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• India • Pakistan
Pakistan
• United Kingdom • Canada • South Africa
South Africa
United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
• Madagascar

Languages

• Gujarati • Urdu
Urdu
• Kutchi[1]

Religion

• Sunni, Shia, Shia
Shia
Ismaili, Sufism

Related ethnic groups

Gujarati people
Gujarati people
• Muslims of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
• Rajasthani Muslims • Hyderabadi Muslims
Hyderabadi Muslims
Indo Aryans
Indo Aryans
• Muhajirs • Pakistani people
Pakistani people
Sindhis
Sindhis
Jats
Jats
Muslim
Muslim
Keralites • Lohanas
Lohanas
• Rajputs

The term Gujarati Muslims (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી મુસલમાનો, Urdu: گجراتی مسلمان‎) is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim
Muslim
from the state of Gujarat
Gujarat
in North-western coast of India. Gujarati Muslims are very prominent in industry and medium-sized businesses, and there is a very large Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
community in Mumbai.[2] Many members of this community migrated to Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947 and have settled in Sindh
Sindh
province especially in Karachi, contributing to the national welfare and economy of Pakistan.[3] Having earned a formidable accolade as some of India's greatest seafaring merchants,[4] the centuries-old Gujarati diaspora is found scattered throughout the Near East, Indian Ocean, and Southern Hemisphere regions everywhere in between Africa and Japan with a notable presence in:[5] Hong Kong,[6] Britain, Portugal, Réunion,[7] Oman,[8] Yemen,[9] Mozambique,[10] Zanzibar,[11] United Arab
Arab
Emirates, Burma,[12] Madagascar,[13] South Africa, Mauritius, Pakistan
Pakistan
and East Africa. According to the 2001 Census of India, the Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
population was 4,592,854, which is 9.064% of the total population of the state, by the side survey done on the basis of adhaar it is showing the total Muslim
Muslim
population in Gujrat was 8,934,201, which is 13.28% however significant numbers of Gujarati Muslims are found within the larger context of the Gujarati diaspora that became established throughout all the inhabited continents of the world.[14] Most Gujarati Muslims have Gujarati language
Gujarati language
as their mother tongue, but some communities such as the Momin Ansari, Memons,[15] Gujarati Shaikh,[16][17] and others, have Urdu
Urdu
as their mother tongue.[18] The majority of Gujarati Muslims are Sunni, with a minority of heterodox Shi'ite groups. The Gujarati Muslims are further sub-divided into groups, such as the Sunni
Sunni
Vohra/Bohra, Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Surti, Pathan people, Khatri, Ghanchi and Chhipa
Chhipa
each with their own customs and traditions. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia.[19]

