The Info List - Gregory Of Nazianzus

Gregory of Nazianzus (Greek: Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329[2] – 25 January 390[2][3]), also known as Gregory the Theologian
or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age.[4] As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials.[4] Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great
Basil the Great
and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers. Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
he is numbered among the Doctors of the Church; in the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and the Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
he is revered as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs, along with Basil the Great and John Chrysostom. He is also one of only three men in the life of the Orthodox Church who have been officially designated "Theologian" by epithet,[5] the other two being St. John the Theologian
(the Evangelist), and St. Symeon the New Theologian.


1 Biography

1.1 Early life and education 1.2 Priesthood 1.3 Episcopate in Sasima and Nazianzus 1.4 Gregory at Constantinople 1.5 Second Ecumenical Council and retirement to Arianzum

2 Legacy

2.1 Theological and other works 2.2 Influence 2.3 Relics 2.4 Death

3 Feast day 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Biography[edit] Early life and education[edit] Gregory was born of Greek parentage[6] in the family estate of Karbala outside the village of Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in southwest Cappadocia.[7]:18 His parents, Gregory and Nonna, were wealthy land-owners. In AD 325 Nonna converted her husband, a Hypsistarian, to Christianity; he was subsequently ordained as bishop of Nazianzus in 328 or 329.[4]:vii The young Gregory and his brother, Caesarius, first studied at home with their uncle Amphylokhios. Gregory went on to study advanced rhetoric and philosophy in Nazianzus, Caesarea, Alexandria
and Athens. On the way to Athens
his ship encountered a violent storm, and the terrified Gregory prayed to Christ that if He would deliver him, he would dedicate his life to His service.[4]:28 While at Athens, he developed a close friendship with his fellow student Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea
and also made the acquaintance of Flavius Claudius Julianus, who would later become the emperor known as Julian the Apostate.[7]:19,25 In Athens, Gregory studied under the famous rhetoricians Himerius and Proaeresius.[8] Upon finishing his education, he taught rhetoric in Athens
for a short time. Priesthood[edit] In 361 Gregory returned to Nazianzus and was ordained a presbyter by his father, who wanted him to assist with caring for local Christians.[4]:99–102 The younger Gregory, who had been considering a monastic existence, resented his father's decision to force him to choose between priestly services and a solitary existence, calling it an "act of tyranny".[7]:32[9] Leaving home after a few days, he met his friend Basil at Annesoi, where the two lived as ascetics.[4]:102 However, Basil urged him to return home to assist his father, which he did for the next year. Arriving at Nazianzus, Gregory found the local Christian community split by theological differences and his father accused of heresy by local monks.[4]:107 Gregory helped to heal the division through a combination of personal diplomacy and oratory. By this time Emperor Julian had publicly declared himself in opposition to Christianity.[4]:115 In response to the emperor's rejection of the Christian faith, Gregory composed his Invectives Against Julian between 362 and 363. Invectives asserts that Christianity
will overcome imperfect rulers such as Julian through love and patience. This process as described by Gregory is the public manifestation of the process of deification (theosis), which leads to a spiritual elevation and mystical union with God.[4]:121 Julian resolved, in late 362, to vigorously prosecute Gregory and his other Christian critics; however, the emperor perished the following year during a campaign against the Persians.[4]:125–6 With the death of the emperor, Gregory and the Eastern churches were no longer under the threat of persecution, as the new emperor Jovian was an avowed Christian and supporter of the church.[4]:130 Gregory spent the next few years combating Arianism, which threatened to divide the region of Cappadocia. In this tense environment, Gregory interceded on behalf of his friend Basil with Bishop
Eusebius of Caesarea (Mazaca).[4]:138–42 The two friends then entered a period of close fraternal cooperation as they participated in a great rhetorical contest of the Caesarean church precipitated by the arrival of accomplished Arian theologians and rhetors.[4]:143 In the subsequent public debates, presided over by agents of the Emperor Valens, Gregory and Basil emerged triumphant. This success confirmed for both Gregory and Basil that their futures lay in administration of the Church.[4]:143 Basil, who had long displayed inclinations to the episcopacy, was elected bishop of the see of Caesarea in Cappadocia
in 370. Episcopate in Sasima and Nazianzus[edit] Gregory was ordained Bishop
of Sasima in 372 by Basil.[4]:190–5 Basil created this see in order to strengthen his position in his dispute with Anthimus, bishop of Tyana.[8] The ambitions of Gregory's father to have his son rise in the Church hierarchy and the insistence of his friend Basil convinced Gregory to accept this position despite his reservations. Gregory would later refer to his episcopal ordination as forced upon him by his strong-willed father and Basil.[4]:187–92 Describing his new bishopric, Gregory lamented how it was nothing more than an "utterly dreadful, pokey little hole; a paltry horse-stop on the main road ... devoid of water, vegetation, or the company of gentlemen ... this was my Church of Sasima!"[10] He made little effort to administer his new diocese, complaining to Basil that he preferred instead to pursue a contemplative life.[7]:38–9 By late 372 Gregory returned to Nazianzus to assist his dying father with the administration of his diocese.[4]:199 This strained his relationship with Basil, who insisted that Gregory resume his post at Sasima. Gregory retorted that he had no intention to continue to play the role of pawn to advance Basil's interests.[11] He instead focused his attention on his new duties as coadjutor of Nazianzus. It was here that Gregory preached the first of his great episcopal orations. Following the deaths of his mother and father in 374, Gregory continued to administer the Diocese of Nazianzus but refused to be named bishop. Donating most of his inheritance to the needy, he lived an austere existence.[8] At the end of 375 he withdrew to a monastery at Seleukia, living there for three years. Near the end of this period his friend Basil died. Although Gregory's health did not permit him to attend the funeral, he wrote a heartfelt letter of condolence to Basil's brother, Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
and composed twelve memorial poems dedicated to the memory of his departed friend. Gregory at Constantinople[edit] Emperor Valens
died in 378. The accession of Theodosius I, a steadfast supporter of Nicene orthodoxy, was good news to those who wished to purge Constantinople
of Arian and Apollinarian domination.[4]:235 The exiled Nicene party gradually returned to the city. From his deathbed, Basil reminded them of Gregory's capabilities and likely recommended his friend to champion the trinitarian cause in Constantinople.[4]:235–6[12] In 379, the Antioch synod and its archbishop, Meletios, asked Gregory to go to Constantinople
to lead a theological campaign to win over that city to Nicene orthodoxy.[7]:42 After much hesitation, Gregory agreed. His cousin Theodosia offered him a villa for his residence; Gregory immediately transformed much of it into a church, naming it Anastasia, "a scene for the resurrection of the faith".[4]:241[13] From this little chapel he delivered five powerful discourses on Nicene doctrine, explaining the nature of the Trinity
and the unity of the Godhead.[8] Refuting the Eunomion denial of the Holy Spirit's divinity, Gregory offered this argument:

