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Greenwich[note 1] is an area of south east London, England, located 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross. It is located within the Royal Borough of Greenwich, to which it lends its name. Greenwich
Greenwich
is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian
Greenwich Meridian
(0° longitude) and Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time. The town became the site of a royal palace, the Palace of Placentia
Palace of Placentia
from the 15th century, and was the birthplace of many Tudors, including Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War
English Civil War
and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor. These buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, and they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich
Greenwich
Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public; other buildings are used by University of Greenwich and Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance. The town became a popular resort in the 18th century and many grand houses were built there, such as Vanbrugh Castle
Vanbrugh Castle
(1717) established on Maze Hill, next to the park. From the Georgian period
Georgian period
estates of houses were constructed above the town centre. The maritime connections of Greenwich
Greenwich
were celebrated in the 20th century, with the siting of the Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
and Gipsy Moth IV
Gipsy Moth IV
next to the river front, and the National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
in the former buildings of the Royal Hospital School in 1934. Greenwich
Greenwich
formed part of Kent
Kent
until 1889 when the County of London
County of London
was created.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Toponymy

1.1.1 Manor
Manor
of East Greenwich

1.2 Early settlement 1.3 Viking 1.4 Norman 1.5 Plantagenet 1.6 Tudor 1.7 Stuart 1.8 Hanoverian 1.9 Victorian and Edwardian 1.10 Modern and the present

2 Governance 3 Geography

3.1 Topography 3.2 Nearby areas 3.3 Climate

4 Sites of interest

4.1 Riverfront 4.2 Greenwich
Greenwich
Park 4.3 Town centre

4.3.1 Market

5 Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time 6 World heritage site 7 Greenwich
Greenwich
Heritage Centre 8 Discover Greenwich
Greenwich
Visitor Centre 9 Education 10 Transport

10.1 Rail 10.2 Buses 10.3 Boat 10.4 Pedestrian and cycle routes

11 Sports

11.1 Rowing

12 Literature 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 External links

History[edit] Toponymy[edit] The place-name 'Greenwich' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 918, where it appears as Gronewic. It is recorded as Grenewic in 964, and as Grenawic in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
for 1013. It is Grenviz in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086, and Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291. The name means 'green wic or settlement' (from the Latin 'vicus').[3] The settlement later became known as East Greenwich
Greenwich
to distinguish it from West Greenwich
Greenwich
or Deptford
Deptford
Strond, the part of Deptford
Deptford
adjacent to the Thames,[4] but the use of East Greenwich
Greenwich
to mean the whole of the town of Greenwich
Greenwich
died out in the 19th century. However, Greenwich was divided into the registration subdistricts of Greenwich
Greenwich
East and Greenwich
Greenwich
West from the beginning of civil registration in 1837, the boundary running down what is now Greenwich
Greenwich
Church Street and Crooms Hill, although more modern references to "East" and "West" Greenwich probably refer to the areas east and west of the Royal Naval College and National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
corresponding with the West Greenwich council ward. An article in The Times
The Times
of 13 October 1967 stated:

East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of London's heavy industry. West Greenwich
Greenwich
is a hybrid: the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development.[5]

Manor
Manor
of East Greenwich[edit] Royal charters granted to English colonists in North America,[6] often used the name of the manor of East Greenwich
Greenwich
for describing the tenure (from the Latin verb teneo, hold) as that of free socage.[7] New England
England
charters provided that the grantees should hold their lands "as of his Majesty's manor of East Greenwich." This was in relation to the principle of land tenure under English law, that the ruling monarch (king or queen) was paramount lord of all the soil in the terra regis,[8] while all others held their lands, directly or indirectly, under the monarch. Land outside the physical boundaries of England, as in America, was treated as belonging constructively to one of the existing royal manors, and from Tudor times grants frequently used the name of the manor of East Greenwich,[9] but some 17c. grants named the castle of Windsor.[10][11][12] Places in North America that have taken the name "East Greenwich" include a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, a hamlet in Washington County, New York, and a town in Kent
Kent
County, Rhode Island. Early settlement[edit] Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House,[13] in Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds. To the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman villa or temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot. It was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius
Claudius
and Honorius to the 5th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4
Channel 4
television programme Time Team
Time Team
in 1999, broadcast in 2000,[14] and further investigations were made by the same group in 2003.[15] The Roman road
Roman road
from London to Dover, Watling Street
Watling Street
crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath. This followed the line of an earlier Celtic route from Canterbury
Canterbury
to St Albans.[16] As late as Henry V, Greenwich
Greenwich
was only a fishing town, with a safe anchorage in the river.[4] Viking[edit] During the reign of Ethelred the Unready, the Danish fleet anchored in the River Thames
Thames
off Greenwich
Greenwich
for over three years, with the army being encamped on the hill above. From here they attacked Kent
Kent
and, in the year 1012, took the city of Canterbury, making Archbishop Alphege their prisoner for seven months in their camp at Greenwich, at that time within the county of Kent. They stoned him to death for his refusal to allow his ransom (3,000 pieces of silver) to be paid; and kept his body, until the blossoming of a stick that had been immersed in his blood. For this miracle his body was released to his followers, he achieved sainthood for his martyrdom and, in the 12th century, the parish church was dedicated to him. The present church on the site west of the town centre is St Alfege's Church, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor
Hawksmoor
in 1714 and completed in 1718. Some vestiges of the Danish camps may be traced in the names of Eastcombe and Westcombe, on the borders of nearby Blackheath.[17] Norman[edit] The Domesday Book
Domesday Book
records the manor of Grenviz in the hundred of Grenviz as held by Bishop Odo of Bayeux;[18] his lands were seized by the crown in 1082. The name of the hundred was changed to Blackheath when the site of the hundred court was moved there in the 12th century. A royal palace, or hunting lodge, has existed here since before 1300, when Edward I
Edward I
is known to have made offerings at the chapel of the Virgin Mary.[17] Plantagenet[edit] Subsequent monarchs were regular visitors, with Henry IV making his will here, and Henry V granting the manor (for life) to Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, who died at Greenwich
Greenwich
in 1426. The palace was created by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry V's half-brother and the regent to Henry VI in 1447; he enclosed the park and erected a tower on the hill now occupied by the Royal Observatory. It was renamed the Palace of Placentia
Palace of Placentia
or Pleasaunce by Henry VI's consort Margaret of Anjou
Margaret of Anjou
after Humphrey's death. The palace was completed and further enlarged by Edward IV, and in 1466 it was granted to his queen, Elizabeth.[17] Ultimately it was because the palace and its grounds were a royal possession that it was chosen as the site for Charles II's Royal Observatory, from which stemmed Greenwich's subsequent global role as originator of the modern Prime Meridian. Tudor[edit] The palace was the principal residence of Henry VII whose sons Henry (later Henry VIII) and Edmund Tudor were born here, and baptised in St Alphege's. Henry favoured Greenwich
Greenwich
over nearby Eltham
Eltham
Palace, the former principal royal palace. He extended Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace and it became his principal London seat until Whitehall Palace
Whitehall Palace
was built in the 1530s. Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon
Catherine of Aragon
and Anne of Cleves at Greenwich, and both Mary (18 February 1516) and Elizabeth (7 September 1533) were born at Greenwich. His son Edward VI
Edward VI
also died there at age 15. The palace of Placentia, in turn, became Elizabeth's favourite summer residence.[17] Both she and her sister Mary I used the palace extensively, and Elizabeth's Council planned the Spanish Armada campaign there in 1588. Stuart[edit]