Contents

1 History 2 Jamat Bandi 3 Communities 4 Bharuchi and Surti Muslims 5 Notable Gujarati Muslims 6 See also 7 References

History Located in the westernmost portion of India, Gujarat
Gujarat
includes the region of Kutch, Saurashtra, and the territories between the rivers Banas and Damanganga. Islam
Islam
came early to Gujarat, with immigrant communities of Arab
Arab
and Persian traders. Most came as traders as they did before Islam
Islam
and built a masjid during the times of Muhammad
Muhammad
and other parts of the western seacoast of India as early as the 8th Century C.E, spreading Islam
Islam
soon as the religion gained a foothold in the Arabian peninsula.[20] They were later joined by Persian traders from Greater Iran.[21] Many of these early merchants were Ismaili Shia, both Mustaali
Mustaali
and Nizari. They laid the foundation of the Bohra and Khoja
Khoja
communities. In the early era however Gujarat
Gujarat
was ruled by the Valabhi
Valabhi
dynasty. In the thirteenth century, the last Hindu
Hindu
ruler Karna, was defeated by Alauddin Khalji, the Turkic Sultan of Dehli. This episode ushered a period of five centuries of Muslim
Muslim
Turkic and Mughal rule, leading to a conversion of a number of Hindu
Hindu
Gujarati people to Islam, and the creation of new communities such as the Molesalam and Miyana communities. In the sixteenth century, the Memon community immigrated from Sindh and settled in Kutch
Kutch
and Kathiawar. While in Bharuch
Bharuch
and Surat, a schism occurred among the Bohras, and a new community of Sunni
Sunni
Bohras was created. Another Muslim
Muslim
sect, the Mahdawi
Mahdawi
also settled in Gujarat, and led to the creation of the Tai community.[22] In 1593, the Mughal Emperor Akbar
Akbar
conquered Gujarat, and incorporated Gujarat
Gujarat
in the Mughal Empire. This period led to the settlement of the Mughal community. A good many Sayyid
Sayyid
and Shaikh families also are said to have arrived during the period of Mughal rule. With the establishment of the Sufi
Sufi
Suhrawardi and Chishti
Chishti
orders in Multan, Sind and Gujarat, pirs enjoyed state patronage.[23] At the same time, the Muslims from various provinces such as Hyderabad Deccan, Kerala, Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab, Gujarat, Kashmir
Kashmir
and other parts of South Asia also moved to capitals of Muslim
Muslim
empire in Delhi
Delhi
and Agra. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, in 1707, Mughal rule began weaken after ruling for a century. Most of Gujarat
Gujarat
fell to the Marathas, and this period saw the dispersal of further Pathan and Baluch, who came as mercenaries and were destroyed or defeated by the Marathas. Gujarat fell to British in the late 19th Century.[24] Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
merchants played an historically important role in facilitating the Portuguese discovery of "the East Indies",[25][26][27] in spreading and propagating Islam
Islam
to the Far East,[28] and in promoting the British discovery of Africa.[29] In Southeast Asia, Malays referred to the Islamic elite among them by the noble title of adhirajas.[30] The Sufi
Sufi
trader, Shaikh Randeri (Shaikh Raneri) was responsible for spreading Islam
Islam
to Acheh
Acheh
in Indonesia.[31] Surti merchants in particular also pioneered the use of scientific concepts, and invented structural and mechanical advances in technology for the nationbuilding of Mauritius,[32] such as introducing hydro-electric power to the people of Mauritius.[33] Jamat Bandi Gujarati speaking Muslim
Muslim
society has a unique custom known as Jamat Bandi, literally meaning communal solidarity.[34] This system is the traditional expression of communal solidarity. It is designed to regulate the affairs of the community and apply sanctions against infractions of the communal code. Almost all the main Gujarat communities, such as the Ismāʿīlī, Khoja, Dawoodi Bohra, Chhipa, and Sunni
Sunni
Bohra have caste associations, known as jamats. Social organization at the Jamat Bandi level varies from community to community. In some communities, the Jamat simply runs a mosque and attached rest house, and a madrasah. Some larger communities, such as the Khoja
Khoja
and Memon have developed elaborate and highly formalized systems with written and registered constitutions. Their organizations own large properties, undertake housing projects and schools, dispensaries and weekly newspapers. Communities Historically, each of the Muslim
Muslim
communities are endogamous. Gujarati Muslims in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
have shown that endogamy remains important with the existence of matrimonial services specifically dedicated to the Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
community [35] However, this is not the case with Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
communities in the USA, where marriages outside the community are becoming increasingly common. This can be largely attributed to there being a much smaller community in the USA when compared to the size of the community in the UK. The region of Kutch
Kutch
has always been historically distinct, with the Muslims there accounting for about twenty percent of the population. This region is characterised by salt deserts, such as the Rann of Kutch. Because of this landscape, the Kutch
Kutch
Muslims are Maldhari pastoral nomads found in the Banni region of Kutch. Most of them are said to have originated in Sindh, and speak a dialect of Kutchi which has many Sindhi loanwords. Major Maldhari communities include the Jats, Halaypotra, Hingora, Hingorja, Juneja and Samma tribes.[36] The Baloch Muslim
Muslim
community of Gujarat, who migrated from Balochistan on the invitation of Emperor Aurangzeb, established a base of power with the Khadiya Darbar estate of Junagadh
Junagadh
formally started by Mohammad Hafez Khanji Baluch, who was awarded land for the traits of excellence and bravery shown at his throne in Baluchistan.[37] Earlier Baloch settlers of Gujarat
Gujarat
came with Fateh Khan Baloch, who was given the jagirs and by Sultan Ahmad Shah II of Gujarat.[38] Qadir Bukhsh Rind Baloch alias Kadu Makrani, a 19th-century archetypal hero of Gujarat's Muslims, often remembered as the Robin Hood of the East, was born and brought up in Makran, Balochistan and rose to become a skilled insurgent in Kathiawar
Kathiawar
fighting against British imperialism.[39] The Gujarat
Gujarat
coastline is also home to significant numbers of Siddi, otherwise known as Zanji or Habshi, descendants of Africans e.g. Royal Habshis (Abyssinian aristocracy e.g. Siddi
Siddi
Sayyid), or Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by the Portuguese and Arab
Arab
merchants.[40] Siddis are primarily Sufi
Sufi
Muslims, although some are Hindus and others Roman Catholic Christians.[41] Malik Ambar, a prominent military figure in Indian history at large, remains a figure of veneration to the Siddis of Gujarat. Bharuchi and Surti Muslims There is historical evidence of Arabs and Persians settling along the Konkan- Gujarat
Gujarat
coast as early as the 9th, 8th and perhaps 7th century.[42] Arab
Arab
traders landed at Ghogha
Ghogha
(located just across the narrow Gulf of Cambay
Cambay
from Bharuch/Surat) around the early seventh century and built a masjid there facing Jeruselum.[43] Thus Gujarat has the oldest mosque in India built between 624-626 C.E. by the Arabs who traded and stayed there. These Arabs and others who settled in Bharuch
Bharuch
and Surat
Surat
were sailors, merchants and nakhudas, who belonged to various South Arabian coastal tribes while others were from the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Mediterranean, and large numbers married local women adopting the local Gujarati language
Gujarati language
and customs over time.[44][45][46] Over the course of history, a number of famous Arab
Arab
travelers, scholars, Sufi-saints and geographers who visited India, have described the presence of thriving Arab- Muslim
Muslim
communities scattered along the Konkan- Gujarat
Gujarat
coast.[47] Suleiman of Basra
Basra
who reached Thana in 841 AD, observed that the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
kingdom which extended from Bharuch
Bharuch
to Chaul during his time, was on friendly terms with the Arabs, and Balhara kings appointed Arab
Arab
merchant princes as governors and administrators in their vast kingdom.[48][49][50] Ibn Hawqal, a 10th-century Muslim
Muslim
Arab
Arab
geographer and chronicler while on his travels observed that mosques flourished in four cities of Gujarat that had Hindu
Hindu
kings, with mosques being found in Cambay, Kutch, Saymur and Patan, alluding to an atmosphere where Muslim
Muslim
foreigners were assimilated into the local milieu of medieval Gujarati societies.[51][52] His well-known Iranian contemporary Estakhri, the Persian medieval geographer who traveled to Cambay
Cambay
and other regions of Gujarat
Gujarat
during the same period, echoed the words spoken by his predecessors alongside his itineraries.[53] Al-Masudi, an Arab historian from Baghdad
Baghdad
who was a descendant of Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud, a companion of Muhammad
Muhammad
traveled to Gujarat
Gujarat
in 918 C.E, and bore written witness account that more than 10,000 Arab
Arab
Muslims from Siraf
Siraf
(Persia) Madha
Madha
in Oman, Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
in Yemen, Basra, Baghdad, and other cities in the Middle East, had settled in the seaport of Chamoor, a port close to Bharuch.[54][55] Despite the medieval conquest of Gujarat
Gujarat
by Alauddin Khalji
Alauddin Khalji
and its annexation to the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
in the 13th century, peaceful Islamic settlements appear to have continued under Hindu
Hindu
rule. Bi-lingual Indian inscriptions from Somnath
Somnath
in Sanskrit and Arabic, make reference to the Arab
Arab
and Iranian shipowners who constructed mosques in Gujarat
Gujarat
from the grants given to Muslims by the Vaghela rajput ruler, Arjunadeva. [56] Similar epitaphs mention the arrival of pious Muslim
Muslim
nakhudas from Hormuz as well as families from Bam residing in Cambay, and from the discovery of tombstones of personages from Siraf, at the time one of the most important ports on the Iranian coast in the Persian Gulf, suggests altogether that the Muslim community of Junagadh
Junagadh
had a strong and established link with Iran through the commercial sea routes.[57] The 19th century European Gazetteer by George Newenham Wright, corroborates this cultural exchange through the ages as he points out that the Arab
Arab
inhabitants of Mukalla, capital city of the Hadhramaut
Hadhramaut
coastal region in Yemen, were known to intermarry with the Mohammedans of Kathiawar
Kathiawar
and those resident from other areas of Gujarat.[58] Arabic sources speak of the warm reception of the significant immigration of Hadhrami sāda (descendants of Muhammed) who settled in Surat
Surat
during the Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate. Prominent and well respected Sāda who claimed noble descent through Abu Bakr al-Aydarus
Abu Bakr al-Aydarus
("Patron Saint of Aden"),[59] were held in high esteem among the people and became established as Arab
Arab
religious leaderships of local Muslims. Intermarriages with Indian Muslim
Muslim
women were highly sought[60] which led to a creole Hadhrami-Indian community to flourish in Gujarat
Gujarat
by the 17th century.[61] Early 14th-century Maghrebi
Maghrebi
adventurer, Ibn Batuta, who visited India with his entourage, recalls in his memoirs about Cambay, one of the great emporia of the Indian Ocean that indeed:[62]

