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The Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
(English: /ˈɡroʊvɑːnt/; from French: "big belly"),[1] also known as the Aaniiih, A'aninin, Haaninin, and Atsina, are a historically Algonquian-speaking Native American tribe located in north central Montana. Today the Gros Ventre people
Gros Ventre people
are enrolled in the Fort Belknap Indian Community
Fort Belknap Indian Community
of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana, a federally recognized tribe with 3,682 enrolled members, that also includes Assiniboine people
Assiniboine people
or Nakoda people, the Gros Ventre's historical enemies. The Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
is in the northernmost part of Montana, just south of the small town of Harlem, Montana.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 18th century 2.2 19th century 2.3 20th century 2.4 21st century

3 Government 4 Notable Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
people 5 Notes 6 References 7 See also 8 External links

Name[edit] A'aninin, Aaniiih, and Haaninin are the tribe's autonyms. These terms mean "White Clay People" or "Lime People".[1] The French used the term Gros Ventre, which was mistakenly interpreted from their sign language. They were once known as the Gros Ventres of the Prairies, while the Hidatsa people
Hidatsa people
were once called the Gros Ventres of the Missouri.[1] The Piegan Blackfoot, enemies of the Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
throughout most of history, called the Aaniiih, "Piik-siik-sii-naa", which translates as "snakes". According to the Piegan Institute, the contemporary Piegan name for the Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
is "Assinee", meaning "big bellies", which is similar to the falsely translated label applied by the French. Atsina, a Pieagan word, translates to either "gut people" or "like a Cree". Further clarification of the name is required. After the division of peoples, their relations the Arapaho, who considered them inferior, called them Hitúnĕna, meaning "beggars".[4] Other interpretations of the term have been "hunger", "waterfall", and "big bellies". History[edit] The Gros Ventres are believed to have lived in the western Great Lakes region 3000 years ago, where they lived an agrarian lifestyle, cultivating maize.[5] With the ancestors of the Arapaho, they formed a single, large Algonquian-speaking people who lived along the Red River valley in northern present-day Minnesota
Minnesota
and in Manitoba, Canada.[1] They were closely associated with the ancestors of the Cheyenne. They spoke the now nearly extinct Gros Ventre language (Atsina), a similar Plains Algonquian language like their kin the Arapaho
Arapaho
and grouped therefore as an Arapahoan language (Arapaho-Atsina). There is evidence that, together with bands of Northern Arapaho, a southern tribal group, the Staetan, spoke the Besawunena dialect, which had speakers among the Northern Arapaho
Arapaho
as recently as the late 1920s. 18th century[edit] In the early 18th century, the large tribe split into two, forming the Gros Ventres and the Arapaho. These, with the Cheyenne, were among the last to migrate into Montana, due to pressure from the Ojibwe.[1] After they migrated to Montana, the Arapaho
Arapaho
moved southwards to the Wyoming and Colorado area. The Cheyenne
Cheyenne
who migrated with the Gros Ventre and Arapaho
Arapaho
also migrated onwards. The Gros Ventres were reported living in two north-south tribal groups - the so-called Fall Indians (Canadian or northern group) of 260 tipis (2,500 population) traded with the North West Company
North West Company
on the Upper Saskatchewan River[clarification needed] and roamed between the Missouri and Bow River, and the so-called Staetan tribe (American or southern group) of 40 tipis (400 population) living in close contact with bands (which would become the later Northern Arapaho) and roamed the headwaters of the Loup branch of the North Platte River
North Platte River
(Lewis and Clark 1806).[6] The Gros Ventres acquired horses in the mid-18th century.[1] The earliest known contact of Gros Ventres with whites was around 1754, between the north and south forks of the Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan
River. Exposure to smallpox severely reduced their numbers about this time. Around 1793, in response to attacks by well-armed Cree
Cree
and Assiniboines, large groups of Gros Ventres burned two Hudson's Bay Company
Hudson's Bay Company
trading posts that were providing guns to the Cree
Cree
and Assiniboine tribes in what is now Saskatchewan. 19th century[edit] In 1832, the Gros Ventres made contact with the German explorer and naturalist, Prince Maximilian. Along with the naturalist painter Karl Bodmer, the Europeans painted portraits and recorded their meeting with the Gros Ventres, near the Missouri River
Missouri River
in Montana.