Adriaen van Stalbemt's A View of Greenwich, c. 1632. Royal Collection, London.

James I
James I
carried out the final remodelling work on Greenwich
Greenwich
Palace, granting the manor to his wife Queen Anne of Denmark. In 1616 Anne commissioned Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
to design and build the surviving Queen's House as the final addition to the palace. Charles I granted the manor to his wife Queen Henrietta Maria, for whom Inigo Jones
Inigo Jones
completed the Queen's House. During the English Civil War, the palace was used as a biscuit factory and prisoner-of-war camp. Then, in the Interregnum, the palace and park were seized to become a 'mansion' for the Lord Protector. By the time of the Restoration, the Palace of Placentia
Palace of Placentia
had fallen into disuse and was pulled down. New buildings began to be established as a grand palace for Charles II, but only the King Charles block was completed. Charles II also redesigned and replanted Greenwich Park
Greenwich Park
and founded and built the Royal Observatory. Prince James (later King James II & VII), as Duke of York
Duke of York
and Lord Admiral until 1673, was often at Greenwich
Greenwich
with his brother Charles and, according to Samuel Pepys, he proposed the idea of creating a Royal Naval Hospital. This was eventually established at Greenwich
Greenwich
by his daughter Mary II, who in 1692–1693 commissioned Christopher Wren to design the Royal Hospital for Seamen (now the Old Royal Naval College). The work was begun under her widower William III in 1696 and completed by Hawksmoor. Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark continued to patronise the project. Hanoverian[edit] George I landed at Greenwich
Greenwich
from Hanover on his accession in 1714. His successor George II granted the Royal Hospital for Seamen the forfeited estates of the Jacobite Earl of Derwentwater, which allowed the building to be completed by 1751. In 1805, George III granted the Queen's House
Queen's House
to the Royal Naval Asylum (an orphanage school), which amalgamated in 1821–1825 with the Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital School. Extended with the buildings that now house the National Maritime Museum, it was renamed the Royal Hospital School by Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
in 1892. George IV
George IV
donated nearly 40 paintings to the hospital in 1824, at a stroke creating a gallery in the Painted Hall. These now form the Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital Collection at the National Maritime Museum. Subsequently, William IV and Queen Adelaide were both regular donors and visitors to the gallery. Victorian and Edwardian[edit] Queen Victoria
Queen Victoria
rarely visited Greenwich
Greenwich
but in 1845 her husband Prince Albert personally bought Nelson's Trafalgar coat for the Naval Gallery. In 1838 the London and Greenwich Railway
London and Greenwich Railway
(L&GR) completed the very first steam railway in London. It started at London Bridge and had its terminus at London Street (now Greenwich
Greenwich
High Road). It was also the first to be built specifically for passengers, and the first ever elevated railway, having 878 arches over its almost four mile stretch. In 1853 the local Scottish Presbyterian community built a church close by. The church was extended twice in the 1860s during the ministry of the increasingly well known Dr Adolph Saphir, eventually accommodating a thousand worshippers.[19][20] In 1864 opposite the railway terminus, theatrical entrepreneur Sefton Parry built the thousand seater New Greenwich
Greenwich
Theatre.[21] William Morton was one of its more successful managers. The theatre was demolished in 1937 to make way for a new Town Hall, now a listed building under new ownership and renamed Meridian House. Greenwich
Greenwich
Station is at the northern apex of the Ashburnham Triangle, a residential estate developed by the Ashburnham family, mainly between 1830 and 1870, on land previously developed as market gardens. It is now a designated conservation area.[22] The present Greenwich Theatre, further to the east, was constructed inside the shell of a Victorian music hall. Beginning life in 1855 as an annexe to the Rose and Crown, the music hall was rebuilt in 1871 by Charles Crowder and subsequently operated under many names. Modern and the present[edit] George V
George V
and Queen Mary both supported the creation of the National Maritime Museum, and Mary presented the museum with many items. The Prince Albert, Duke of York
Duke of York
(later George VI), laid the foundation stone of the new Royal Hospital School
Royal Hospital School
when it moved out to Holbrook, Suffolk. In 1937 his first public act as king (three weeks before coronation) was to open the National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
in the buildings vacated by the school. The king was accompanied by his mother Queen Mary, his wife Queen Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) and the Princess Elizabeth (now Elizabeth II.) Princess Elizabeth and her consort Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (who was ennobled Baron Greenwich
Baron Greenwich
on marriage in 1947) made their first public and official visit to Greenwich
Greenwich
in 1948 to receive the Freedom of the Borough for Philip. In the same year, he became a trustee of the National Maritime Museum. Philip, now the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was a trustee for 52 years until 2000, when he became its first patron. The Duke of Edinburgh has also been a patron of the Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
(which was opened by the Queen in 1957) since 1952. During the Silver Jubilee of 1977, the Queen embarked at Greenwich
Greenwich
for the Jubilee River Pageant. In 1987, Her Majesty was aboard the P&O ship Pacific Princess when it moored alongside the Old Royal Naval College for the company's 150th anniversary celebrations. To mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, it was announced on 5 January 2010 that on 3 February 2012 the London Borough of Greenwich would become the fourth to have Royal Borough status, the others being the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead.[23] The status was granted in recognition of the borough's historic links with the Royal Family, the location of the Prime Meridian and its being a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[24] Governance[edit] Main article: Royal Borough of Greenwich