Look at these facts: Christ is born, the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
is His Forerunner. Christ is baptized, the Spirit bears witness to this ... Christ works miracles, the Spirit accompanies them. Christ ascends, the Spirit takes His place. What great things are there in the idea of God which are not in His power? What titles appertaining to God do not apply also to Him, except for Unbegotten and Begotten? I tremble when I think of such an abundance of titles, and how many Names they blaspheme, those who revolt against the Spirit![14]

Gregory's homilies were well received and attracted ever-growing crowds to Anastasia. Fearing his popularity, his opponents decided to strike. On the vigil of Easter in 379, an Arian mob burst into his church during worship services, wounding Gregory and killing another bishop. Escaping the mob, Gregory next found himself betrayed by his erstwhile friend, the philosopher Maximus the Cynic. Maximus, who was in secret alliance with Peter, bishop of Alexandria, attempted to seize Gregory's position and have himself ordained bishop of Constantinople.[7]:43 Shocked, Gregory decided to resign his office, but the faction faithful to him induced him to stay and ejected Maximus. However, the episode left him embarrassed and exposed him to criticism as a provincial simpleton unable to cope with intrigues of the imperial city.[7]:43 Affairs in Constantinople
remained confused as Gregory's position was still unofficial and Arian priests occupied many important churches. The arrival of the emperor Theodosius in 380 settled matters in Gregory's favor. The emperor, determined to eliminate Arianism, expelled Bishop
Demophilus. Gregory was subsequently enthroned as bishop of Constantinople
at the Basilica of the Apostles, replacing Demophilus.[7]:45 Second Ecumenical Council and retirement to Arianzum[edit]

A Byzantine-style icon depicting the Three Holy Hierarchs: (left to right:) Basil the Great, John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
and Gregory the Theologian.

