HOME
The Info List - Great War Island





Great War Island
Great War Island
(Serbian: Велико ратно острво, Veliko ratno ostrvo) is a river island in Belgrade, capital of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers. Though uninhabited, the island is part of the Belgrade
Belgrade
City proper, and belongs to the city municipality of Zemun.

Contents

1 Location 2 Geography 3 Wildlife

3.1 Plants 3.2 Birds 3.3 Mammals

4 History 5 Recent developments 6 References 7 External links 8 See also

Location[edit] Great War Island
Great War Island
is located at the mouth of the Sava
Sava
river into the Danube, in the Danube's widening between the Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
fortress as the ending section of the Terazije
Terazije
ridge of northernmost part of Šumadija
Šumadija
on the west and the low, easternmost section of the Syrmia plain, the modern Ušće
Ušće
neighborhood of New Belgrade, on the south. The island is relatively close to the banks, at the closest it is just 200 m (660 ft) away from both New Belgrade
Belgrade
and Kalemegdan. On the south, halfway between the Great War Island
Great War Island
and Ušće
Ušće
is the remnant of Little War Island. In 2005 an initiative was started to transfer the island administratively, from Zemun
Zemun
to the New Belgrade
Belgrade
municipality. The initiative ultimately failed.[1] Geography[edit] The Great War Island
Great War Island
is generally triangular in shape and covers an area of 2.11 km2 (0.81 sq mi). It is low, for the most part marshy and often flooded by the Danube. The main physical feature on the island is the canal of Veliki Galijaš. In time, the canal was cut off from the Danube
Danube
and effectively turned into a lake, with an area of 0.24 km2 (0.09 sq mi) and the major natural bird and fish spawning area on the island. However, during drought years the lake drains completely causing damage to the closed eco-system centered around it. Currently some two-thirds of the island are used as a nature reserve for 196 [2] bird species, many of which are endangered. One of Belgrade's beaches, Lido, is located on the northern tip of the island. Because of the sedimentation, occasional drainage and removal of the silt from the northern tip of the island is necessary, as otherwise it would make a land connection to the bank of the Danube.[3] Wildlife[edit] Plants[edit] Plant life on the island includes the typical marshy flora, like reed, yellow flag or rush, but also trees like black poplar, ash tree, White Elm, elderberry, hawthorn and even some rare conifers.[2] A rare orchid Orchis palustris
Orchis palustris
Jacq. was spotted for the first time in Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1896 on the Great War Island, but was never seen again there. It has been re-discovered in the Makiš
Makiš
area in 1955, but by 2001 it disappeared, too, and today can be found only around the lake of Veliko Blato, in the neighborhood of Krnjača.[4] The island is the only location in Serbia
Serbia
of the bird's little nest fungi, which is used for the antioxidant extraction.[5] Forests cover and area of 120 ha (300 acres), or 57% of the island. Tree species include walnut tree and European nettle tree. In November 2011 some 2,500 seedlings of the pedunculate oak were planted. Higher forest coverage influences the micro climate and provides new habitats for the birds. Autochthonous tree species include willow and poplar.[6] By November 2017, the island has been populated with 5,850 seedlings of pedunculate oak, 1,000 of narrow-leafed ash, 1,755 of European white elm
European white elm
and 800 of black poplar.[7] Birds[edit] There are 66 bird species which actually nest on the island, 43 non-migratory and 23 migratory birds. In winter, during the nesting period, there are some 80 species present, while in the migration season, number rises to over 100. Some of the species are pygmy cormorant, black stork, mergansers, seven species of herons, over 40 species of ducks.[8][9] Altogether, 163 different bird species inhabits the island.[10] The island was the largest colony of the great egret on the entire course of the Danube, maybe the largest one in the Europe. During the NATO bombing of Serbia
Serbia
in 1999, the herons, for the most part, disappeared.[11] Major attraction on the island is a pair of white-tailed eagles. A nesting couple, they settled on the island in 2010, migrating from the marshland of Pančevački Rit, across the Danube. They built a large nest, 2.50 metres (8.2 feet) in diameter, at the height of 20 metres (66 feet). There are five other nesting couples in the wider Belgrade area, and some 90 in the entire Serbia, but having them reproducing at only 2.5 kilometres (1.6 miles) from the downtown of a city of this size is an exceptional rarity. They reproduced for the first time three years later, in 2013. In April 2016, when their chicks were to be hatched, the city's communal services installed a camera in the nest. The project was unique, with the similar one in Estonia, but Belgrade
Belgrade
is the only European capital to have it. Before the next generation of chicks hatched in 2017, live feed was posted online.[12] The largest European eagles, with the wingspan up to 2.4 metres (7.9 feet), are best observed from the neighboring Ušće
Ušće
and Dorćol districts, but they are being spotted circling above the Kalemegdan and the Republic Square, practically the center of Belgrade.[8][9][13] Mammals[edit] On the 9 October 2008 a species of the pygmy bat, soprano pipistrelle, was discovered on the island. It is a rare mammal, having a wingspan of 17 cm (6.7 in) and weight of only 4 g (0.14 oz). Naturalists suspected that soprano pipistrelle lives in Serbia, in the Obedska bara
Obedska bara
region, but this was the first time that the bat was actually seen and caught.[14] In October 2008, 21 species of mammals were recorded on the island. They included, in Belgrade
Belgrade
rarely seen, otters, nutrias, weasels and European pine martens.[5] There is a significant colony of wild boars on the Great War Island. Rarely, they swim across the arm of the Danube
Danube
which separates the island from the mainland, and can be seen in Zemun
Zemun
or Novi Beograd. A popular case was from 2014 when a wild boar was discovered in the garage of the Energoprojekt holding
Energoprojekt holding
company.[15]