A map showing the wards of Greenwich
Greenwich
Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

Greenwich
Greenwich
is covered by the Greenwich
Greenwich
West and Peninsula wards of the London Borough of Greenwich, which was formed in 1965 by merging the former Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich
Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich
with that part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich
Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich
which lay south of The Thames. Along with Blackheath Westcombe, Charlton, Glyndon, Woolwich
Woolwich
Riverside, and Woolwich
Woolwich
Common, it elects a Member of Parliament (MP) for Greenwich and Woolwich; currently the MP is Matthew Pennycook.[25] Geography[edit] Topography[edit] The town of Greenwich
Greenwich
is built on a broad platform to the south of the outside of a broad meander in the River Thames, with a safe deep water anchorage lying in the river. To the south, the land rises steeply, 100 feet (30 m) through Greenwich Park
Greenwich Park
to the town of Blackheath. The higher areas consist of a sedimentary layer of gravelly soils, known as the Blackheath Beds, that spread through much of the south-east over a chalk outcrop—with sands, loam and seams of clay at the lower levels by the river. Greenwich
Greenwich
is bordered by Deptford
Deptford
Creek and Deptford
Deptford
to the west; the former industrial centre of the Greenwich Peninsula
Greenwich Peninsula
and the residential area of Westcombe Park
Westcombe Park
to the east; the River Thames
Thames
to the north; and the A2 and Blackheath to the south. Nearby areas[edit]

Deptford Blackheath St Johns Westcombe Park New Cross Lewisham Kidbrooke Charlton Peckham Thamesmead Plumstead Woolwich

The view from Greenwich
Greenwich
Park, with the Queen's House
Queen's House
and the wings of the National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
in the foreground

Climate[edit] This data was collected between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station situated in Greenwich:

Climate data for London (Greenwich)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.0 (57.2) 19.7 (67.5) 21.0 (69.8) 26.9 (80.4) 31.0 (87.8) 35.0 (95) 35.5 (95.9) 37.5 (99.5) 30.0 (86) 28.8 (83.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.0 (59) 37.5 (99.5)

Average high °C (°F) 8.3 (46.9) 8.5 (47.3) 11.4 (52.5) 14.2 (57.6) 17.7 (63.9) 20.7 (69.3) 23.2 (73.8) 22.9 (73.2) 20.1 (68.2) 15.6 (60.1) 11.4 (52.5) 8.6 (47.5) 15.2 (59.4)

Average low °C (°F) 2.6 (36.7) 2.4 (36.3) 4.1 (39.4) 5.4 (41.7) 8.4 (47.1) 11.5 (52.7) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.2 (52.2) 8.3 (46.9) 5.1 (41.2) 2.8 (37) 7.5 (45.5)

Record low °C (°F) −10.0 (14) −9.0 (15.8) −8.0 (17.6) −2.0 (28.4) −1.0 (30.2) 5.0 (41) 7.0 (44.6) 6.0 (42.8) 3.0 (37.4) −4.0 (24.8) −5.0 (23) −7.0 (19.4) −10.0 (14)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 51.6 (2.031) 38.2 (1.504) 40.5 (1.594) 45.0 (1.772) 46.5 (1.831) 47.3 (1.862) 41.1 (1.618) 51.6 (2.031) 50.4 (1.984) 68.8 (2.709) 58.0 (2.283) 53.0 (2.087) 591.8 (23.299)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.8 8.5 9.6 9.4 9.0 8.3 8.0 7.6 8.5 10.7 10.1 9.9 110.4

Average snowy days 4 4 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 16

Average relative humidity (%) 81.0 76.0 69.0 64.0 62.0 60.0 60.0 62.0 67.0 73.0 78.0 82.0 69.5