Theodosius wanted to further unify the entire empire behind the orthodox position and decided to convene a church council to resolve matters of faith and discipline.[7]:45 Gregory was of similar mind in wishing to unify Christianity. In the spring of 381 they convened the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople, which was attended by 150 Eastern bishops. After the death of the presiding bishop, Meletius of Antioch, Gregory was selected to lead the Council. Hoping to reconcile the West with the East, he offered to recognize Paulinus as Patriarch of Antioch. The Egyptian and Macedonian bishops who had supported Maximus's ordination arrived late for the Council. Once there, they refused to recognise Gregory's position as head of the church of Constantinople, arguing that his transfer from the See of Sasima was canonically illegitimate.[4]:358–9 Gregory was physically exhausted and worried that he was losing the confidence of the bishops and the emperor.[4]:359 Rather than press his case and risk further division, he decided to resign his office: "Let me be as the Prophet Jonah! I was responsible for the storm, but I would sacrifice myself for the salvation of the ship. Seize me and throw me ... I was not happy when I ascended the throne, and gladly would I descend it."[15] He shocked the Council with his surprise resignation and then delivered a dramatic speech to Theodosius asking to be released from his offices. The emperor, moved by his words, applauded, commended his labor and granted his resignation. The Council asked him to appear once more for a farewell ritual and celebratory orations. Gregory used this occasion to deliver a final address (Or. 42) and then departed.[4]:361 Returning to his homeland of Cappadocia, Gregory once again resumed his position as bishop of Nazianzus. He spent the next year combating the local Apollinarian heretics and struggling with periodic illness. He also began composing De Vita Sua, his autobiographical poem.[7]:50 By the end of 383 he found his health too feeble to cope with episcopal duties. Gregory established Eulalius as bishop of Nazianzus and then withdrew into the solitude of Arianzum. After enjoying six peaceful years in retirement at his family estate, he died on 25 January in 390. Throughout his life Gregory faced stark choices. Should he pursue studies as a rhetor or philosopher? Would a monastic life be more appropriate than public ministry? Was it better to blaze his own path or follow the course mapped for him by his father and Basil? Gregory's writings illuminate the conflicts which both tormented and motivated him. Biographers suggest that it was this dialectic which defined him, forged his character and inspired his search for meaning and truth.[7]:54 Legacy[edit]

Andrei Rublev, Gregory the Theologian
(1408), Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir.

Theological and other works[edit] Gregory's most significant theological contributions arose from his defense of the doctrine of the Trinity. He is especially noted for his contributions to the field of pneumatology—that is, theology concerning the nature of the Holy Spirit.[16] In this regard, Gregory is the first to use the idea of procession to describe the relationship between the Spirit and the Godhead: "The Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
is truly Spirit, coming forth from the Father indeed but not after the manner of the Son, for it is not by generation but by procession, since I must coin a word for the sake of clearness."[17] Although Gregory does not fully develop the concept, the idea of procession would shape most later thought about the Holy Spirit.[18] He emphasized that Jesus did not cease to be God when he became a man, nor did he lose any of his divine attributes when he took on human nature. Furthermore, Gregory asserted that Christ was fully human, including a full human soul. He also proclaimed the eternality of the Holy Spirit, saying that the Holy Spirit's actions were somewhat hidden in the Old Testament
Old Testament
but much clearer since the ascension of Jesus into Heaven and the descent of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
at the feast of Pentecost. In contrast to the Neo-Arian belief that the Son is anomoios, or "unlike" the Father, and with the Semi-Arian
assertion that the Son is homoiousios, or "like" the Father, Gregory and his fellow Cappadocians maintained the Nicaean doctrine of homoousia, or consubstantiality of the Son with the Father.[19]:9,10 The Cappadocian Fathers
Cappadocian Fathers