Panorama of the island, taken from Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
fortress.

History[edit]

Satellite view of Great War Island

Great War Island
Great War Island
is not an old geographical feature. Based on the historical data and descriptions of the river battles on the Danube, it is believed that it has been formed in the second half of the 15th century, first as a small sandbank which was then divided and morphed by the Danube's stream. It appeared on the maps for the first time in the 1514 map by the Hungarian cartographer Lázár Deák. Historian Kome chronicled the fall of Zemun
Zemun
to the Turks in 1521 and mentioned the island as the location where all of the imprisoned defenders of the city were interred, including their wives and children. The island gained its militant name due to its history as an important strategic point either for the conquest or the defence of Belgrade. Also in 1521, when Belgrade
Belgrade
was under siege by Turkish forces, the majority of their attacks on Belgrade
Belgrade
fortress were launched from the island. The name officially appeared after 1717, when Prince Eugene of Savoy
Prince Eugene of Savoy
used the island as an attack point in his re-conquest of Belgrade
Belgrade
from the Turks. In 1741 a Constantinople convention was signed, which resulted in fixing the border between Austria and Turkey, concerning the islands in the Sava
Sava
and Danube. By the convention, Turkey obtained the section of the island overlooking the Belgrade, while Austria got the other part, in the direction of Zemun
Zemun
and Banat. In liberating Belgrade
Belgrade
in 1806 the rebel army headed by Karađorđe
Karađorđe
also used the island for military purposes, as the Serbian artillery with 500 soldiers was bombing the Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
fortress from there. During the offensive in 1915 by Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
against Belgrade, Austria-Hungary forces used the island to launch their attacks. After the World War I, island became part of the new Yugoslav state. After 1918, a small colony of 20 destitute inhabitants of Zemun
Zemun
built stilt houses on the island which was then colloquially called "Sirotinjska Ada" (Poor man's Island). Also, a sandbank facing Zemun
Zemun
was adapted into the beach, being predecessor of the modern Lido beach.[16][17] In 1928, building company "Šumadija" proposed the construction of the cable car, which they called "air tram". The project was planned to connect Zemun
Zemun
to Kalemegdan
Kalemegdan
on Belgrade
Belgrade
Fortress, via Great War Island. The interval of the cabins was set at 2 minutes and the entire route was supposed to last 5 minutes. The project never realized.[18] When construction of Novi Beograd began in 1948, the city government made a decision to completely destroy the island by using its sand and earth to cover the marshes of Syrmia, where new city was to be built. However, the deposits of alluvial materials continually brought onto the island from the Danube
Danube
completely prevented this from happening. Instead, the smaller Little War Island
Little War Island
served this purpose and was nearly destroyed in the process. Though officially uninhabited, almost a dozen people live in small shacks in the island's interior.[19] They are mostly retirees who move to the island during the warm season and maintain their vegetable gardens, while in the winter they return to Belgrade. In 2005, the island was protected by the state as a landscape of outstanding features.[9] Recent developments[edit] In the early 2000s, speculations concerning the island's future emerged among the public, including the ideas of turning it into a grand amusement park, possible relocation spot for the Belgrade
Belgrade
Zoo or that sections of the island should be leased to the cultural representatives of the different countries which would turn each section into ethno-park of their native culture, in which case the island would be renamed to Dunavsko ostrvo ( Danube
Danube
Island),[2] but all this was dropped in 2005 when it was finally decided that the island should remain intact. In 2002, the island was declared a natural fish spawning area and declared practically the only part of the City of Belgrade
Belgrade
where building of facilities like hotels, motels or restaurants is not allowed. The major works on the island began in 2007. In February 2007, following the disastrous 2006 European floods
2006 European floods
which wiped out Lido from the northern tip of the island, the Great War Island
Great War Island
was completely cleaned with all the bulky junk being removed, so as the remains of the old constructions and the 24-hour guarding service was set. Celebrating the June 29, the international Danube
Danube
Day, an ecology camp made of pile dwellings for students of the Belgrade
Belgrade
University was opened. The floods also heavily damaged the flora and the fauna, and it took several years for them to recuperate.[5] In August 2007, digging of a 300-metre-long (980 ft) canal which reconnected Veliki Galijaš
Veliki Galijaš
with the Danube
Danube
also began to prevent the seasonal drying of the lake. A 15-metre-long (49 ft) lookout is to be erected west of Veliki Galijaš
Veliki Galijaš
so as the entire network of visitor centers on the unsinkable points around the lake and throughout the island for the studying of the bird life. A bio-laboratory and the small boat landing are also scheduled for construction. In March 2016, mayor of Belgrade
Belgrade
Siniša Mali announced the massive reconstruction of the Old Sava
Sava
Bridge.[20][21] However, in May 2017, after the project papers were publicized, it was obvious that the city actually wanted to demolish the bridge completely and build a new one. Citizens protested while the experts rejected the reasons named by the authorities, adding that it is a mere money throwing on the unnecessary project.[20][22] Mali said that the old bridge will not be demolished but moved, and that citizens will decide where, but he gave an idea to move it to Zemun, as the permanent pedestrian bridge to the Great War Island. In an article "Cloud over the Great War Island", Aleksandar Milenković, member of the Academy of Architecture of Serbia, opposed the motion. He expressed fear that having in mind the "synchronous ad hoc decisions of the administration", the reaction should be prompt as the seemingly benign idea is actually a strategically disastrous enterprise (concerning the protected wildlife on the island). He also suspects that the administration in this case, just as in all previous ones, will neglect the numerous theoretical and empirical guidelines.[23] References[edit]