Mean monthly sunshine hours 49.9 71.4 107.1 159.8 181.2 181.0 192.1 195.1 138.9 108.1 58.5 37.4 1,480.5

Source #1: Record highs and lows from BBC Weather,[26] except August and February maximum from Met Office[27][28]

Source #2: All other data from Met Office,[29] except for humidity and snow data which are from NOAA[30]

Climate data for London ( Heathrow airport
Heathrow airport
1981−2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high °C (°F) 8.1 (46.6) 8.4 (47.1) 11.3 (52.3) 14.2 (57.6) 17.9 (64.2) 21.0 (69.8) 23.5 (74.3) 23.2 (73.8) 19.9 (67.8) 15.5 (59.9) 11.1 (52) 8.3 (46.9) 15.2 (59.4)

Average low °C (°F) 2.3 (36.1) 2.1 (35.8) 3.9 (39) 5.5 (41.9) 8.7 (47.7) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 13.7 (56.7) 11.4 (52.5) 8.4 (47.1) 4.9 (40.8) 2.7 (36.9) 7.4 (45.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2 (2.173) 40.9 (1.61) 41.6 (1.638) 43.7 (1.72) 49.4 (1.945) 45.1 (1.776) 44.5 (1.752) 49.5 (1.949) 49.1 (1.933) 68.5 (2.697) 59.0 (2.323) 55.2 (2.173) 601.7 (23.689)

Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.1 8.5 9.3 9.1 8.8 8.2 7.7 7.5 8.1 10.8 10.3 10.2 109.6

Mean monthly sunshine hours 61.5 77.9 114.6 168.7 198.5 204.3 212.0 204.7 149.3 116.5 72.6 52.0 1,632.6

Source: Met Office[31]

Sites of interest[edit] Riverfront[edit]

Play media

RFA Argus being towed to Greenwich
Greenwich
in June 2017

The Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
(a clipper ship) has been preserved in a dry dock by the river. A major fire in May 2007 destroyed a part of the ship, although much had already been removed for restoration. Nearby for many years was also displayed Gipsy Moth IV, the 54 feet (16.5 m) yacht sailed by Sir Francis Chichester
Francis Chichester
in his single-handed, 226-day circumnavigation of the globe during 1966–67. In 2004, Gipsy Moth IV was removed from Greenwich, and after restoration work completed a second circumnavigation in May 2007. On the riverside in front of the north-west corner of the Hospital is an obelisk erected in memory of Arctic
Arctic
explorer Joseph René Bellot.

Boats at Greenwich
Greenwich
at the end of the Great River Race

The Royal Navy
Royal Navy
Type 45 destroyer
Type 45 destroyer
HMS Defender moored on the riverfront at Greenwich
Greenwich
in 2015

Near the Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
site, a circular building contains the entrance to the Greenwich
Greenwich
foot tunnel, opened on 4 August 1902. This connects Greenwich
Greenwich
to the Isle of Dogs
Isle of Dogs
on the northern side of the River Thames. The north exit of the tunnel is at Island Gardens,[32] from where the famous view of Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital painted by Canaletto
Canaletto
can be seen. Rowing has been part of life on the river at Greenwich
Greenwich
for hundreds of years and the first Greenwich
Greenwich
Regatta was held in 1785. The annual Great River Race
Great River Race
along the Thames
Thames
Tideway
Tideway
finishes at the Cutty Sark. The nearby Trafalgar Rowing Centre in Crane Street is home to Curlew Rowing Club and Globe Rowing Club. The Old Royal Naval College
Old Royal Naval College
is Sir Christopher Wren's domed masterpiece at the centre of the heritage site. The site is administered by the Greenwich
Greenwich
Foundation and several of the buildings are let to the University of Greenwich and one, the King Charles block, to Trinity College of Music. Within the complex is the former college dining room, the Painted Hall, this was painted by James Thornhill, and the Chapel of St Peter and St Paul, with an interior designed by James 'Athenian' Stuart. The Naval College had a training reactor, the JASON reactor, within the King William building that was operational between 1962 and 1996. The reactor was decommissioned and removed in 1999.[33]

Trinity Hospital, Greenwich

To the east of the Naval College is the Trinity Hospital almshouse, founded in 1613, the oldest surviving building in the town centre.[34] This is next to the massive brick walls and the landing stage of Greenwich
Greenwich
Power Station. Built between 1902 and 1910 as a coal-fired station to supply power to London's tram system, and later the London underground, it is now oil- and gas-powered and serves as a backup station for London Underground.[35] East Greenwich
Greenwich
also has a small park, East Greenwich
Greenwich
Pleasaunce, which was formerly the burial ground of Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital. The O2 (formerly the Millennium Dome) was built on part of the site of East Greenwich
Greenwich
Gas Works, a disused British Gas site on the Greenwich Peninsula.[36] It is next to North Greenwich
Greenwich
tube station, about 3 miles (4.8 km) east from the Greenwich
Greenwich
town centre, North West of Charlton. Pear Tree Wharf was associated with the gas works, being used to unload coal for the manufacturing of town gas, and is now home to the Greenwich
Greenwich
Yacht Club. The Greenwich Millennium Village
Greenwich Millennium Village
is a new urban regeneration development to the south of the Dome. Enderby's Wharf is a site associated with submarine cable manufacture for over 150 years. Greenwich
Greenwich
Park[edit] Main article: Greenwich
Greenwich
Park Behind the former Naval College is the National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
housed in buildings forming another symmetrical group and grand arcade around the Queen's House, designed by Inigo Jones. Continuing to the south, Greenwich Park
Greenwich Park
is a Royal Park of 183 acres (0.7 km2), laid out in the 17th century and formed from the hunting grounds of the Royal Palace of Placentia.[37]