Cambay
Cambay
is one of the most beautiful cities as regards the artistic architecture of its houses and the construction of its mosques. The reason is that the majority of its inhabitants are foreign merchants, who continually build their beautiful houses and wonderful mosques - an achievement in which they endeavor to surpass each other. ”

In the 17th century, the eminent city of Surat, famous for its cargo export of silk and diamonds had come on a par with contemporary Venice and Beijing
Beijing
which were some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia,[63] and earned the distinguished title, Bab al-Makkah (Gate of Mecca)because it is one of the great places of the subcontinent where ancient Hindus welcomed Islam
Islam
and it flourished as time went on.[64][65] The Surat
Surat
port (the only Indian port facing westwards) then became the principal port of India during Mughal rule to gain widespread international repute, which encouraged a period of Muslims for Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage from countries such as Iran, Turkey, Turkmenistan, China, who assembled in great numbers[citation needed] to make the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
from the ports of Surat, Veraval
Veraval
and Mandvi[66][citation needed] with the royal patronage of the Mughals.[citation needed][dubious – discuss] Notable Gujarati Muslims South African cricketer Hashim Amla, South African Quran - Bible Scholar Ahmed Deedat, Badruddin Tyabji,[67] a Congress president and Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan.[68] Bollywood is represented by Parveen Babi, who came from an aristocratic Yusufzai Pathan family, Farooq Shaikh
Farooq Shaikh
and Sanjeeda Sheikh. Famous Indian film score composers include Salim-Sulaiman
Salim-Sulaiman
Merchant who are Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia and Taher Saifuddin, who was the 51st Da'i al-Mutlaq
Da'i al-Mutlaq
of the Dawoodi Bohras, a sect within Shia
Shia
Islam. Famous political activists such as Ahmed Timol,[69] Yusuf Dadoo, and Ahmed Kathrada
Ahmed Kathrada
played a leading role in the anti-apartheid movement of South Africa.[70] See also

Sayyid
Sayyid
of Gujarat Khoja Memon Ismailis Alavi Bohras Dawoodi Bohras Muslim
Muslim
Rajputs Islam
Islam
in India Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate Nakhuda Jats
Jats
of Kutch Pathans of Gujarat Arabs in India Al Masudi Ibn Batuta Nuruddin ar-Raniri
Nuruddin ar-Raniri
from Rander Abu Bakr al-Aydarus, Hadhrami religious scholar of sufism Ba 'Alawi sada Abdullah ibn Alawi al-Haddad Shah e Alam Wajihuddin Alvi List of ziyarat locations