Camp of the Gros Ventres of the Prairies on the upper Missouri. (circa 1832): aquatint by Karl Bodmer
Karl Bodmer
from the book "Maximilian, Prince of Wied’s Travels in the Interior of North America, during the years 1832–1834"

The Gros Ventres joined the Blackfoot Confederacy. After allying with the Blackfoot, the Gros Ventres moved to north-central Montana
Montana
and southern Canada. In 1855, Isaac Stevens, Governor of the Washington Territory, concluded a treaty (Stat., L., XI, 657) to provide peace between the United States
United States
and the Blackfoot, Flathead and Nez Perce tribes. The Gros Ventres signed the treaty as part of the Blackfoot Confederacy, whose territory near the Three Fork area became a common hunting ground for the Flathead, Nez Perce, Kootenai, and Crow Indians. A common hunting ground north of the Missouri River
Missouri River
on the Fort Peck
Fort Peck
Indian Reservation included the Assiniboine and Sioux. In 1861, the Gros Ventres left the Blackfoot Confederacy.[7] Allying with the Crow, the Gros Ventres fought the Blackfoot but in 1867, they were defeated.[1] In 1868, the United States
United States
government established a trading post called Fort Browning near the mouth of Peoples Creek on the Milk River. This trading post was built for the Gros Ventres and Assiniboines, but because it was on a favorite hunting ground of the Sioux, it was abandoned in 1871. The government then built Fort Belknap, which was established on the south side of the Milk River, about one mile southwest of the present town site of Harlem, Montana. Fort Belknap was a substation post, with half of the structure being a trading post. A block house stood to the left of the stockade gate. At the right was a warehouse and an issue building, where the tribe received their rations and annuity goods. In 1876, the fort was discontinued and the Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
and Assiniboine people receiving annuities at the post were instructed to go to the agency at Fort Peck
Fort Peck
and Wolf Point. The Assiniboines did not object to going to Wolf Point
Wolf Point
and readily went about moving; but the Gros Ventres refused to go. If they did, they would come into contact with the Sioux, with whom they could not ride together in peace. They forfeited their annuities rather than move to Fort Peck. In 1878, the Fort Belknap Agency
Fort Belknap Agency
was re-established, and the Gros Ventres, and remaining Assiniboines were again allowed to receive supplies at Fort Belknap. White Eagle, "the last major Chief of the Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
people", died "at the mouth of the Judith River" on February 9, 1881.[8]

Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
moving camp with travois.

In 1884, gold was discovered in the Little Rocky Mountains. Pressure from miners and mining companies forced the tribes to cede sections of the mountains in 1885. Jesuits came to Fort Belknap in 1862 to convert the Gros Ventre people
Gros Ventre people
to Roman Catholicism. In 1887, St. Paul's Mission was established at the foot of the Little Rocky Mountains, near Hays. Much of the traditional ceremonies were lost through the course of time following the establishment of the mission. However, the two sacred pipes, The Feathered Pipe and The Flat Pipe, remain central to the traditional spiritual beliefs of the Gros Ventres. In 1888, at this site, the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
was established. By an act of Congress on May 1, 1888, (Stat., L., XXV, 113), the Blackfoot, Gros Ventre, and Assiniboine tribes ceded 17,500,000 acres of their joint reservation and agreed to live on three smaller reservations. These are now known as the Blackfoot Confederacy, the Fort Peck
Fort Peck
Indian Reservation and the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation. Fort Belknap was named for William W. Belknap, who was Secretary of War at that time. 20th century[edit] By 1904, there were only 535 A'ani tribe members remaining. Since then, the tribe has revived, with a substantial increase in population. 21st century[edit] In March 2012, 63 American bison
American bison
from Yellowstone National Park were transferred to the Fort Peck
Fort Peck
Indian Reservation prairie, to be released to a 2,100-acre game preserve 25 miles north of Poplar. There are many other bison herds outside Yellowstone, but this is one of the very few genetically pure ones, not cross-bred with cattle. Native Americans celebrated the move, which came over a century after bison were nearly wiped out by hunters and the government. The Assiniboine and Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
tribes at the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
will also receive a portion of this herd. [9] Government[edit] Historically, Gros Ventres had twelve independent bands, each governed by a chief.[1] The current reservation government has an elected council, which includes four officers, as well as four members from each tribe. Today, the tribe belongs to the Fort Belknap Indian Community, whose constitution and by-laws were ratified in 1935. The tribal council has six elected Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
members, as well as six elected Assiniboine members, and three appointed members.[3] Notable Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
people[edit]