Spiral staircase and lantern at the Queen's House
Queen's House
in Greenwich

The park rises towards Blackheath and at the top of this hill is a statue of James Wolfe, commander of the British expedition to capture Quebec.[38] Nearby a major group of buildings within the park includes the former Royal Observatory, Greenwich; the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
passes through this building. Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
was at one time based on the time observations made at the Royal Greenwich
Greenwich
Observatory, before being superseded by Coordinated Universal Time. While there is no longer a working astronomical observatory at Greenwich, a ball still drops daily to mark the exact moment of 1 p.m., and there is a museum of astronomical and navigational tools, particularly John Harrison's marine chronometers.[39] The Ranger's House
Ranger's House
lies at the Blackheath end of the park and houses the Wernher Collection of art,[40] and many fine houses, including Vanbrugh's house lie on Maze Hill, on the western edge of the park. Town centre[edit]

Town centre

Georgian and Victorian architecture dominates in the town centre which spreads to the west of the park and Royal Naval College. Much of this forms a one-way system around a covered market, Greenwich Market
Greenwich Market
and the arthouse Greenwich
Greenwich
Cinema. Up the hill from the centre, there are many streets of Georgian houses, including the Fan Museum, on Croom's Hill. Nearby at the junction of Croom's Hill with Nevada Street, is Greenwich
Greenwich
Theatre. The Greenwich Playhouse closed in 2012 Market[edit]

Greenwich
Greenwich
Market

There has been a market at Greenwich
Greenwich
since the 14th century, but the history of the present market dates from 1700 when a charter to run two markets, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, was assigned by Lord Romney (Henry, Earl of Romney[17]) to the Commissioners of Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital for 1000 years.[41] The market is part of "the Island site", bounded by College Approach, Greenwich
Greenwich
Church Street, King William Walk and Nelson Road, near the National Maritime Museum
National Maritime Museum
and the Royal Observatory. The buildings surrounding the market are Grade 2 listed
Grade 2 listed
and were established in 1827–1833 under the direction of Joseph Kay.[42][43] A market roof was added in 1902–08 (and replaced in 2016). Later significant development occurred in 1958–60 and during the 1980s. The landowner, Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital, has been enhancing the Market since 2014 and due to complete in Spring 2016. Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time[edit] Main article: Greenwich
Greenwich
Mean Time

Royal Observatory with the time ball atop the Octagon Room

Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Royal Observatory, Greenwich
in Greenwich. It is commonly used in practice to refer to Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) when this is viewed as a time zone, especially by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service,[44] the Royal Navy, the Met Office
Met Office
and others, although strictly UTC is an atomic time scale which only approximates GMT with a tolerance of 0.9 second. It is also used to refer to Universal Time
Universal Time
(UT), which is a standard astronomical concept used in many technical fields and is referred to by the phrase Zulu time. As the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
grew into an advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept at least one chronometer on GMT in order to calculate their longitude from the Greenwich
Greenwich
meridian, which was by convention considered to have longitude zero degrees (this convention was internationally adopted in the International Meridian Conference
International Meridian Conference
of 1884).[note 2] Note that the synchronization of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time itself, which was still solar time. But this practice, combined with mariners from other nations drawing from Nevil Maskelyne's method of lunar distances based on observations at Greenwich, eventually led to GMT being used worldwide as a reference time independent of location. Most time zones were based upon this reference as a number of hours and half-hours "ahead of GMT" or "behind GMT". In recognition of the suburb's astronomical links, Asteroid 2830 has been named 'Greenwich'.[46]

World heritage site[edit]

Maritime Greenwich

UNESCO World Heritage Site

Old Royal Naval College
Old Royal Naval College
and University of Greenwich buildings on the bank of the River Thames

Location United Kingdom

Criteria Cultural: i, ii, iv, vi

Reference 795

Inscription 1997 (21st Session)

Extensions 2008

Area 109.5 hectares (271 acres)

Buffer zone 174.85 hectares (432.1 acres)

Website whc.unesco.org/en/list/795

Coordinates 51°29′1″N 0°0′21″W / 51.48361°N 0.00583°W / 51.48361; -0.00583

In 1997 Maritime Greenwich
Greenwich
was added to the list of World Heritage Sites, for the concentration and quality of buildings of historic and architectural interest. These can be divided into the group of buildings along the riverfront, Greenwich Park
Greenwich Park
and the Georgian and Victorian town centre. Greenwich
Greenwich
Heritage Centre[edit] Main article: Greenwich
Greenwich
Heritage Centre Greenwich Heritage Centre
Greenwich Heritage Centre
is a museum and local history resource run by the Royal Borough of Greenwich,[47] and is based in Artillery Square, in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, south-east London.[48] Discover Greenwich
Greenwich
Visitor Centre[edit]

Pepys Building

The Discover Greenwich
Greenwich
Visitor Centre provides an introduction to the history and attractions in the Greenwich
Greenwich
World Heritage Site.[49] It is located in the Pepys Building near to the Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
within the grounds of the Old Royal Naval College
Old Royal Naval College
(formerly Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital); the building began life as an engineering laboratory for the College. The centre opened in March 2010, and admission is free. The Centre explains the history of Greenwich
Greenwich
as a royal residence and a maritime centre. Exhibits include:

The history of the Palace of Placentia. Models of Christopher Wren's original designs for Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital. Six of the carved heads originally intended to decorate the exterior of the College's Painted Hall. Exhibition displays about Maritime Greenwich
Greenwich
and its connections with the sea and exploration. "By Wisdom as much as War" – an exhibition about the history of the Royal Naval College during the years it occupied Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital (1873–1998).