References

^ "Gujarātī". Onmiglot: online encyclopaedia of writing systems and languages. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ Patel, edited by Sujata; Masselos, Jim (2003). Bombay and Mumbai : the city in transition. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195663179. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Laurent Gayer (2014). Karachi : ordered disorder and the struggle for the city. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-19-935444-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015. Out of Pakistan's forty-two largest industrial groups, thirty-six were in the hands of Karachi-based businessmen - generally members of the Gujarati/Kutchi/Kathiawari trading sects, both Sunni
Sunni
(Memon) and Shia
Shia
(Khojas, Bohras, etc.) Whereas they accounted for 0.4 per cent of Pakistan's total population, Gujarati trading groups (they are considered Muhajir since many of their members were already settled in Karachi
Karachi
before the independence) controlled 43 per cent of the country's industrial capital. Halai Memons
Memons
alone (0.3 per cent of the national population) owned 27 per cent of these industries. And while he patronised Pashtun entrepreneurs in Karachi, Ayub Khan also relied upon Gujarati businessmen to finance his electoral campaign in 1964, while facilitating the entry into politics of some Muhajir entrepreneurs, such as Sadiq Dawood, a Memon industrialist who became an MNA, and the Treasurer of Ayub's Convention Muslim
Muslim
League.  ^ Peck, Amelia. Interwoven Globe: The Worldwide Textile Trade, 1500-1800. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-58839-496-5. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Of the Asian trading communities the most successful were the Gujaratis, as witnessed not only by Pires and Barbosa but by a variety of other sources. All confirm that merchants from the Gujarati community routinely held the most senior post open to an expatriate trader, that of shah-bandar (controller of maritime trade).  ^ "Where on earth do they speak Gujarati?". Retrieved 29 January 2014.  ^ ed. by Robert Bickers (2000). New frontiers : imperialism's new communities in East Asia, 1842-1953 (1. publ. ed.). Manchester [u.a.]: Manchester Univ. Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-7190-5604-7. The 1889 Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Directory and Hong List for the Far East
Far East
lists three Sindhi firms in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
among a total of thirty-one firms, of which the majority were Parsi and Gujarati Muslim. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Nandita Dutta. "An Indian Reunion". littleindia.com. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Raziah Locate is a manager in a hospitality school. Her grandfather Omarjee Ismael embarked on a voyage with his wife in 1870 from Kathor, near Surat, in Gujarat. He came to Reunion Island to seek better opportunities to further his trade in clothing. Her grandfather was one of the 40,000 merchants, traders and artisans from Gujarat
Gujarat
who are said to have voluntary migrated to Reunion Island starting in the 1850s. Her grandfather was one of the pioneers who paved the way for other Gujarati Muslims to settle in Reunion, who have built a mosque and a madrasa on the island.  ^ Hugh Eakin (August 14, 2014). "In the Heart of Mysterious Oman". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 5 February 2015.  ^ Nafeesa Syeed. "Learning Gujarati in Yemen". indiarealtime.com. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Mr. Haji, clad in the gold-trimmed, white cap that is standard for Bohra men, was in a flurry on a recent Friday, as he catered to streams of constituents and answered phone calls. He slid effortlessly between Arabic, Urdu, English and Dawat ni zabaan—a strain of Gujarati particular to Bohras that is peppered with Arabic and Persian. He explained that they have other shrines in Yemen, but this is one of the most important. Some 10,000 Bohras, mostly from India but also from their populations in Pakistan, East Africa, the United States, Europe and the Middle East, travel here each year.  ^ Nazar Abbas. "Pakistanis who have never seen Pakistan". The Friday Times. Retrieved 9 February 2015. After ties broke down between India and Portugal, Gujarati Muslims stranded in Mozambique
Mozambique
were given Pakistani citizenship...Merchants from Diu had settled on the island of Mozambique
Mozambique
in the early 1800s. Hindus from Diu, Sunni
Sunni
Muslims from Daman, and others from Goa migrated to Mozambique
Mozambique
as small traders, construction workers and petty employees. Many Gujaratis moved from South Africa
South Africa
to Mozambique
Mozambique
in the latter half of the 19th century.  ^ Ababu Minda Yimene (2004). An African Indian Community in Hyderabad: Siddi
Siddi
Identity, Its Maintenance and Change. pp. 66, 67. ISBN 3-86537-206-6. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Some centuries later, the Gujarati merchants established permanent trading posts in Zanzibar, consolidating their influence in the Indian Ocean... Gujarati Muslims, and their Omani partners, engaged in a network of mercantile activities among Oman, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
and Bombay. Thanks to those mercantile Gujarati, India remained by far the principal trading partner of Zanzibar.  ^ Dr Asghar Ali Engineer. "Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar
Myanmar
and recent riots - an Aman Report". Centre for study of society and secularism. Archived from the original on February 9, 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Lot of Muslims had gone from Surat
Surat
and still there is a beautiful Surti mosque. Muslims in Myanmar
Myanmar
are highly diverse. There are very few ethnic Burmese Muslims, most of them are migrants from different parts of India when Burma was a part of India. There are large number of Tamil, Gujarati and Bengali and Bohra Muslims and very few Urdu
Urdu
speaking Muslims since Urdu
Urdu
speaking are not in business.  ^ Pedro Machado. Ocean of Trade. Cambridge University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-107-07026-4. Gujarati merchants may also have financed slave voyages to Madagascar
Madagascar
in the nineteenth century. They sailed to its west coast from the mid 1810s to the mid 1820s but do not appear to have become extensively involved in this trafficking, either as shippers or as financiers. This is likely explained by the increasing presence in coastal Madagascar
Madagascar
of Khoja
Khoja
and Bohra Shi'ia merchants from Kutch
Kutch
who, together with the Bhatiya merchants, established a significant presence there as financiers of the slave trade from the second decade of the nineteenth century.  ^ Rai, edited by Rajesh; Reeves, Peter (2009). The South Asian diaspora transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-89235-6. Gujarat
Gujarat
has maintained commercial contacts with the outside world since ancient times. The tradition of sea-faring and overseas contacts goes back many centuries and the Gujarati diaspora was a logical outcome of such a tradition. The Gujarati merchant diaspora can still be found in the littoral cities of West Asia and Africa on the one hand, and in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
