Groundskeeping
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Groundskeeping is the activity of tending an area of land for aesthetic or functional purposes, typically in an institutional setting. It includes mowing grass, trimming hedges, pulling weeds, planting flowers, etc. The U.S. Department of Labor estimated that more than 900,000 workers are employed in the
landscape maintenance 200px, One example of a maintained landscape from Beaverton, Oregon Landscape maintenance (or groundskeeping) is the art and vocation of keeping a landscape healthy, clean, safe and attractive, typically in a garden, yard (land), yard, park, in ...
and groundskeeping services industry in the United States in 2006. Of these over 300,000 workers were
greenskeeper A greenskeeper (or greenkeeper) is a person responsible for the care and upkeep of a golf course or a sport turf playing surface. Stadium Course. Greenskeepers keep ponds free of detrimental aquatic weeds and sometimes dye water blue. . Tees are ...
s for
golf course A golf course is the grounds where the sport of golf Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various Golf club, clubs to hit Golf ball, balls into a series of holes on a golf course, course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, un ...

golf course
s, schools, resorts, and public parks. Compare
gardener A gardener is someone who practices gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfor ...

gardener
.


Occupation

A groundskeeper is a person who maintains landscaping, gardens or sporting venues (and their vegetation where appropriate) for appearance and functionality. In
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands * Great Britain, the largest island in the United Kingdom * Ro ...

Britain
the word ''groundsman'' (occasionally ''groundswoman'' if appropriate) or ''park-keeper'' is used much more commonly.
The Football Association The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the Sports governing body, governing body of association football in England and the Crown dependencies of Jersey, Bailiwick of Guernsey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man. Formed in 1863, it is t ...
confers a Groundsman of the Year award. In
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
, the word ''curator'' is often used for a person undertaking this job, especially those involving
cricket pitch In the game of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising t ...

cricket pitch
es. At university campuses, groundskeepers are often called
horticulturists Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or for comfort and ornamental purposes. Horticulturists grow flowers, fruits and nuts, vegetables and herbs, as well as ornamental trees and lawns. ...
. The equivalent on a golf course is a
greenskeeper A greenskeeper (or greenkeeper) is a person responsible for the care and upkeep of a golf course or a sport turf playing surface. Stadium Course. Greenskeepers keep ponds free of detrimental aquatic weeds and sometimes dye water blue. . Tees are ...
. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) estimated in May 2015 that statistical group 37-3011 "Landscaping and Groundskeeping Workers" numbered 895,600 with a median annual wage of $25,030. The BLS describes the functions of this group as "Workers typically perform a variety of tasks, which may include any combination of the following: sod laying, mowing, trimming, planting, watering, fertilizing, digging, raking, sprinkler installation, and installation of mortarless segmental concrete masonry wall units". A groundskeeper's job requires a wide range of knowledge of horticulture, pest control, and weed abatement. As many institutions (especially schools) are moving away from the use of chemical pesticides and toward
integrated pest management Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic . IPM aims to suppress pest populations below the economic injury level (EIL). The UN's defines IPM as ...
the experience, knowledge and scholastic requirements of top groundskeepers are increasing. While groundskeepers usually follow a site plan created by a
landscape architect A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, site planning A site plan or a plot plan is a type of drawing used by arch ...
, there can be many opportunities for creativity in detailed design and presentation.


Equipment

Groundskeeping equipment comprise
tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool A stone tool is, in the most general sense, a ...

tool
s and
vehicle A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine that transports people or cargo. Vehicles include wagons, bicycles, motor vehicles (motorcycles, cars, trucks, buses), railed vehicles (trains, trams), watercraft (ships, boats), amphibious vehicles ...

vehicle
s used in groundskeeping, including: *
mower A mower is a person or machine that cuts (mows) grass Poaceae () or Gramineae () is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses. It includes the cereal grasses, bamboo Bamboos are a div ...
s *
lawn mower A lawn mower (also known as a mower, grass cutter or lawnmower) is a machine utilizing one or more revolving blades to cut a grass surface to an even height. The height of the cut grass may be fixed by the design of the mower, but generally is ...

lawn mower
s *
tractor A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque In physics and mechanics Mechanics (Ancient Greek, Greek: ) is the area of physics concerned with the motions of physical objects ...

tractor
s *
string trimmer A string trimmer, also called a weed eater, weed whacker, weedwacker, weed whip, line trimmer, brush cutter, whipper snipper (in Australia, Canada, and South Africa) or strimmer (in the UK and Ireland), is a garden tool A garden tool is any on ...
s *
snow blower A snow blower or snow thrower is a machine for removing snow from an area where it is problematic, such as a driveway, sidewalk, roadway, railroad track, ice rink, or runway According to the International Civil Aviation Organization ...
s *
snow plow A snowplow (also snow plow, snowplough or snow plough) is a device intended for mounting on a vehicle, used for removing snow and ice from outdoor surfaces, typically those serving transport Transport (commonly used in the U.K.), or transpor ...

snow plow
s *
edger
edger
s * rotary brushes *
rake __NOTOC__ Rake may refer to: * Rake (character), a man habituated to immoral conduct * Rake (theatre), the artificial slope of a theatre stage Science and technology * Rake receiver, a radio receiver * Rake (geology), the angle between a feature o ...
s *
leaf blower A leaf blower, commonly known as a blower, is a gardening tool that propels air out of a nozzle to move debris such as leaves A leaf (plural leaves) is the principal lateral appendage of the vascular plant plant stem, stem, usually born ...

leaf blower
s *
shovel Image:Unloading_flood_relief_supplies_at_Gilgit_Air_Base_2010-09-18_1.jpg, 260px, A man carrying shovels A shovel is a tool for digging, lifting, and moving bulk materials, such as soil, coal, gravel, snow, sand, or ore. Most shovels are hand too ...

shovel
s *
trowel A trowel is a small hand tool used for digging, applying, smoothing, or moving small amounts of viscous or particulate material. Common varieties include the masonry trowel, garden trowel, and float trowel. A power trowel is a much larger gaso ...

trowel
s * sprinklers *
garden tool A garden tool is any one of many tools made for gardening Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture Horticulture is the art of cultivating plants in gardens to produce food and medicinal ingredients, or ...
s *
watering can A watering can (or watering pot) is a portable container, usually with a handle and a funnel, used to water plants by hand. It has been in use since at least 79 A.D. and has since seen many improvements in design. Apart from watering plants, it has ...
s or truck mounted watering system * line markers


Environmental impact

Pollution from predominantly 2-stroke
gas Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas and plasma). The molecules in a solid are closely packed together and c ...

gas
-powered groundskeeping equipment is a source of
air pollution Air pollution is the presence of substances in the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or 'sphere') is a layer or a set of layers of gas ...

air pollution
.Lawn Equipment , Improving Air Quality in Your Community , US EPA
US emission standards specifically limit emissions from small engines, which results in their continual improvement. Electric models produce no emissions at the point of use, but may shift pollution to power plants.


See also

* Organic horticulture * List of organic gardening and farming topics * :American gardeners, American gardeners * Turf management * Professional Grounds Management Society


References

; Notes {{reflist, 30em Gardening Lawn care Equipment, > Baseball field Playing field surfaces, *