asserted that God's nature is unknowable to man; helped to develop the framework of hypostases, or three persons united in a single Godhead; illustrated how Jesus is the eikon of the Father; and explained the concept of theosis, the belief that all Christians can be assimilated with God in "imitation of the incarnate Son as the divine model."[19]:10 Some of Gregory's theological writings suggest that, like his friend Gregory of Nyssa, he may have supported some form of the doctrine of apocatastasis, the belief that God will bring all of creation into harmony with the Kingdom of Heaven.[20] This led some late-nineteenth century Christian universalists, notably J. W. Hanson and Philip Schaff, to describe Gregory's theology as universalist.[21] This view of Gregory is also held by some modern theologians, such as John Sachs who said that Gregory had "leanings" toward apocatastasis, but in a "cautious, undogmatic" way.[22] However, it is not clear or universally accepted that Gregory held to the doctrine of apocatastasis.[23] Apart from the several theological discourses, Gregory was also one of the most important early Christian men of letters, a very accomplished orator, perhaps one of the greatest of his time.[19]:21 Gregory was also a very prolific poet who wrote theological, moral and biographical poems. Influence[edit] Gregory's great nephew Nichobulos served as his literary executor, preserving and editing many of his writings. A cousin, Eulalios, published several of Gregory's more noteworthy works in 391.[4]:xi By 400, Rufinius began translating his orations into Latin. As Gregory's works circulated throughout the empire they influenced theological thought. His orations were cited as authoritative by the First Council of Ephesus in 431. By 451 he was designated Theologus, or Theologian by the Council of Chalcedon[4]:xi — a title held by no others save John the Apostle[8] and Symeon the New Theologian
(949–1022 AD). He is widely quoted by Eastern Orthodox theologians and highly regarded as a defender of the Christian faith. His contributions to Trinitarian theology are also influential and often cited in the Western churches.[24] Paul Tillich
Paul Tillich
credits Gregory of Nazianzus for having "created the definitive formulae for the doctrine of the trinity".[25] Additionally, the Liturgy of St Gregory the Theologian
in use by the Coptic Church
Coptic Church
is named after him.[26] Relics[edit] Following his death, Saint
Gregory was buried at Nazianzus. His relics, consisting of portions of his body and clothing, were transferred to Constantinople
in 950, into the Church of the Holy Apostles. Part of the relics were taken from Constantinople
by Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade, in 1204, and ended up in Rome. On 27 November 2004, those relics, along with those of John Chrysostom, were returned to Istanbul
(Constantinople) by Pope
John Paul II, with the Vatican retaining a small portion of both. The relics are now enshrined in the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. George in the Fanar.[27] Death[edit] During the six years of life which remained to him after his final retirement to his birthplace, Gregory composed the greater part of the copious poetical works which has passed down from generation. These include a valuable autobiographical poem of nearly 2,000 lines; about one hundred other shorter poems relating to his past career; and a large number of epitaphs, epigrams, and epistles to well-known people during that era. The poems that he wrote that dealt with his personal affairs refer to the continuous illness and severe sufferings (physical and spiritual) which assailed him during his last years. In the tiny plot of ground at Arianzus, all that remained to him of his rich inheritance was by a fountain near which there was a shady walk. At this point, Gregory retired to spend his days as a hermit. It was at this point he decided to write theological discourses and poetry of both a religious and an autobiographical nature.[28] He would sometimes receive occasional visits from intimate friends, as well as sometimes from strangers who were attracted to his retreat by his large reputation for sanctity and learning. He died about 25 January 390, although the exact date of his death is unknown.[29] Feast day[edit] Some Western churches celebrate Gregory's feast day on 2 January.[30] The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod
commemorates Gregory, along with Basil the Great
Basil the Great
and Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
(the Cappadocian Fathers) on 10 January.[31] The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
and the Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate two feast days in Gregory's honor. 25 January is his primary feast; 30 January, known as the feast of the Three Great Hierarchs, commemorates him along with John Chrysostom
John Chrysostom
and Basil of Caesarea.[32][33] The US Episcopal Church now remembers this Gregory on 9 May,[34] as did the Roman Church up to 1960, and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates Gregory of Nazianzus together with his friends St. Basil the Great
Basil the Great
and St. Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa
on 14 June. The Church of England
Church of England
celebrates Gregory's Holy Day, on 2 January, as a "Lesser Festival".[35] See also[edit]