on the other. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency, Gujarat
Gujarat
Population: Musalmans and Parsis, Volume IX pages 13 to 14 Government Central Press, Bombay ^ "Parzor The UNESCO Parsi Zoroastrian Project". Unescoparzor.com. Retrieved 2015-12-24.  ^ People of India Gujarat
Gujarat
Volume XXII Part One Editors R. B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan and M Azeez Mohideen pages 74 to 77 ^ name="Indian Census 2001 - Religion" Indian Census 2001 - Religion Archived 2007-03-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Prabhune, Tushar (December 27, 2011). " Gujarat
Gujarat
helped establish Islam
Islam
in SE Asia". Ahmedabad: The Times of India.  ^ Gokhale. Surat
Surat
In The Seventeenth Century. Popular Prakashan. p. 28. Retrieved 23 February 2015. Islam
Islam
was introduced into Gujarat
Gujarat
in the 7th century C.E. The first Arab
Arab
raid came in 635 when the Governor of Bahrain sent an expedition against Broach. Then through the centuries colonies of Arab
Arab
and Persian merchants began sprouting in the port cities of Gujarat, such as Cambay, Broach and Surat.  ^ Mallison, edited by Tazim R. Kassam, Françoise (2010). Gināns : texts and contexts : essays on Ismaili
Ismaili
hymns from South Asia in honour of Zawahir Moir (Rev. ed.). Delhi: Primus Books. p. 150. ISBN 8190891871. Retrieved 28 April 2015. In the early period, it appears that the Ismailis
Ismailis
in western India, consisted of ethnic Arab
Arab
or Persian merchant settlers, as well as local converts from pastoralist, cultivating or merchant groups. They may have included militarised peasants and pastoralists from north-west India, some of whom went on to become part of the emerging Rajput status hierarchy... After the fall of Alamut to the Mongols in 1256, more Nizari
Nizari
missionaries came to Sind and Gujarat, Ucch in particular becoming an important centre. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Berkeley, Ira M. Lapidus, University of California, (2014). A history of Islamic societies (Third ed.). p. 399. ISBN 0521514304. The Mahdawi
Mahdawi
movement was important in Gujarat
Gujarat
in the sixteenth century and was widely accepted during the reign of Sultan Akbar
Akbar
by the administrative, military, landowning, and merchant elites.  ^ Berkeley, Ira M. Lapidus, University of California, (2014). A history of Islamic societies (Third ed.). p. 399. ISBN 0521514304. Retrieved 28 April 2015.  ^ Muslim
Muslim
Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey editor Richard V Weekes pages 294 to 297 ^ "Gujarati showed Vasco 'da' way". The Times of India. Oct 3, 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2013. Historians have differed over the identity of the sailor, calling him a Christian, a Muslim
Muslim
and a Gujarati. According to another account, he was the famous Arab
Arab
navigator Ibn Majid. Some historians suggest Majid could not have been near the vicinity at the time. German author Justus says it was Malam who accompanied Vasco...Italian researcher Sinthia Salvadori too has concluded that it was Malam who showed Gama the way to India. Salvadori has made this observation in her 'We Came In Dhows', an account written after interacting with people in Gujarat.  ^ N. Subrahmanian, Tamil̲an̲pan̲, S. Jeyapragasam (1976). Homage to a Historian: A Festschrift. Dr. N. Subrahmanian 60th Birthday Celebration Committee. p. 62. Retrieved 1 October 2013. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Darwis Khudori (2007). Rethinking solidarity in global society : the challenge of globalisation for social and solidarity movements : 50 years after Bandung Asian-African Conference 1955. Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia: Strategic Information and Research Development Centre. p. 35. ISBN 9789833782130. Retrieved 1 October 2013.  ^ Aritonang, edited by Jan Sihar; Steenbrink, Karel (2008). A history of Christianity in Indonesia. Leiden: Brill. p. 11. ISBN 978-90-04-17026-1. Retrieved 11 February 2015. The predominant Muslim
Muslim
position in the international trade was also represented by Muslim
Muslim
outposts along the southern coast of the Indian subcontinent. They included Randir, Surat
Surat
and Cambay
Cambay
(in Gujarat). In fact, they had been supposed to have not only played a significant role in international Muslim
Muslim
trade, but also in the spread of Islam, in supposedly in the Malay-Indonesian archipelago. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Achyut Yagnik, Suchitra Sheth (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 25. ISBN 0-14400-038-5. Retrieved 11 February 2015. After the opening up of East Africa in the nineteenth century, they became pioneers of trading activity there, dominating not only the financial world but also the political affairs of the region. Interestingly, it was these Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
traders along with Kutchi Bhatias who provided equipment, rations and financial services to European explorers such as, Stanley, Livingstone, Burton and Cameron, and thus facilitated the 'discovery of Africa'  ^ Hall, Kenneth R. (2010). A History of Early Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Maritime Trade and Societal Development, 100-1500. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Pub. Group. p. 309. ISBN 0742567621. Retrieved 28 April 2015. All the Gujarati merchants were Muslims, and the elite among them were termed adhiraja, a Malay title of nobility, seemingly as an acknowledgment that there was a local mix of the resident Gujarati merchant elite and the Malay political aristocracy.  ^ N. Hanif (2000). Biographical Encyclopaedia of Sufis: South Asia. Sarup & Sons. ISBN 9788176250870.  ^ Dukhira, Chit. "The genuis: Amode Ibrahim Atchia, (1868-1947)". lexpess.mu.online.  ^ Atchia, Dr. Michael. "Major Atchia, a model of enterprise". lexpress.mu.online.  ^ " Muslim
Muslim
communities of Gujarat". TwoCircles.net. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Muslims of Gujarat
Gujarat
are probably the most diverse of Muslim
Muslim
population of any other Indian state. Some of them came from different parts of the Islamic world over a period of thousand years to seek security, employment, trade, and to spread Islam; bringing with them their culture, knowledge, and their own versions of Islam. Though there has been much interaction with different Muslim
Muslim
groups, the differences have survived to make Gujarati Muslims a very diverse ummah...First came the Arabs; within the first 100 years of revelation of Quran, there were a number of Muslim
Muslim
towns along the coast of Gujarat. They were followed by Iranians, Africans, and Central Asians. Earlier Muslims came as traders; some came with the invading armies and settled down. Many others came seeking better employment opportunities, while some like Bohras came here fleeing persecution.  ^ Gujarati Muslim
Muslim
Marriage, a dedicated service to assist Gujarati Muslims to marry within the community. ^ People of India Gujarat
Gujarat