Education[edit] Main article: List of schools in Greenwich The University of Greenwich main campus is located in the distinctive buildings of the former Royal Naval College. The university has other campuses at Avery Hill
Avery Hill
in Eltham
Eltham
and at Medway. The Greenwich
Greenwich
campus also houses the Trinity College of Music. Secondary schools in the area include John Roan School
John Roan School
and St Ursula's Convent School. Transport[edit]

Greenwich
Greenwich
station

Rail[edit] Greenwich
Greenwich
is served by two National Rail
National Rail
stations, Greenwich
Greenwich
and Maze Hill. Both of these stations have services to London Charing Cross, London Cannon Street, London Cannon Street
London Cannon Street
via Bexleyheath, London Cannon Street via Sidcup, Dartford and Gillingham. Greenwich
Greenwich
is also served by the Docklands Light Railway, with services from Greenwich
Greenwich
and Cutty Sark
Cutty Sark
to Lewisham, Canary Wharf, Stratford and Bank. Greenwich
Greenwich
is also served by North Greenwich tube station
North Greenwich tube station
which is on the northern tip of the district as well as the whole surrounding borough. The station is on the Jubilee line
Jubilee line
and has westward services through central London to Stanmore, and eastward services to Stratford. Buses[edit] Greenwich
Greenwich
is served by several Transport for London
Transport for London
bus services which links it with areas including Catford, Central London, Elephant and Castle, Eltham, Lewisham, Peckham, New Cross, Sidcup, Thamesmead, Waterloo and Woolwich. Boat[edit] There are a number of river boat services running from Greenwich
Greenwich
Pier, managed by London River Services. The main services include the Thames commuter catamaran service run by Thames
Thames
Clipper
Clipper
from Embankment, via Tower Millennium Pier, Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf
and on to the O2 and Woolwich Arsenal Pier;[50] the Westminster- Greenwich
Greenwich
cruise service by Thames River Services; and the City Cruises
City Cruises
tourist cruise via Westminster, Waterloo and Tower piers.[51] Pedestrian and cycle routes[edit] The Thames
Thames
Path National Trail runs along the riverside.[52] The Greenwich foot tunnel
Greenwich foot tunnel
provides pedestrian access to the southern end of the Isle of Dogs, across the river Thames. The National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
Route 1 includes the foot tunnel, though cycling is not permitted in the tunnel itself.[53] Sports[edit] Rowing[edit] Greenwich
Greenwich
is home to a variety of amateur sports clubs. Its location on the tidal Thames
Thames
makes it a good location for rowing; the Trafalgar Rowing Centre in Crane Street is the clubhouse of the Curlew and Globe rowing clubs.[54][55] The Globe has senior and junior squads, the latter renowned for its achievements at national and international level.[56] Literature[edit] Edward Lear
Edward Lear
makes reference to Greenwich
Greenwich
in More Nonsense Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, etc:[57] There was a young lady of Greenwich, Whose garments were bordered with Spinach; But a large spotty calf Bit her shawl quite in half, Which alarmed that young lady of Greenwich. See also[edit]

Greenwich
Greenwich
Cablevision Greenwich
Greenwich
Peninsula List of people from Greenwich List of World Heritage Sites of the United Kingdom

Notes[edit]

^ /ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ/ ( listen) GREN-itch, /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-ij, /ˈɡrɪnɪtʃ/ GRIN-itch, or /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-ij[1][2] ^ Voting took place on 13 October and the resolutions were adopted on 22 October 1884.[45]

References[edit]

