his family and his people as a betrayal of a promise, unethical, unjust and impious.[66] After all of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh's children had been killed by the Mughal army and the battle of Muktsar, the Guru
Guru
wrote a defiant letter in Persian to Aurangzeb, titled Zafarnama (literally, "epistle of victory"), a letter which the Sikh tradition considers important towards the end of the 19th century.[66][79][80] The Guru's letter was stern yet conciliatory to Aurangzeb. He indicted the Mughal Emperor and his commanders in spiritual terms, accused them of a lack of morality both in governance and in the conduct of war.[81] The letter predicted that the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
would soon end, because it persecutes, is full of abuse, falsehood and immorality. The letter is spiritually rooted in Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh's beliefs about justice and dignity without fear.[81] Final days[edit]

Takht Sri Hazur Sahib, Nanded, built over the place where Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
was cremated in 1708, the inner chamber is still called Angitha Sahib.

Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
died in 1707, and immediately a succession struggle began between his sons who attacked each other.[82] The official successor was Bahadur Shah, who invited Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
with his army to meet him in person in the Deccan region of India, for a reconciliation but Bahadur Shah then delayed any discussions for months.[62][82] Wazir Khan, a Muslim army commander and the Nawab of Sarhandh ,against whose army the Guru
Guru
had fought several wars,[71] commissioned two Afghans, Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg, to follow the Guru's army as it moved for the meeting with Bahadur Shah, and then assassinate the Guru. The two secretly pursued the Guru
Guru
whose troops were in the Deccan area of India, and entered the camp when the Sikhs
Sikhs
had been stationed near river Godavari for months.[83] They gained access to the Guru
Guru
and Jamshed Khan stabbed him with a fatal wound at Nanded.[62][84] Some scholars state that the assassin who killed Guru Gobind Singh
Singh
may not have been sent by Wazir Khan, but was instead sent by the Mughal army that was staying nearby.[71] According to Senapati's Sri Gur Sobha, an early 18th century writer, the fatal wounds of the Guru
Guru
was one below his heart. The Guru
Guru
fought back and killed the assassin, while the assassin's companion was killed by the Sikh
Sikh
guards as he tried to escape.[83]

Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
with his horse

The Guru
Guru
died of his wounds a few days later on 7 October 1708[85] His death fuelled a long and bitter war of the Sikhs
Sikhs
with the Mughals.[83] See also[edit]

India
India
portal Biography portal Sikhism
Sikhism
portal Punjab portal

List of places named after Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
Children's Foundation Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
Indraprastha University Ganga Sagar (urn) Mazhabi
Mazhabi
Sikh Bhai Jiwan Singh

References[edit]