Volume XXI Part Two edited by R.B Lal, P.B.S.V Padmanabham, G Krishnan & M Azeez Mohideen pages 487-491 ^ "Baloch of India Khadiya Estate : A Seven Salute State". balochhistory11.blogspot.co.uk. Retrieved 12 February 2015. It was the stage in the regime of K.S Moh. Fahte Khanji - II, Independence of Indian nation was declared and all the royal authorities were forced to surrender the throne where the Nawab of Junagadh
Junagadh
has left his throne and left for Pakistan
Pakistan
but the Late K.S Moh. Fahte Khanji - II did not left Junagadh
Junagadh
because of the faithfulness towards the soil of Junagadh
Junagadh
and the country he stayed back and died within few years after independence. Today at present the sons of Late Khan Shree Moh. Fahte Khanji - II, Late Khan Shree Mohammad Iqbal Khanji Baluch and Khan Shree Mohammad Khanji Baluch who is Member of Legislative Assembly government of gujarat from Veraval
Veraval
are governing their estate.  ^ "Baloch of India". History of Baloch and Balochistan. Retrieved 12 February 2015. In the 18th century, the Gohil Rajput rulers of Bhavnagar invited a number of Baloch to serve as their bodyguards. They were granted the jagir in Sehor.  ^ "Qadir Bukhsh Rind Baloch alias Kadu Makrani". History of Baloch and Balochistan. Retrieved 12 February 2015. When life became hard for the working classes in Makran, Balochistan due to British colonists, Kadu Makrani, with his tribe, migrated to Kathiawar, Gujarat
Gujarat
in mid of the 19th century. Due to their courage and bravery, Nawabs of Kathiawar acquired their services to eliminate dacoits of Kathiawar. Kadu Makrani and people of his tribe earned territories and properties as rewards of their services. The rise of Kadu Makrani
Kadu Makrani
was disturbing to British imperialists. They were looking for an excuse to disarm Kadu Makrani and his tribe to break their power.  ^ Vijay Prashad (2002), Everybody Was Kung Fu Fighting: Afro-Asian Connections and the Myth of Cultural Purity, Beacon Press, ISBN 0-8070-5011-3, ... since the captains of the African and Arab
Arab
vessels bore the title Sidi (from Sayyid, or the lineage of Muhammad), the African settlers on the Indian mainland came to be called Siddis ...  ^ Shanti Sadiq Ali (1996), The African dispersal in the Deccan, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 81-250-0485-8, ... Among the Siddi
Siddi
families in Karnataka
Karnataka
there are Catholics, Hindus and Muslims ... It was a normal procedure for the Portuguese to baptise African slaves ... After living for generations among Hindus they considered themselves to be Hindus ... The Siddi
Siddi
Hindus owe allegiance to Saudmath ...  ^ Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world (2. ed., amended. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 68. ISBN 9004092498. Retrieved 29 January 2014. Up to about the tenth century the largest settlement of Arabs and Persian Muslim
Muslim
traders are not found in Malabar however but rather more to the north in coastal towns of the Konkan
Konkan
and Gujarat, where in pre-Islamic times the Persians dominated the trade with the west. Here the main impetus to Muslim
Muslim
settlement came from the merchants of the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
and Oman, with a minority from Hadramaut.  ^ Schimmel, Annemarie (1980). Handbuch der Orientalistik. Leiden: Brill. p. 65. ISBN 9004061177. Retrieved 30 January 2014.  ^ Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century (Rev. ed. with a new pref. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-24385-4. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Many of these "foreign merchants" were transient visitors, men of South Arabian and Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
ports, who migrated in and out of Cambay
Cambay
with the rhythm of the monsoons. But others were men with Persian and fewer Arab
Arab
patronyms whose families had settled in the town generations, even centuries earlier, intermarrying with Konkani ethnic origins within Gujarats women, and assimilating everyday customs of the Hindu
Hindu
hinterland  ^ Boyajian, James C. (2008). Portuguese trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580-1640 (Pbk. ed.). Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-8018-8754-3. Retrieved 20 February 2015. The history of Indian Ocean trade is a succession of alien merchant diasporas establishing themselves and eventually dominating the region. Gujarat's Muslim
Muslim
community, for example, had originated from traders their mosques, and later the very small settlements of merchants from Turkey, Egypt, Persia and Arabia.  ^ Rai, edited by Rajesh; Reeves, Peter (2009). The South Asian diaspora transnational networks and changing identities. London: Routledge. p. 33. ISBN 0-203-89235-6. Retrieved 20 February 2015. The social world of the Muslim
Muslim
merchants was complex. The heterogeneity of the Muslim
Muslim
merchant community was made up by the trade but much smaller number of settlers originating from various countries, as well as by those who were peripatetic traders, coming from places like Persia, Egypt and few from Afghanistan. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Ashish Vashi & Harit Mehta. " Gujarat
Gujarat
built mosques to draw Arab ships". Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2015. The accounts of Arab
Arab
travellers like Masudi, Istakhari, Ibn Hauqal and others, who visited Gujarat
Gujarat
between the 9th and 12th centuries, amply testify to the settlements of Muslims in Cambay
Cambay
and other cities of Gujarat.  ^ Acyuta Yājñika, Suchitra Sheth (2005). The shaping of modern Gujarat : plurality, Hindutva, and beyond. New Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 42. ISBN 0-14400-038-5. Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ Ipgrave, Michael; editors, David Marshall, (2010). Humanity : texts and contexts : Christian and Muslim
Muslim
perspectives : a record of the sixth Building Bridges seminar convened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, National University of Singapore, December 2007. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-58901-716-0. Retrieved 22 February 2015. Memorials can be found in Gujarat
Gujarat
honoring Arab
Arab
Muslims who martyred themselves fighting against Muslim
Muslim
Turks on behalf of Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms. These same kingdoms endowed mosques on behalf of Arab
Arab
traders.  ^ Parsis in India and the Diaspora. Routledge. 2007. pp. 51, 52. ISBN 9781134067527. Retrieved 29 March 2015. The Chinchani copper plates, datable to the early 10th century, mention the appointment of Muhammed
Muhammed
Sugapita (Sanskrit - 'Madhumati'), a Tajik, as governor of 'Sanyanapattana' (Sanjan port) by the Rashtrakuta
Rashtrakuta