List of Ecumenical Patriarchs of Constantinople Ecumenical Patriarch
of Constantinople


^ " Saint
Gregory of Nazianzus - Byzantine theologian".  ^ a b Liturgy of the Hours Volume I, Proper of Saints, 2 January. ^ "Ορθόδοξος Συναξαριστής :: Άγιος Γρηγόριος ο Θεολόγος". Saint.gr. 25 January 2016. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y McGuckin, John (2001) Saint
Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography, Crestwood, NY. ^ Great Synaxaristes: (in Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Γρηγόριος ὁ Θεολόγος Ἀρχιεπίσκοπος Κωνσταντινουπόλεως. 25 Ιανουαρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ. ^ Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries, Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries (2005). The Riverside Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 336. ISBN 9780618493371. Gregory of Nazianzus or Nazianzen, St c. 330-c. 389 AD •Greek prelate and theologian- Born of Greek parents in Cappadocia, he was educated in Caesarea, Alexandria
and Athens. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ruether, Rosemary Radford (1969), Gregory of Nazianzus: Rhetor and Philosopher, Oxford University Press  ^ a b c d e Hunter-Blair, DO (1910), "Gregory of Nazianzus", The Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton  ^ Migne, J.P. (ed), Patrologiae Graecae (PG), (1857–66), 37.1053, Carm. de vita sua, l.345 ^ Gregory, as quoted in PG 37.1059–60, De Vita Sua, vv. 439–46. ^ Gallay, P. (1964), Grégoire de Nazianze (in French), Paris, p. 61 ; quoting from Ep. 48, PG 37.97. ^ Orat. 43.2, PG 36.497. ^ 2 Kings 4:8 and Orat. 26.17, PG 35.1249. ^ Nazianzus, Gregory of, Or, The Orthodox Church of America, p. 31:29, retrieved May 2, 2007  ^ PG, 37.1157–9, Carm. de vita sua, ll 1828–55. ^ Michael O'Carroll, "Gregory of Nazianzus" in Trinitas (Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1987). ^ Gregory of Nazianzus, Five Theological Orations, oration five. This fifth oration deals entirely with the Holy Spirit. ^ HEW Turner and Francis Young, "Procession(s)" in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology, ed. A. Richardson & J. Bowden (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1983). Through Augustine, the idea would develop in the West into "double-procession," resulting in the Filioque clause
Filioque clause
and the split between Eastern and Western Christianity. ^ a b c Børtnes (2006), Gregory of Nazianzus: Images and Reflections  ^ "Apocatastasis". New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Vol. I. ^ Hanson, JW Universalism: The Prevailing Doctrine Of The Christian Church During Its First Five Hundred Years. Chapter XV: Gregory Nazianzen. Boston and Chicago Universalist Publishing House, 1899. ^ Sachs, John R. " Apocatastasis in Patristic Theology." Theological Studies. 54 (December 1993), p. 632. ^ David
L. Balas, "Apokatastasis" in The Encyclopedia of Early Christianity, second edition, ed. Everett Ferguson (New York: Garland Publishing, 1997), details Gregory of Nyssa's adherence to the doctrine, while making no mention of Nazianzan. ^ See how the 1992 edition of the Catechism of the Catholic Church cites a variety of Gregory's orations ^ Tillich, Paul. A History of Christian Thought (Simon and Schuster, 1968), p. 76. ^ Chaillot, Christine (2006), "The Ancient Oriental Churches", in Wainwright, Geoffrey, The Oxford history of Christian worship, Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, p. 139, ISBN 978-0-19-513886-3  ^ Fisher, Ian (28 November 2004), " Pope
returns remains of 2 Orthodox patriarchs", San Diego Union-Tribune, archived from the original on 29 August 2007, retrieved 24 October 2012  ^ " Saint
Gregory of Nazianzen". 3 January 2009.  ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: St. Gregory of Nazianzus". Newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 November 2016.  ^ The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography (2003), Houghton Mifflin, 2003, p. 643, ISBN 9780618252107, retrieved 18 October 2012 [dead link] ^ Lutheranism
101, CPH, St. Louis, 2010, p.277 ^ "St Gregory the Theologian
the Archbishop of Constantinople". OCA Online Feast Days. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 26 September 2009.  ^ "Synaxis of the Ecumenical Teachers and Hierarchs: Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and John Chrysostom". OCA Online Feast Days. Orthodox Church in America. Retrieved 26 September 2009.  ^ [1][dead link] ^ "Join us in Daily Prayer - The Church of England". www.churchofengland.org. 


Børtnes, Jostein; Hägg, Tomas (2006), Gregory of Nazianzus: Images and Reflections, Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, ISBN 87-635-0386-7   Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Gregory of Nazianzus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  McGuckin, John A. St. Gregory of Nazianzus: An Intellectual Biography. Crestwood, NY: 2001, St. Vladimir's Seminar Press. ISBN 0-88141-222-8 Migne, J.P. (General Editor). Cursus Completus Patrologiae Graecae. Volumes 35–38. Paris: 1857–66. The Orthodox Church of America website article on St. Gregory the Theologian. Retrieved 2 May 2007. Ruether, Rosemary Radford. Gregory of Nazianzus. Oxford: 1969, Oxford University Press. Turner, H.E.W. and Francis Young, "Procession(s)" in The Westminster Dictionary of Christian Theology, ed. A. Richardson & J. Bowden. Philadelphia: 1983, Westminster Press, 1983.

Further reading[edit]