^ "Greenwich". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John, eds. (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (David Jones) (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  ^ Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, p.204. ^ a b "Parishes: Greenwich". british-history.ac.uk.  ^ "Greenwich-the instant village", Brandon Green, The Times, 13 October 1967; pg. 11 ^ Colonial Charters, Grants and Related Documents ^ Manor
Manor
of East Greenwich ^ National Archives, Great Domesday ^ Words used in The First Charter of Virginia; April 10, 1606 "...To BE HOLDEN of Us, King James I] our heirs and Successors, as of our Manor
Manor
at East-Greenwich, in the County of Kent, in free and common Soccage only, and not in Capite."[1] ^ Words used in Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681 "...to bee holden of Us [King Charles II], Our heires and Successors, Kings of England, as of Our Castle of Windsor in Our County of Berks, in free and comon Socage, by fealty only for all Services, and not in Capite or by Knights Service."[2] ^ "N.N." On the Tenure of the Manor
Manor
of East Greenwich ^ Edward P. Cheyney, The Manor
Manor
of East Greenwich, American Historical Review, Volume 11, 1 October 1905 . ^ Flamsteed House – designed and built by Sir Christopher Wren
Christopher Wren
in 1675–76, was the home of the first Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, and the heart of Charles II's new Royal Observatory. ^ "Roman remains". Royal Parks. Retrieved 24 July 2015.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
London". Time Team. Channel 4. 2 February 2003. Retrieved 13 June 2011.  ^ The Roman Watling Street: from London to High Cross O. Roucoux, (Dunstable Museum
Museum
Trust, 1984) ISBN 0-9508406-2-9 ^ a b c d e 'Greenwich', The Environs of London: volume 4: Counties of Herts, Essex & Kent
Kent
(1796), pp. 426–93 accessed: 26 May 2007 ^ Open Domesday Online: Greenwich ^ "Dictionary of National Biography 1850-1900 Adolph Saphir".  ^ Carlyle, Edward Irving. Saphir, Adolph (DNB00).  ^ The Era, 29 May 1864, p.10 New Greenwich
Greenwich
Theatre ^ Report on Ashburnham triangle by Conservation Team, Development Town Planning First Floor, Peggy Middleton House 50 Woolwich
Woolwich
New Road, London SE18 6HQ: . ^ See also Royal Borough. ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
to become Royal Borough". Greenwich
Greenwich
London Borough Council. 5 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ "ukpollingreport.co.uk » Greenwich
Greenwich
and Woolwich". ukpollingreport.co.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ "London, Greater London: Average conditions". BBC Weather
BBC Weather
Website. BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011.  ^ "August 2003 — Hot spell". Met Office
Met Office
Website. Met Office. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011.  ^ "Monthly temperature records by country". Met Office
Met Office
Website. Met Office. Retrieved 22 September 2013.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
1981−2010 averages". Met Office
Met Office
Website. Met Office. Retrieved 10 April 2013.  ^ "NOAA". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 20 October 2013.  ^ "Heathrow Climate period: 1981−2010". Met Office
Met Office
Website. Met Office. Retrieved 22 September 2013.  ^ The Foot Tunnel ( Greenwich
Greenwich
Guide) accessed 10 December 2007 ^ Just another source of neutrons? R.J.S. Lockwood and Prof. P.A. Beeley (Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan, Gosport, 2001) accessed 29 December 2007 ^ Trinity Hospital (LB Greenwich) accessed 10 December 2007 ^ Greenwich Power Station
Greenwich Power Station
(Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007 ^ East Greenwich
Greenwich
Gasworks (Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007. The Greenwich Peninsula
Greenwich Peninsula
gas works, being themselves notable, as being the subject of an IRA bomb attack in the 1970s, in which one gasometer – and its contents – were spectacularly destroyed. ^ Greenwich
Greenwich
and Blackheath Past Felix Barker (Historical Publications Ltd., 1999) ISBN 0-948667-55-9 ^ General Wolfe Statue ( Greenwich
Greenwich
Guide) accessed 10 December 2007 ^ Howse 1997 ^ The Wernher Collection (Ranger's House) (English Heritage) accessed 10 December 2007 ^ History of Greenwich Market
Greenwich Market
at Greenwich
Greenwich
Hospital ^ "Maritime Greenwich: World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
– Management plan" (PDF). Visit Greenwich. Royal Borough of Greenwich. Retrieved 26 September 2016.  ^ "Historic Regeneration Schemes". The Greenwich
Greenwich
Phantom. Retrieved 26 September 2016.  ^ "BBC – iPlayer Radio". bbc.co.uk.  ^ Howse 1997, pp. 12, 137 ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names Lutz D. Schmadel (Springer 2003) ISBN 3-540-00238-3 ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
Council – Heritage Centre – Greenwich
Greenwich
Heritage Centre". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 September 2009.  ^ " Greenwich Heritage Centre
Greenwich Heritage Centre
– How To Find Us". www.greenwichheritage.org. Retrieved 18 September 2009.  ^ "Discover Greenwich
Greenwich
Visitor Centre". Old Royal Naval College. Retrieved 25 March 2015.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
Council – Local travel services – Thames
Thames
Clipper". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ " Greenwich
Greenwich
Council – Local travel services – River boat cruises". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ "The Thames
Thames
Path – Greenwich
Greenwich
to the London Eye". www.thames-path.org.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ " National Cycle Network
National Cycle Network
in London". Sustrans. Retrieved 24 September 2009.  ^ "Trafalgar Rowing Centre". Curlew Rowing Club. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ "Globe Rowing Club". www.globerowingclub.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-03-20.  ^ "Team announced for 2017 J16 GB v France Match - British Rowing". British Rowing. 2017-07-10. Retrieved 2018-03-20.  ^ Lear, Edward (1872). More Nonsense. Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, Etc. London: Robert J. Bush. 

Howse, Derek (1997). Greenwich
Greenwich
Time and the Longitude. Phillip Wilson. ISBN 0-85667-468-0. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Greenwich.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for London/Greenwich.

Greenwich
Greenwich
World Heritage Site All Things Greenwich
Greenwich
– a guide to local shops, services, restaurants, bars & pubs in Greenwich, South East London.  "Greenwich". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911.   "Greenwich". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914. 

v t e

Royal Borough of Greenwich

Districts

Abbey Wood Avery Hill Blackheath Charlton Coldharbour Deptford Eltham Greenwich Greenwich
Greenwich
Peninsula/North Greenwich Horn Park Kidbrooke Longlands Mottingham New Charlton New Eltham Plumstead Shooter's Hill Thamesmead Well Hall Westcombe Park Woolwich

Attractions

The Bob Hope Theatre Charlton House Cutty Sark Eltham
Eltham
Palace Emirates cable car Fan Museum Greenwich
Greenwich
Dance Greenwich
Greenwich
Heritage Centre Greenwich
Greenwich
Theatre National Maritime Museum The O2 arena (formerly the Millennium Dome) Old Royal Naval College Ranger's House Royal Artillery Barracks Royal Observatory Severndroog Castle St Alfege Church Thames
Thames
Barrier The Valley (Charlton Athletic Football Club) Woolwich
Woolwich
Ferry