^ Zoran Nikolić (2 November 2017), "Beogradske priče: Čudne gradske "granične linije"" [ Belgrade
Belgrade
stories: Strange city "border lines"], Večernje Novosti
Večernje Novosti
(in Serbian)  ^ a b c "Besplatni izleti na Veliko ratno ostrvo". Politika
Politika
(in Serbian). 2008-07-04. p. 23.  ^ "Logor, bašta, rezervat prirode". Politika
Politika
(in Serbian). 2008-06-30. p. 19.  ^ Branka Vasiljević (15 May 2016). "Jedinstvene divlje orhideje u Velikkom blatu Palilule" (in Serbian). Politika.  ^ a b c Branka Vasiljević (November 2008), "Prestonica - dom za sisare", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ Branka Vasiljević (3 November 2010), "Pošumljeno Veliko ratno ostrvo", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ Branka Vasiljević (24 November 2017), "Hrast lužnjak za Veliko ratno ostrvo" [ Pedunculate oak
Pedunculate oak
for the Great War Island], Politika
Politika
(in Serbian), p. 17  ^ a b Branka Vasiljević (3 May 2016), "Rijaliti u orlovom gnezdu", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ a b c Branka Vasiljević (19 March 2017), "Veliki brat u orlovom gnezdu", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ Branka Vasiljević (11 October 2011), "Kako zaštiti ostrvo ptica", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ Suzana Luković (11 April 2017), "Avantura: Ovako izgleda srce Velikog ratnog ostrva", Blic
Blic
(in Serbian), p. 16  ^ Orao belorepan - Veliko Ratno Ostrvo
Veliko Ratno Ostrvo
2017 ^ Branka Vasiljević (21 August 2013), "Belorepan na nebu iznad Kalemegdana", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ J.C. (11 October 2008), "Otkriven jedinstveni patuljasti slepi miš", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ Branka Vasiljević (8 September 2017), "Divlje svinje dolaze iz Pančevačkog rita", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian), p. 14  ^ Branka Vasiljević (1 July 2015). "Danas počinje sezona na Lidu" (in Serbian). Politika.  ^ Dejan Aleksić (2 August 2017), "Otkrivanje tajni Velikog ratnog ostrva", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian), p. 17  ^ Dejan Spalović (27 August 2012), "San o žičari od Bloka 44 do Košutnjaka", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian)  ^ "Robinzoni usred grada". Politika
Politika
(in Serbian). 2008-06-30. p. 19.  ^ a b Dejan Aleksić, Daliborka Mučibabić (18 May 2017). "Stari savski most pada u vodu" (in Serbian). Politika. p. 1 & 16.  ^ Dijana Radisavljević (17 March 2016). "Rekonstrukcija Savskog mosta 2017 godine" (in Serbian). Blic.  ^ Adam Santovac (16 May 2017). "Peticija da se ne ruši Stari savski most" (in Serbian). N1.  ^ Dr Aleksandar Milenković (26 July 2017), "Oblak nad Velikim ratnim ostrvom", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian) 