Michael Azkoul, "St. Gregory the Theologian: Poetry and Faith," Patristic and Byzantine Review 14.1–3 (1995): 59–68. Brian Daley, ed., Gregory Nazianzen. Early Church Fathers. London: Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books, 2005. ISBN 0-415-12181-7, pp. 192. K. Demoen, "Biblical vs. Non-Biblical Vocabulary in Gregorius Nazianzenus; a Quantitative Approach," Informatique 2 (1988–89): 243–53. J. Egan, "Gregory of Nazianzus and the Logos Doctrine," J. Plevnic, ed., Word and Spirit: Essays in Honor of David
Michael Stanley. Willowdale, ON: 1975. pp. 281–322. Anna-Stina Ellverson, The Dual Nature of Man: A Study in the Theological Anthropology of Gregory of Nazianzus. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 1981. ISBN 91-554-1206-8. Amazon.com Gerald Fitzpatrick, "St Gregory Nazianzen: Education for Salvation," Patristic and Byzantine Review 10.1–2 (1991): 47–55. R.C. Gregg, Consolation Philosophy: Greek and Christian Paideia in Basil and the Two Gregories. Washington, DC: Catholic University of America Press, 1975. ISBN 0-8132-1000-3. Amazon.com Edward R. Hardy, ed. Christology of the Later Fathers, J. Baillie et al., eds. Library of Christian Classics, Vol. 3. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1995. Pbk. ISBN 0-664-24152-2 Carol Harrison & Brian Daley (Editor). Gregory Nazianzen. Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0-415-12181-7 V. Harrison, "Some Aspects of Saint
Gregory (Nazianzen) the Theologian's Soteriology," Greek Orthodox Theological Review 34 (1989): 19–43/11–8. Susan R. Holman, "Healing the Social Leper in Gregory of Nyssa's and Gregory of Nazianzus's peri philoptochias," Harvard Theological Review 92.3 (1999): 283–309. M. Edmund Hussey,"The Theology
of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
in the Writings of St. Gregory of Nazianzus," Diakonia 14.3 (1979): 224–233. Anne Karahan, "The Impact of Cappadocian Theology
on Byzantine Aesthetics: Gregory of Nazianzus on the Unity and Singularity of Christ". In: The Ecumenical Legacy of the Cappadocians, pp. 159–184. Ed. N. Dumitraşcu. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2015. ISBN 978-1-137-51394-6. George A. Kennedy, Greek Rhetoric Under Christian Emperors. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-691-03565-2. pp. 215–239. Amazon.com Vasiliki Limberis, ."'Religion' as the Cipher for Identity: The Cases of Emperor Julian, Libanius, and Gregory Nazianzus," Harvard Theological Review 93.4 (2000): 373–400. N.B. McLynn, "The Other Olympias: Gregory of Nazianzen and the Family of Vitalianus," ZAC 2 (1998): 227–46. Ruth Majercik, "A Reminiscence of the Chaldean Oracles at Gregory of Nazianzus, Or. 29,2," Vigiliae Christianae
Vigiliae Christianae
52.3 (1998): 286–292. P.J. Maritz, "Logos Articulation in Gregory of Nazianzus," Acta Patristica et Byzantina 6 (1995): 99–108. E.P. Meijuring, "The Doctrine of the Will and the Trinity
in the Orations of Gregory of Nazianzus," Nederlands Theologisch Tijdschrift 27.3 (1973): 224–34. Celica Milovanovic-Barham, "Gregory of Nazianzus: Ars Poetica (In suos versus: Carmen 2.1.39)," Journal of Early Christian Studies 5.4 (1997): 497–510. H. Musurillo, "The Poetry of Gregory of Nazianzus," Thought 45 (1970): 45–55. T.A. Noble, "Gregory Nazianzen's Use of Scripture in Defence of the Deity of the Spirit," Tyndale Bulletin
Tyndale Bulletin
39 (1988): 101–23. F.W. Norris, "Of Thorns and Roses: The Logic of Belief in Gregory of Nazianzen," Church History, Vol. 53 (1984): 455–64. F.W. Norris, "The Tetragrammaton in Gregory Nazianzen (Or. 30.17)," Vigiliae Christianae
Vigiliae Christianae
43 (1989): 339–44. F.W. Norris, Faith Gives Fullness to Reasoning: The Five Theological Orations of Gregory Nazianzen. Supplements to Vigiliae Christianae, Vol 13. Leiden: Brill, 1990. ISBN 90-04-09253-6. p. 314. Amazon.com Jay Wesley Richards, "Can a Male Savior Save Women?: Gregory of Nazianzus on the Logos' Assumption of Human Nature," Christian Scholar's Review 28.1 (1998): 42–57. K. Skurat, "St. Gregory of Nazianzus on Philosophy and Knowledge of God," Journal of Moscow Patriarchate
10 (October 1989): 57–62. Frank Thielman, "The Place of the Apocalypse in the Canon of St Gregory Nazianzen," Tyndale Bulletin
Tyndale Bulletin
49.1 (1998): 155–7. Steven Peter Tsichlis, "The Nature of Theology
in the Theological Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzus," Diakonia 16.3 (1981): 238–46. Raymond Van Dam, "Self-Representation in the Will of Gregory of Nazianzus," Journal of Theological Studies 46.1 (1995): 118–48. Kenneth Paul Wesche, "The Union of God and Man in Jesus Christ in the Thought of Gregory of Nazianzus," St. Vladimir's Theological Quarterly 28.2 (1984): 83–98. Donald F. Winslow, "Gregory of Nazianzus and Love for the Poor," Anglican Theological Review
Anglican Theological Review
47 (1965): 348–59. Donald F. Winslow, The Dynamics of Salvation: A Study in Gregory of Nazianzus. Cambridge, MA: North American Patristic Society, 1979. ISBN 0-915646-06-4.

