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Coordinates: 4°07′55″N 114°55′08″E / 4.132°N 114.919°E / 4.132; 114.919

Gunung Mulu National Park

Protected Area

Mount Mulu
Mount Mulu
viewed from a distance

Country Malaysia

State Sarawak

Highest point

 - location Mount Mulu

Area 528.64 km2 (204 sq mi)

Geology Extensive caves including the world's largest cave chamber

Plant Nepenthes
Nepenthes
pitcher plants, strangler figs

Animal Gibbons, orangutans, rhinoceros hornbills, Sumatran rhinoceroses, sun bears

Founded 1974

Management Sarawak
Sarawak
Forestry

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Name Gunung Mulu National Park

Year 2000 (#24)

Number 1013

Region Asia-Pacific

Criteria vii, viii, ix, x

The Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
is a national park in Miri Division, Sarawak, Malaysia, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
that encompasses caves and karst formations in a mountainous equatorial rainforest setting. The park is famous for its caves and the expeditions that have been mounted to explore them and their surrounding rainforest, most notably the Royal Geographical Society
Royal Geographical Society
Expedition of 1977–1978, which saw over 100 scientists in the field for 15 months. This initiated a series of over 20 expeditions now drawn together as the Mulu Caves Project. The national park is named after Mount Mulu, the second highest mountain in Sarawak.

Contents

1 Geology and landforms 2 Fauna 3 Flora 4 Access 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Geology and landforms[edit] Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
is famous for its limestone karst formations. Features include enormous caves, vast cave networks, rock pinnacles, cliffs and gorges. Mount Mulu
Mount Mulu
is a sandstone mountain rising to 2,376 m (7,795 ft). Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
has the largest known natural chamber or room – Sarawak
Sarawak
Chamber, found in Gua Nasib Bagus. It is 700 m (2,300 ft)) long, 396 m (1,299 ft) wide and at least 70 m (230 ft) high. It has been said that the chamber is so big that it could accommodate about 40 Boeing 747s, without overlapping their wings. The nearby Deer Cave is one of the largest single cave passages in the world.

The limestone pinnacles of Mount Api

Api Chamber in Whiterock Cave, Mount Api

Other notable caves in this area are Benarat Cavern, Cave of the Winds, and Clearwater Cave, the 8th longest cave in the world (May 2014) and believed to be the largest cave in the world by volume at 30,347,540 m3 (1.071713×109 cu ft). Mulu's limestones belong to the Melinau Formation and their age is between 17 and 40 million years (Late Eocene to Early Miocene). Stratigraphically below the limestones, and forming the highest peaks in the south east sector of the Park including Gunung Mulu, lies the Mulu Formation (shales and sandstones). The age of these rocks is between 40 and 90 million years (Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene). Fauna[edit] Eight species of hornbill have been spotted in Mulu including the rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros) which is featured on Sarawak's state emblem, the white-crowned hornbill (Berenicornis/Aceros comatus) and the helmeted hornbill (Buceros vigil) with its large solid casque (an enlargement on the bill). Twenty seven species of bat have been recorded in Mulu. Deer Cave in the southern limestone hills of the park is home to an enormous colony of Wrinkle-lipped bats (Tadarida plicata). The bats exit the cave almost every evening in search of food in a spectacular exodus. A huge mound of guano in the cave is evidence of the size of the bat colony that roosts in the cave's high ceilings. Mulu's mammals also include the bearded pig Sus barbatus, the moonrat Echinosorex gymnurus, shrews, the Bornean tarsier Tarsius bancanus, the long-tailed macaque Macaca fascicularis, gibbons, squirrels, and three types of deer including the small barking deer and mouse deer. The small Malaysian sun bear Helarctos malayanus, which is the only bear known in South-East Asia, has also been identified in Gunung Mulu National Park. A number of amphibians are only known from the Gunung Mulu National Park, including squat frog Calluella flava[1] and stream toad Ansonia torrentis.[2] Flora[edit]

An upper pitcher of Nepenthes
Nepenthes
faizaliana from Mount Api. This species is endemic to Gunung Mulu National Park.

Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
contains a large number of plant species, including flowering plants, trees, and fungi. Geology, soil types and topography have given rise to a rich tapestry of plant zones and types. On Gunung Mulu itself these include lowland mixed dipterocarp forest, lower montane forest, mossy or upper montane forest and summit zone vegetation on the highest peaks. On the limestones there is lowland limestone forest as well as lower and upper montane limestone forest. Other plant communities dominate the alluvial plains, including kerangas (tropical heath forest) and peatswamp forest. Access[edit] Mulu National Park is a very remote access area; the only practical way of getting to and from it is by air, through Mulu Airport. There are flights between Mulu Airport
Mulu Airport
and Miri (daily), Kuching (Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays) and Kota Kinabalu (Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays) on MASwings.[3] Alternatively, it is possible to travel by river from Miri, which is about 100 km away, using a riverboat, then a chartered long boat, which in total takes around 12 hours. Before the opening of the airport and the opening of a helipad in 1991, this was the only way to reach the national park. Excursions to Mulu continues to retain the sense of adventure associated with its original exploration through the provision of adventure caving and other adventure activities. The primary focus, however, has shifted to the promotion of an awareness of the significance of the park and its environment through the provision of ecotourism activities that foster understanding and appreciation of the parks values. Accommodation is available onsite at Gunung Mulu National Park headquarters, as well as at the Mulu Marriott Resort and across the Melinau River at Benarat Inn also known as Benarat Lodge. Homestays offered by locals, and other typically cheaper lodging are available across the river. See also[edit]

Gunung Buda Project

References[edit]

^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). " Calluella flava
Calluella flava
Kiew, 1984". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 August 2014.  ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). " Ansonia torrentis
Ansonia torrentis
Dring, 1983". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 3 July 2014.  ^ MASwings: Flights

Hans P. Hazebroek and Abang Kashim bin Abang Morshidi National Parks of Sarawak, 2000, Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia, ISBN 983-812-032-4 David W Gill. "The Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
Nomination for World Natural Heritage Listing. Sarawak, Malaysia". 1999. Sarawak
Sarawak
Forest Department.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gunung Mulu National Park.

Mulu Park World Heritage Area Official Site Gunung Mulu National Park UNESCO site datasheet Tourism Malaysia
Malaysia
– Gunung Mulu National Park Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
Chinese version Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
travel guide from Wikivoyage Mulu Caves Project

v t e

World Heritage Sites in Malaysia

West Malaysia

Malacca
Malacca
City (2008) George Town, Penang
Penang
(2008) Archaeological Heritage of the Lenggong
Lenggong
Valley (2012)

East Malaysia

Kinabalu Park
Kinabalu Park
(2000) Gunung Mulu National Park
Gunung Mulu National Park
(2000)

See also: List of World Heritage Sites in Southeast Asia

v t e

National parks of Malaysia

West Malaysia

Endau Rompin Gunung Ledang Penang Taman Negara

East Malaysia

Bako Batang Ai Bukit Tiban Crocker Range Gunung Buda Gunung Gading Gunung Mulu Kinabalu Kubah Kuching Wetlands Lambir Hills Loagan Bunut Maludam Niah Pulong Tau Rajang Mangroves Similajau Talang Satang Tanjung Datu Tawau Hills Tiga Island Tun Mustapha Tun Sakaran Tunku Abdul Rahman Turtle Islands

v t e

ASEAN Heritage Parks

Brunei

Tasek Merimbun Heritage Park

Cambodia

Preah Monivong National Park Virachey National Park

Indonesia

Gunung Leuser National Park Kerinci Seblat National Park Lorentz National Park Way Kambas National Park

Laos

Nam Ha National Protected Area

Malaysia

Gunung Mulu National Park Kinabalu National Park Taman Negara
Taman Negara
National Park

Myanmar

Alaungdaw Kathapa National Park Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Inlay Lake Wetland Sanctuary Khakaborazi National Park Lampi Island Marine National Park Mein-ma-hla Kyun Wildlife Sanctuary Nat Ma Taung National Park

Philippines

Mount Apo
Mount Apo
Natural Park Mount Hamiguitan
Mount Hamiguitan
Range Wildlife Sanctuary Mounts Iglit–Baco National Park Mount Kitanglad Range Natural Park Mount Makiling
Mount Makiling
Nature Reserve Mount Malindang
Mount Malindang
Range Natural Park Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park

Singapore

Bukit Timah Nature Reserve Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve

Thailand

Ao Phang Nga National Park Kaeng Krachan National Park Khao Yai National Park Tarutao National Park

Vietnam

Ba Bể National Park Bái Tử Long National Park Chư Mom Ray National Park Hoàng Liên National Park Kon Ka Kinh National Park U Minh Thượng National Park

Association of Southeast Asian Nations Centre for

.