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Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh
Singh
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Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-1-136-84627-4.  ^ a b Dhillon, Dr Dalbir Singh
Singh
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Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
on BBC". BBC. Retrieved 2011-12-30.  ^ a b Christopher Shelke (2009). Divine covenant: rainbow of religions and cultures. Gregorian Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-88-7839-143-7.  ^ Vanjara Bedi, S. S. "SODHI". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 20 August 2017.  ^ Pashaura Singh
Singh
and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 445. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.  ^ Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.  ^ Pashaura Singh
Singh
and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–237. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.  ^ Harkirat S. Hansra (2007). Liberty at Stake:sikhs: the Most Visible. iUniverse. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-595-43222-6.  ^ Jones, Constance A.; Ryan, James D. (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 417. ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9.  ^ Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "JITOJI MATA". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  ^ Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "SUNDARI MATA". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 14 September 2016.  ^ Ashok, Shamsher Singh. "SAHIB DEVAN". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 16 August 2016.  ^ a b c d e Mahmood, Cynthia Keppley (1996). Fighting for faith and nation dialogues with Sikh
Sikh
militants. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 43–45. ISBN 978-0-8122-1592-2. OCLC 44966032.  ^ P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior
Warrior
Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ a b c Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
Singh
(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Routledge. p. 37. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.  ^ a b John M Koller (2016). The Indian Way: An Introduction to the Philosophies & Religions of India. Routledge. pp. 312–313. ISBN 978-1-315-50740-8.  ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
Singh
(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. 36. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6.  ^ P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior
Warrior
Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ Cole, W. Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh
Singh
(1978). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 38–39. ISBN 0-7100-8842-6. , Quote: All the battles I have won against tyranny I have fought with the devoted backing of the people. Through them only have I been able to bestow gifts, through their help I have escaped from harm. The love and generosity of these Sikhs
Sikhs
have enriched my heart and home. Through their grace I have attained all learning, through their help in battle I have slain all my enemies. I was born to serve them, through them I reached eminence. What would I have been without their kind and ready help?There are millions of insignificant people like me. True service is the service of these people. I am not inclined to serve others of higher caste: charity will bear fruit in this and the next world, If given to such worthy people as these. All other sacrifices are and charities are profitless. From toe to toe, whatever I call my own, all I possess and carry, I dedicate to these people.</poem> ^ a b c d Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.  ^ Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 24, 77–78, 89–90. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.  ^ Arvind-Pal S. Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh
Singh
(2013). Sikh
Sikh
Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 30–33. ISBN 978-1-136-84634-2.  ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.  ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ Knut A. Jacobsen; Kristina Myrvold (2012). Sikhs
Sikhs
Across Borders: Transnational Practices of European Sikhs. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 142–147, 156–157. ISBN 978-1-4411-0358-1.  ^ Robin Rinehart (2011). Debating the Dasam Granth. Oxford University Press. pp. 59–62. ISBN 978-0-19-975506-6.  ^ Anne Murphy (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.  ^ Singh, Khushwant (1991). A history of the Sikhs. 1. Oxford University Press. pp. 54–56,294–295.  ^ a b c Arvind-Pal Singh
Singh
Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh (2013). Sikh
Sikh
Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 11–12, 17–19. ISBN 978-1-136-84627-4.  ^ Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xvii-xx ^ J Deol (2000), Sikh
Sikh
Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700713899, pages 31-33 ^ Robert Zaehner (1988), The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, Hutchinson, ISBN 978-0091735760, pages 426-427 ^ Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, page xx ^ William McLeod (2009), The A to Z of Sikhism, Toronto: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0810868281, page 151 ^ J Deol (2013). Arvind-Pal Singh
Singh
Mandair; et al., eds. Sikh
Sikh
Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 30–34. ISBN 978-1-136-84627-4. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Mohinder Singh
Singh
(1988). History and Culture of Panjab. Atlantic Publishers. p. 10.  ^ Pashaura Singh
Singh
(2012). John Renard, ed. Fighting Words: Religion, Violence, and the Interpretation of Sacred Texts. University of California Press. pp. 211–218. ISBN 978-0-520-95408-3.  ^ a b Torkel Brekke (2014). Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse, ed. Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 673–674. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.  ^ J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0. , Quote: " Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
took an active interest in the issue of succession, passed orders for the execution of Guru
Guru
Tegh Bahadur, and at one time ordered total extirpation of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh
Singh
and his family". ^ a b c Christopher J. H. Wright (2003). God and Morality. Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-19-914839-4.  ^ a b c d J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.  ^ Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Singh
(2012). Birth of the Khalsa, The: A Feminist Re-Memory of Sikh
Sikh
Identity. State University of New York Press. pp. 26–28. ISBN 978-0-7914-8266-7.  ^ Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood. p. 704. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9.  ^ a b Louis E. Fenech (2013). The Sikh
Sikh
Zafar-namah of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh: A Discursive Blade in the Heart of the Mughal Empire. Oxford University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-993145-3.  ^ a b Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood. p. 420. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9.  ^ a b c d e Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 48–49. ISBN 978-0-313-33537-2.  ^ a b c d Robin Rinehart (2011). Debating the Dasam Granth. Oxford University Press. pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-19-975506-6.  ^ a b Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O. Greenwood. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-313-33538-9.  ^ a b c d e Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ Louis E. Fenech (2000). Martyrdom in the Sikh
Sikh
Tradition: Playing the "game of Love". Oxford University Press. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-19-564947-5.  ^ a b W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.  ^ Singh, Prithi Pal (2007). The History of Sikh
Sikh
Gurus. Lotus Books. pp. 128–147. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2.  ^ a b c d e Hardip Singh
Singh
Syan (2013). Sikh
Sikh
Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 220–222. ISBN 978-1-78076-250-0.  ^ Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh
Singh
(2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-85773-549-2.  ^ a b Tony Jaques (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Greenwood Publishing. p. 914. ISBN 978-0-313-33537-2.  ^ a b Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 79. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.  ^ a b c J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.  ^ Sir Lepel Henry Griffin (1898). Ranjit Síngh and the Sikh
Sikh
Barrier Between Our Growing Empire and Central Asia. Oxford University Press. pp. 55–56.  ^ a b "Mata Gujri" (25 December 2006) ^ a b c d P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh
Sikh
Warrior
Warrior
Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 165–167, 13–24. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ Anne Murphy (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 110–113. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.  ^ Anne Murphy (2012). Time, History and the Religious Imaginary in South Asia. Routledge. pp. 47–50. ISBN 978-1-136-70729-2.  ^ P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh Warrior
Warrior
Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 51–53. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ Johar, Surinder Singh
Singh
(1998). Holy Sikh
Sikh
shrines. New Delhi: M D Publications. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-7533-073-3. OCLC 44703461.  ^ W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. pp. xxv, 52, 214–215. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.  ^ Anne Murphy (2012). The Materiality of the Past: History and Representation in Sikh
Sikh
Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-19-991629-0.  ^ a b Michael L. Hadley (2001). Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice, The. State University of New York Press. pp. 20, 207–214. ISBN 978-0-7914-9114-0.  ^ a b P Dhavan (2011). When Sparrows Became Hawks: The Making of the Sikh
Sikh
Warrior
Warrior
Tradition, 1699-1799. Oxford University Press. pp. 45–46. ISBN 978-0-19-975655-1.  ^ a b c d Hardip Singh
Singh
Syan (2013). Sikh
Sikh
Militancy in the Seventeenth Century: Religious Violence in Mughal and Early Modern India. I.B.Tauris. pp. 222–223. ISBN 978-1-78076-250-0.  ^ Singh, Prithi Pal. The history of Sikh
Sikh
Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 81-8382-075-1.  ^ However Hardip Singh
Singh
Syan gives the date as 18 October 1708.[83]

Further reading[edit]

Singh, Gobind; Jasbir Kaur Ahuja (1996). The Zafarnama of Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh. Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan. OCLC 42966940.  Singh, Prof. Surinderjit, Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh's Zafarnamah Transliteration and Poetic Rendering in English. Singh
Singh
Brothers, Amritsar. 2003. ISBN 81-7205-272-3. Deora, Man Singh
Singh
(1989). Guru
Guru
Gobind Singh: a literary survey. New Delhi: Anmol Publications. ISBN 978-81-7041-160-4. OCLC 21280295.  Sri Dasam Granth
Dasam Granth
Sahib: Questions and Answers: The book on Sri Dasam Granth Sahib

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7403162 LCCN: n50082097 ISNI: 0000 0000 8353 9458 GND: 119006898 SUDOC: 028359151 BNF: cb1202

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