External links[edit]

Miloš Bobić (2002-07-04). "Beograd na moru:Veliko ratno ostrvo" (in Serbian). Vreme.  "Zbogom, oazo!" (in Serbian). Kurir. 2006-05-23. Archived from the original on 2010-10-20. Retrieved 2007-06-05.  Beoinfo (2005-08-04). "Prirodno dobro "Veliko ratno ostrvo" stavljeno pod zaštitu Skupštine grada" (in Serbian). Ekoforum. Archived from the original on 2011-07-26. Retrieved 2007-06-05.  Dragan Simic (2003). "Birdwatch Belgrade". birdtours.co.uk. Retrieved 2007-06-05. 

See also[edit]

Ada Ciganlija Lido

v t e

The Danube

Countries

Germany Austria Slovakia Hungary Croatia Serbia Bulgaria Romania Moldova Ukraine

Cities

Ulm Ingolstadt Regensburg Passau Linz Vienna Bratislava Győr Budapest Vukovar Ilok Novi Sad Belgrade Ruse Brăila Galați Izmail Tulcea

Tributaries

Iller Lech Regen Isar Inn Morava Váh Hron Ipeľ/Ipoly Drava Tisza/Tisa Sava Timiș/Tamiš Great Morava Timok Jiu Iskar Olt Osam Yantra Vedea Argeș Ialomița Siret Prut

See also

List of islands in the Danube List of crossings of the Danube

v t e

Protected areas of Serbia

National parks

Đerdap Fruška Gora Kopaonik Šar Mountain Tara

Nature reserves

Bagremara Brzansko Moravište Bukovo Stari Begej – Carska Bara Danilova kosa Deliblato Sand Goč Gornje Podunavlje Jelašnička river Gorge Jerma Karađorđevo Koviljsko-petrovaradinski rit Kraljevac Lake Ludaš Obedska bara Okanj Pastures of the Great Bustard Prebreza Prokop Selevenjske pustare Slano Kopovo Suva Planina Titelski Breg Trešnjica
Trešnjica
river Gorge Uvac Venerina padina Vinatovača Zasavica

Nature parks

Begečka jama Golija Grmija Jegricka Nature Park Kamaraš Šargan - Mokra Gora Palić lake Ponjavica Sićevačka Gorge Stara Planina Tikvara Stara Tisa Zlatibor

Landscapes of outstanding features

Avala Đetinja
Đetinja
Gorge Gradac Gorge Kamena Gora Kosmaj Ćelije hydroacumulation Mali Rzav
Mali Rzav
Springs Miruša Waterfalls Ovčar-Kablar Gorge River Pčinja Valley Radan Lepterija - Soko Grad Ras - *Sopoćani Subotička Peščara Veliko Ratno Ostrvo Vlasina Vršac Mountains Zaovine

Natural monuments (selection)

Đavolja Varoš Marble cave Resavska cave Rugova Canyon Šalinac Grove

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61