Street markets

Greenwich
Greenwich
Market

Parks and open spaces

Avery Hill
Avery Hill
Park Bostall Heath and Woods Charlton cemetery Charlton Park East Greenwich
Greenwich
Pleasaunce Eltham
Eltham
Common Eltham
Eltham
Park Greenwich
Greenwich
Cemetery Greenwich
Greenwich
Park Hornfair Park Maryon Park Maryon Wilson Park Oxleas Wood Plumstead
Plumstead
Cemetery Plumstead
Plumstead
Common Sutcliffe Park Woolwich
Woolwich
cemetery Woolwich
Woolwich
Common

Constituencies

Erith
Erith
and Thamesmead Eltham Greenwich
Greenwich
and Woolwich

Bridges and tunnels

Blackwall Tunnel Greenwich
Greenwich
foot tunnel Woolwich
Woolwich
foot tunnel

Rail stations

Abbey Wood Charlton Cutty Sark Deptford
Deptford
Bridge Eltham Elverson Road (in LB of Lewisham) Greenwich Kidbrooke Maze Hill Mottingham New Eltham North Greenwich Plumstead Westcombe Park Woolwich
Woolwich
Arsenal Woolwich
Woolwich
Dockyard

Other topics

Churches Coat of arms Council Grade I and II* listed buildings People Public art Schools

v t e

Areas of London

Central activities zone

Bloomsbury City of London wards Holborn Marylebone Mayfair Paddington Pimlico Soho Southwark Vauxhall Waterloo Westminster

Town centre network

International

Belgravia Knightsbridge West End

Metropolitan

Bromley Croydon Ealing Harrow Hounslow Ilford Kingston Romford Shepherd's Bush Stratford Sutton Uxbridge Wood Green

Major

Angel Barking Bexleyheath Brixton Camden Town Canary Wharf Catford Chiswick Clapham
Clapham
Junction Dalston East Ham Edgware Eltham Enfield Town Fulham Hammersmith Holloway Nags Head Kensington High Street Kilburn King's Road
King's Road
East Lewisham Orpington Peckham Putney Queensway/Westbourne Grove Richmond Southall Streatham Tooting Walthamstow Wandsworth Wembley Whitechapel Wimbledon Woolwich

Districts (principal)

Acton Beckenham Bethnal Green Brentford Camberwell Canada Water Carshalton Chadwell Heath Chingford Clapham Crystal Palace Coulsdon Cricklewood Dagenham Deptford Dulwich Edmonton Elephant and Castle Erith Feltham Finchley Forest Gate Forest Hill Golders Green Greenwich Harlesden Hampstead Harringay Hayes (Hillingdon) Hendon Hornchurch Kentish Town Leyton Mill Hill Mitcham Morden Muswell Hill New Cross New Malden Northwood Notting Hill Penge Pinner Purley Ruislip Sidcup Southgate South Norwood Stanmore Stoke Newington Surbiton Sydenham Teddington Thamesmead Tolworth Tulse Hill Twickenham Upminster Upper Norwood Wanstead Wealdstone Welling West Ham West Hampstead West Norwood Willesden
Willesden
Green Woodford

Neighbourhoods (principal)

Abbey Wood Alperton Anerley Barnes Barnsbury Battersea Beckton Bedford Park Bermondsey Bow Brent Cross Brockley Canonbury Charlton Chelsea Chessington Chipping Barnet Chislehurst Clerkenwell Elmers End Gidea Park Greenford Gunnersbury Hackbridge Hackney Ham Hampton Hanwell Hanworth Harold Wood Highams Park Highbury Highgate Hillingdon Hook Holloway Hoxton Ickenham Isle of Dogs Isleworth Islington Kensal Green Kew Lambeth Manor
Manor
Park Mortlake Neasden Northolt Nunhead Plaistow (Newham) Poplar Roehampton Rotherhithe Seven Kings Seven Sisters Shoreditch Stamford Hill Stepney St Helier Surrey Quays Tottenham Upper Clapton Walworth Wapping West Drayton Worcester Park Yiewsley

Lists of areas by borough

Barking
Barking
and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith
Hammersmith
and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster

Fictional

Canley (borough) (The Bill: TV soap) Charnham (suburb) (Family Affairs: TV soap) Gasforth (town) (The Thin Blue Line: TV series) London Below (magical realm) (Neverwhere: TV series, novel) Walford
Walford
(borough) (EastEnders: TV soap)

The London Plan 2011, Annex Two: London's Town Centre Network – Greater London
Greater London
Authority

v t e

World Heritage Sites in the United Kingdom

England

Bath Blenheim Palace Canterbury
Canterbury
Cathedral, St. Augustine's Abbey and St. Martin's Church Cornwall and West Devon Mining Landscape Derwent Valley Mills Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Cathedral Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Hadrian's Wall

Ironbridge Gorge Jurassic Coast Kew
Kew
Royal Botanic Gardens Lake District Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City Maritime Greenwich Saltaire Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and Fountains Abbey Tower of London Westminster
Westminster
Palace, Westminster
Westminster
Abbey and St. Margaret's Church

Scotland

Edinburgh Old Town and New Town Forth Bridge Frontiers of the Roman Empire

Antonine Wall

Heart of Neolithic Orkney New Lanark St. Kilda

Wales

Blaenavon Industrial Landscape Castles and Town Walls of King Edward I
Edward I
in Gwynedd Pontcysyllte Aqueduct

Northern Ireland

Giant's Causeway

British Overseas Territories

Gorham's Cave
Gorham's Cave
Complex Gough Island Inaccessible Island Henderson Island Town of St. George and Related Fortifications

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 693145858098223021

.