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Titles of the Great Christian Church

Preceded by Demophilus or Evagrius Archbishop of Constantinople Disputed by Maximus 379–381 Succeeded by Nectarius

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Bishops of Byzantium
and Patriarchs of Constantinople

Bishops of Heraclea/Byzantium (to 330 AD)

Andrew Stachys Onesimus Polycarpus I Plutarch Sedecion Diogenes Eleutherius Felix Polycarpus II Athenodorus Euzois Laurence Alypius Pertinax Olympianus Marcus I Philadelphus Cyriacus I Castinus Eugenius I Titus Dometius Rufinus Probus Metrophanes Alexander

Archbishops of Constantinople (330–451 AD)

Alexander Paul I Eusebius Macedonius I Eudoxius Evagrius Demophilus Maximus I Gregory I Nectarius John I Chrysostom Arsacius Atticus Sisinnius I Nestorius Maximianus Proclus Flavian Anatolius

Patriarchs of Constantinople Byzantine period (451–1453 AD)

Anatolius Gennadius I Acacius Fravitta Euphemius Macedonius II Timothy I John II Epiphanius Anthimus I Menas Eutychius John III John IV Cyriacus II Thomas I Sergius I Pyrrhus Paul II Peter Thomas II John V Constantine I Theodore I George I Paul III Callinicus I Cyrus John VI Germanus I Anastasius Constantine II Nicetas I Paul IV Tarasius Nicephorus I Theodotus I Antony I John VII Methodius I Ignatios Photios I Stephen I Antony II Nicholas I Εuthymius I Stephen II Tryphon Theophylact Polyeuctus Βasil I Αntony III Nicholas II Sisinnius II Sergius II Eustathius Alexius Michael I Constantine III John VIII Cosmas I Eustratius Nicholas III John IX Leo Michael II Cosmas II Nicholas IV Theodotus II Neophytus I Constantine IV Luke Michael III Chariton Theodosius I Basil II Nicetas II Leontius Dositheus George II John X Michael IV† Theodore II† Maximus II† Μanuel I† Germanus II† Methodius II† Manuel II† Arsenius† Nicephorus II† Germanus III Joseph I John XI Gregory II Athanasius I John XII Nephon I John XIII Gerasimus I Isaias John XIV Isidore I Callistus I Philotheus Macarius Nilus Antony IV Callistus II Matthew I Euthymius II Joseph II Metrophanes II Gregory III Athanasius II

Patriarchs of Constantinople Ottoman period (1453–1923 AD)

Gennadius II Isidore II Joasaph I Sophronius I Mark II Symeon I Dionysius I Raphael I Maximus III Nephon II Maximus IV Joachim I Pachomius I Theoleptus I Jeremias I Joannicius I Dionysius II Joasaph II Metrophanes III Jeremias II Pachomius II Theoleptus II Matthew II Gabriel
I Theophanes I Meletius I Neophytus II Raphael II Cyril I Timothy II Gregory IV Anthimus II Cyril II Athanasius III Neophytus III Parthenius I Parthenius II Joannicius II Cyril III Paisius I Parthenius III Gabriel
II Parthenius IV Dionysius III Clement Methodius III Dionysius IV Gerasimus II Athanasius IV James Callinicus II Neophytus IV Gabriel
III Neophytus V Cyprianus Athanasius V Cyril IV Cosmas III Jeremias III (Callinicus III) Paisius II Seraphim I Neophytus VI Cyril V Callinicus IV (III) Seraphim II Joannicius III Samuel Meletius II Theodosius II Sophronius II Gabriel
IV Procopius Neophytus VII Gerasimus III Gregory V Callinicus V (IV) Jeremias IV Cyril VI Eugenius II Anthimus III Chrysanthus Agathangelus Constantius I Constantius II Gregory VI Anthimus IV Anthimus V Germanus IV Meletius III Anthimus VI Cyril VII Joachim II Sophronius III Joachim III Joachim IV Dionysius V Neophytus VIII Anthimus VII Constantine V Germanus V Meletius IV

Patriarchs of Constantinople Modern period (since 1923 AD)

Gregory VII Constantine VI Basil III Photius II Benjamin Maximus V Athenagoras Demetrius Bartholomew

† in exile at Nicaea Eastern Christianity

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Doctors of the Catholic Church

Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek

Catholicism portal

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Saints of the Catholic Church

Virgin Mary

Mother of God (Theotokos) Immaculate Conception Perpetual virginity Assumption Marian apparition

Guadalupe Laus Miraculous Medal Lourdes Fatima

Titles of Mary


Andrew Barnabas Bartholomew James of Alphaeus James the Greater John Jude Matthew Matthias Paul Peter Philip Simon Thomas