Theresa Lamebull (ca. 1896–2007), fluent speaker of the Gros Ventre language George Horse-Capture (1937-2013), anthropologist and author James Welch (1940–2003), Blackfoot- Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
author[10] Jamie Fox, Métis fiddler

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Pritzker 319 ^ Pritzker 304 ^ a b Pritzker 320 ^ "Canadian Indian Tribes." Archived 2009-10-12 at the Portuguese Web Archive Access Genealogy. (retrieved 1 Nov 2011) ^ Pritzker 297 ^ Loretta Fowler: Shared Symbols, Contested Meanings: Gros Ventre Culture and History, 1778-1984, ISBN 0801494508, Cornell University Press, page 45] ^ Pritzker 303 ^ Smith, Jeffrey J. (2003). Montana
Montana
Book of Days-365 Days-365 Stories-The Short Course in Montana
Montana
History. Missoula, MT: Historic Montana
Montana
Publishing. p. 42. ISBN 0966335562.  ^ "Yellowstone bison return to tribal land". Great Falls Tribune. 2012-03-21. Retrieved 2012-03-23.  ^ "Blackfoot Culture and History." Native Languages. (retrieved 1 Nov 2011)

References[edit]

Pritzker, Barry M. A Native American Encyclopedia: History, Culture, and Peoples. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-19-513877-1.

See also[edit]

List of Native American peoples in the United States

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Atsina.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Gros Ventres.

Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, official website "Atsina", Lewis and Clark, National Geographic Cultural Heritage of the Fort Belknap Indian Community Sing an Owl Dance Song for George Chandler

v t e

Blackfoot Confederacy

Tribes or Nations

Blackfoot-speaking

Kainai or Bloods Northern Peigan
Northern Peigan
or Piikáni Siksika or Blackfoot South Peigan or Blackfeet

Later members

Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
or Atsina (circa 1793-1861) Sarcee or Tsuu T'ina

Communities

Reservations (US)

Blackfeet Indian Reservation
Blackfeet Indian Reservation
(South Peigans) Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
Fort Belknap Indian Reservation
(Gros Ventres)

Reserves (Canada)

Blood 148 Piikani 147 Siksika 146 Tsuu T'ina Nation 145

Culture

Blackfoot language Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
language Sarcee language Blackfoot music Blackfoot religion

History

War with Shoshone
Shoshone
(circa 1730s-1800s) 1775–1782 North American smallpox epidemic 1837–1838 smallpox epidemic Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851)
(with USA) War against the Crow and Gros Ventre
Gros Ventre
(circa 1861-1867) Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
(with USA) Battle of the Belly River
Battle of the Belly River
(against the Cree, 1870) Marias Massacre
Marias Massacre
(by US Army, 1870) Peace with the Cree, circa 1871, (symbolized by Crowfoot's adoption of Poundmaker
Poundmaker
in 1873) US land annexation, migration to Canada
Canada
(1874) Treaty 7
Treaty 7
(with Canada, 1877) Starvation winter (1883-1884) Sweetgrass Hills Treaty (wit

.