king from 878 to 915 AC (Sircar 1962)... This fact is relevant in that it mentions a Muslim administrator controlling the region during the late 9th, and early 10th century... That Sanjan had a large and cosmopolitan population is mentioned in the accounts of travelers as well as the Indian inscriptions and grants mentioned above. While the local tribal populations consisted largely of Kolis and Mahars, the inscriptions list Muslims and Arabs, Panchagaudiya Brahmins, Modha Baniyas and Zoroastrians (Sankalia 1983: 210)  ^ Wink, André (1990). Al-Hind, the making of the Indo-Islamic world (2. ed., amended. ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 178. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. Retrieved 14 February 2015.  ^ Pearson, M. N. (1976). Merchants and rulers in Gujarat : the response to the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-520-02809-0. Retrieved 14 February 2015. Most of these "foreign" Muslims were resident in Gujarat, with their own houses there, and so were in fact subjects of Gujarat, whatever their country of birth, which could be Turkey, Egypt, Arabia or Persia. The heterogeneity of the Muslim population was not confined to merchants, for the sultans made a practice of tempting capable foreigners to Gujarat
Gujarat
with handsome salaries, to serve in their armies.  ^ Satish Chandra Misra (1964). Muslim
Muslim
Communities in Gujarat: Preliminary Studies in Their History and Social Organization. Asia Publishing House,. p. 5. Retrieved 21 February 2015.  ^ Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad. "Abul Hasan Ali Al-Masudi". As-Sunnah Foundation of America. Retrieved 18 March 2015.  ^ Cunha, J. Gerson Da (1993). Notes on the history and antiquities of Chaul and Bassein. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services. p. 8. ISBN 8120608453. Retrieved 23 February 2015. The Lar, also called Lardesa, mentioned by Masudi, is evidently the territory of Gujarat and the Northern Konkan, embracing Broach, Thana, and Chaul, and which name is given by Ptolemy as Larike...As regards Balhara, whom Masudi mentions as the reigning prince to whom Saimur was tributary, it has long been identified as the name of the dynasty which reigned at Valabhi
Valabhi
(Valabhipura) in Gujarat, and according to Soliman, a merchant and one of the greatest travellers of his age, was in his time the chief of all the greatest princes in India, the latter acknowledging his preeminence; while the Arabs themselves were shown great favours and enjoyed great privileges in his dominions.  ^ Ray, edited by Bharati (2009). Different types of history (1. impr. ed.). Delhi: Pearson Longman. p. 43. ISBN 8131718182. The person responsible for the construction of the mosque was a sailor and shipowner known as Firuz b. Abu Ibrahim from the state of Hormuz, and in the Arabic version the Muslim
Muslim
ruler to whom these sailors gave their allegiance is recorded as Abu Nusrat Mamud b. Ahmad.... Firuz the shipwner is not the only Persian who appears to have been a person of some standing among the Muslim
Muslim
communities of Gujarat. In Bhadresvar one of the tombstones belongs to one Abu'l-faraj b. Ali, from Siraf, at that time one of the most important ports on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf. Another inscription found in Cambay, records the construction of a mosque by Ali b. Shapur in 615/1218-19. The name Shapur shows the Iranian origin of this personage. Other epitaphs are to be found in Cambay
Cambay
belonging to Abi'l-mahasin b. Ardeshir al-Ahwi (d.630/1232-3), Sharaf al-din Murtida b. Mohammad al-Istarabadi, and Ali b Salar b. Ali Yazdi... In the inscription of the mosque at Junagadh, Iraj, the name of a southern Iranian city, near Ramhurmuz, or of the ancestor of Abulqasim b. Ali is also an indication of the Iranian origin of our "chief of the marchants and shipmasters of the town". CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Bayani-Wolpert, Mehrdad Shokoohy with contributions by Manijeh; Shokoohy, Natalie H. (1988). Bhadreśvar ; the oldest Islamic monuments in India. Leiden: E.J. Brill. p. 43. ISBN 9004083413. Retrieved 29 March 2015.  ^ George Newenham Wright. A New and Comprehensive Gazetteer, Volume 5. p. 41. Retrieved 11 February 2015. The coast of Southern Arabia, was explored in 1833, by Mr. Bird. The people at Mukallah intermarry with the Mohammedans of Katehwar and Gujarat. The sheikh's youngest wife is the daughter of a petty chief in that quarter. The town has rather an imposing appearance as approaching it from the sea.  ^ José-Marie Bel, Théodore Monod, Aden: Port mythique du Yémen, pg 99 ^ Ulrike Freitag, William G. Clarence-Smith, ed. by Ulrike Freitag (1997). Hadhrami traders, scholars and statesmen in the Indian Ocean : 1750s - 1960s (illustrated ed.). Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. p. 67. ISBN 9789004107717. Retrieved 24 February 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Ho, Engseng (2006). The graves of Tarim genealogy and mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 167. ISBN 9780520938694. Retrieved 24 February 2015.  ^ Dunn, Ross E. (1986). The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 218. ISBN 9780520057715. Retrieved 30 September 2013.  ^ Poros, Maritsa V. (2011). Modern migrations : Gujarati Indian networks in New York and London. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-7222-8. Retrieved 16 February 2015. Indeed, Fernand Braudel likened Surat
Surat
to some of the great mercantile cities of Europe and Asia, such as Venice
Venice
and Beijing.... Godinho estimated that Surat's population was more than 100,000, but less with some settlements of people from other cities all over from India residing in the city as well as some foreigners frequenting it for business. He even claimed that it surpasses our "Evora in grandeur"  ^ David Smith (2003). Hinduism and modernity. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 62. ISBN 0-631-20862-3. Retrieved 11 February 2015. Surat was then the place of embarkation of pilgrims to Mecca; known as Bab al-Makkah or the Gate of Mecca, it was almost a sacred place for the Muslims of India. More to the point it was the main city for foreign imports, where many merchants had their bases, and all the European trading companies were established. Its population was more than 100, 000.  ^ The journal of Asian studies, Volume 35, Issues 1-2. Retrieved 11 February 2015. For a pious emperor, Surat
Surat
had more than economic and political importance; it was the port from which the hajj (pilgrimage) ships left Mughal India for the Red Sea. The port was variously known as Bab-al-Makkah, the Bab-ul-Hajj, the Dar-al-Hajj, and the Bandar-i-Mubarak.  ^ Simpson, Edward (11 January 2007). Muslim
Muslim
Society and the Western Indian Ocean: The Seafarers of Kachchh. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-203-09951-3. Retrieved 26 February 2013.  ^ "Making Britain: Discover how South Asians shaped the nation, 1870-1950". The Open University. Retrieved 9 February 2015. Badruddin Tyabji was the son of Cambay
Cambay
merchant, Tyab Ali, and his wife, Ameena, the daughter of a rich mullah, Meher Ali.  ^ "Jinnah didn't know Urdu, was fluent in Gujarati". Times of India. Retrieved 9 February 2015. But Jinnah was fluent in Gujarati. He could read as well as write Gujarati, his mother tongue. Jinnah was a native of Paneli — not far from Gandhiji's birthplace Porbandar. It is often said the issue of Partition boiled down to these two Kathiawadis.  ^ " Ahmed Timol South African History Online". Sahistory.org.za. Retrieved 28 August 2013.  ^ http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=34455