Gabriel Michael Raphael


Anatolius Chariton the Confessor Edward the Confessor Maximus the Confessor Michael of Synnada Paphnutius the Confessor Paul I of Constantinople Salonius Theophanes the Confessor


Apollos Mary Magdalene Priscilla and Aquila Silvanus Stephen Timothy Titus Seventy disciples


Gregory the Great Ambrose Augustine of Hippo Jerome John Chrysostom Basil of Caesarea Gregory of Nazianzus Athanasius of Alexandria Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem John of Damascus Bede
the Venerable Ephrem the Syrian Thomas Aquinas Bonaventure Anselm of Canterbury Isidore of Seville Peter Chrysologus Leo the Great Peter Damian Bernard of Clairvaux Hilary of Poitiers Alphonsus Liguori Francis de Sales Peter Canisius John of the Cross Robert Bellarmine Albertus Magnus Anthony of Padua Lawrence of Brindisi Teresa of Ávila Catherine of Siena Thérèse of Lisieux John of Ávila Hildegard of Bingen Gregory of Narek


Matthew Mark Luke John

Church Fathers

Alexander of Alexandria Alexander of Jerusalem Ambrose
of Milan Anatolius Athanasius of Alexandria Augustine of Hippo Caesarius of Arles Caius Cappadocian Fathers Clement of Alexandria Clement of Rome Cyprian
of Carthage Cyril of Alexandria Cyril of Jerusalem Damasus I Desert Fathers Desert Mothers Dionysius of Alexandria Dionysius of Corinth Dionysius Ephrem the Syrian Epiphanius of Salamis Fulgentius of Ruspe Gregory the Great Gregory of Nazianzus Gregory of Nyssa Hilary of Poitiers Hippolytus of Rome Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus
of Lyons Isidore of Seville Jerome
of Stridonium John Chrysostom John of Damascus Maximus the Confessor Melito of Sardis Quadratus of Athens Papias of Hierapolis Peter Chrysologus Polycarp
of Smyrna Theophilus of Antioch Victorinus of Pettau Vincent of Lérins Zephyrinus


Canadian Martyrs Carthusian Martyrs Forty Martyrs of England and Wales Four Crowned Martyrs Great Martyr The Holy Innocents Irish Martyrs Joan of Arc Lübeck martyrs Korean Martyrs Martyrology Martyrs of Albania Martyrs of China Martyrs of Japan Martyrs of Laos Martyrs of Natal Martyrs of Otranto Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War Maximilian Kolbe Perpetua and Felicity Saints of the Cristero War Stephen Three Martyrs of Chimbote Uganda Martyrs Vietnamese Martyrs


Adam Abel Abraham Isaac Jacob Joseph Joseph (father of Jesus) David Noah Solomon Matriarchs


Adeodatus I Adeodatus II Adrian III Agapetus I Agatho Alexander I Anacletus Anastasius I Anicetus Anterus Benedict II Boniface I Boniface IV Caius Callixtus I Celestine I Celestine V Clement I Cornelius Damasus I Dionysius Eleuterus Eugene I Eusebius Eutychian Evaristus Fabian Felix I Felix III Felix IV Gelasius I Gregory I Gregory II Gregory III Gregory VII Hilarius Hormisdas Hyginus Innocent I John I John XXIII John Paul II Julius I Leo I Leo II Leo III Leo IV Leo IX Linus Lucius I Marcellinus Marcellus I Mark Martin I Miltiades Nicholas I Paschal I Paul I Peter Pius I Pius V Pius X Pontian Sergius I Silverius Simplicius Siricius Sixtus I Sixtus II Sixtus III Soter Stephen I Stephen IV Sylvester I Symmachus Telesphorus Urban I Victor I Vitalian Zachary Zephyrinus Zosimus


Agabus Amos Anna Baruch ben Neriah David Dalua Elijah Ezekiel Habakkuk Haggai Hosea Isaiah Jeremiah Job Joel John the Baptist Jonah Judas Barsabbas Malachi Melchizedek Micah Moses Nahum Obadiah Samuel Seven Maccabees and their mother Simeon Zechariah (prophet) Zechariah (NT) Zephaniah


Agatha of Sicily Agnes of Rome Bernadette Soubirous Brigid of Kildare Cecilia Clare of Assisi Eulalia of Mérida Euphemia Genevieve Kateri Tekakwitha Lucy of Syracuse Maria Goretti Mother Teresa Narcisa de Jesús Rose of Lima

See also

Military saints Virtuous pagan

Catholicism portal Saints portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100184680 LCCN: n50082276 ISNI: 0000 0001 2147 086X GND: 118541900 SELIBR: 188657 SUDOC: 026902281 BNF: cb130914730 (data) NLA: 35370572 NKC: jn19990002876 RLS: 000082470 B