v t e

Indian Muslim
Muslim
communities

Majority

Arain Arghon Ansari Awan Baghban Balti Behna Bhatiara Bhishti Bisati Chaush Dakhini
Dakhini
Muslims Dard Dhobi Ghosi Gujjar Hyderabadi Iraqi (Tamimi) Jat Khanzada Kashmiri Kunjra Malkana Manihar Mappila Meo Mughal Pathans Purigpa Qassab Muslim
Muslim
Rajput Ranghar Rangrez Saifi Shaikh Sayyid Salmani Siddi Teli

Minority

Assamese Bengali Bhili Dogra Gondi Gujarati Konkani Nawayath Marathi Marwari Meitei Oriya Punjabi Tamil Telugu Labbay Goan Muslims Alavi Bohra

Bihar

Abdal Ansari Bakho Bisati Chamail Churihar Chik Gaddi Idrisi Khanzada Kulhaiya Lal Begi Malik of Bihar Mirasi Mirshikar Mughal Muker Pasi Nat Pamaria Pathans Rayeen Sai Sapera Sayyid Syed (Mallick) Shaikh of Bihar Shershahabadia Thakurai Teli

Gujarat

Abdal Alavi Bohra Ansari Arabs Attarwala Bafan Baloch Banjara Behlim Bhadala Bharbhunja Bhishti Chhipa Chunara Chundrigar Dawoodi Bohra Dhobi Dhuldhoya Doodwala Faqir Galiara Ghanchi Ghanchi-Pinjara Halaypotra Hingorja Hingora Jats
Jats
of Kutch Juneja Kadia Kagzi Ker Khalifa Khaskheli Khoja Machiyar Makrani Malik of Gujarat Mandali Makwana Manka Mansoori Memon Meta Qureshi Miyana Molesalam Momna Mughal Multani Multani Lohar Mutwa Nagori Nayak Node Panar Parmar Patani Bohra Patni Jamat Pathans Salaat Samma Sandhai Muslims Sanghar Shaikhs of Gujarat Shaikhda Sayyid
Sayyid
of Gujarat Siddi Sipahi Soomra Sulaymani
Sulaymani
Bohra Sunni
Sunni
Bohra Tai Turk Jamat Vora Patel Vyapari Wagher

Karnataka

Baghban Beary Chaush Chhaparband Kodava Maaple Konkani Muslims Nawayath Pinjara Siddi Assadi

Kerala

Mappila Keyi Thangal Marakkar Ossan Pusalan Thulukkar

Madhya Pradesh

Ansari Banjara Dawoodi Bohra Mughal Dhobi Pathans Shaikh Sayyid

Maharashtra

Attar Baghban Bhishti Chaush Chhaparband Dawoodi Bohra Dhawad Faqir Garodi Gavandi Kachar Kagzi Konkani Muslims Momin Muslim
Muslim
Raj Gond Qassab Saiqalgar Tadvi Bhil

Rajasthan

Ansari Bhutta Cheetah Chadwa Dawoodi Bohra Deshwali Gaddi Ghosi Hela Mehtar Hiranbaz Kandera Khadem Khanzada Langha Manganiar Merat Meo Mughal Pathans Pinjara Qaimkhani Rangrez Rath Shaikhs of Rajasthan Silawat Sindhi-Sipahi Singiwala Sorgar

Tamil Nadu

Kayalar Labbay Marakkar Pathans Rowther Mappila

Uttar Pradesh

Ahbans Khanzada Ansari Atishbaz Bachgoti Khanzada Baghban Baluch Bandhmati Banjara Barhai Behlim Banu Israil Behna Bhand Bharbhunja Bhale Sultan Khanzada Bhatti Khanzada Bhatiara Bhishti Bhumihar Musalman Bisati Chandel Khanzada Chhipi Chik Dakhini Dafali Dhagi Dharhi Dhobi Musalmaan Dogar Fareedi Faqir Gaddi Gautam Khanzada Ghosi Goriya Gujjar
Gujjar
Musalmaan Halalkhor Halwai Idrisi Iraqi (Tamimi) Jhojha Kabaria Kakorvi Shaikh Kamangar Kamboh Kasgar Kayastha Musalman Khanzada Khokhar Khanzada Khumra Kingharia Kunjra Lal Begi Lalkhani Rajput Madari Mandarkia Malkana Manihar Meo Milki Mirasi Mughal Mujavir Muker Muley Jat Nagar Muslims Nalband Nanbai Naqqal Panchpiria Pankhiya Pathans Putliwale Qalandar Qassab Qaum-e-Punjaban Qidwai Rai Bhatt Raj Rajput Musalmaan Ramaiya Rangrez Rayeen Rohilla Sadaat Amroha Sadaat-e-Bara Sadaat-e-Bilgram Sai Saifi Salmani Sayyid
Sayyid
of Uttar Pradesh Shaikh of Uttar Pradesh Shaikh Ja'fri Shaikhzada Siddiqui Sikarwar Khanzada Teli Musalmaan Turk Tyagi Musalmaan Zamindara

West Bengal

Abdal Dawoodi Bohra Bedia Faqir Ghosi Iraqi (Tamimi) Kahar Kan Kela Lodha Malla Nashya Pa

.