HOME
The Info List - Great Northern War





Coalition victory:

Tsardom of Russia
Russia
establishes itself as a new power in Europe. Decline of the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Territorial changes

Treaty of Nystad: Russia
Russia
gains the three dominions Estonia, Livonia and Ingria
Ingria
as well as parts of Kexholm
Kexholm
and Viborg. Treaties of Stockholm: Prussia gains parts of Swedish Pomerania; Hanover gains Bremen-Verden. Treaty of Frederiksborg: Holstein–Gottorp loses its part of the Duchy of Schleswig
Duchy of Schleswig
to Denmark. Treaty of the Pruth: Azov and area is ceded back to the Ottoman Empire. Russia
Russia
demolishes strategic castles such as Taganrog. Charles XII of Sweden
Sweden
gets safe passage from Turkey to Sweden
Sweden
in 1711.

Belligerents

Swedish Empire

Holstein–Gottorp

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(1704–09)   Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
(1710–14)

Crimean Khanate  Moldavia  Wallachia

Cossack Hetmanate
Cossack Hetmanate
(1708–09) Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
(1700)   Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
(1700–1719) Great Britain (1719–20)

Tsardom of Russia

Cossack
Cossack
Hetmanate Kalmyk Khanate

  Electorate of Saxony
Electorate of Saxony
(1700–06, 1709–19) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(1701–04, 1704–09, 1709–19) Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
(1700, 1709–20) Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
(1715–21) Electorate of Hanover
Electorate of Hanover
(1715–19)

Great Britain (1717–19)   Moldavia
Moldavia
(1711)

Commanders and leaders

Charles XII
Charles XII
† (–1718) Eleonora I (1718–20) Frederick I (1720–)

Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld Magnus Stenbock Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt Arvid Axel Mardefelt Carl Gustaf Armfeldt Erik Dahlbergh Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach Otto Vellingk Hans Wachtmeister Carl Gustaf Creutz

Frederick IV † (–1702) Duke Charles (1702–) Stanisław I

Józef Potocki

Ahmed III

Baltacı Mehmet Pasha

Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
† (1708–)

George I

Peter I

Alexander Menshikov Boris Sheremetev Fyodor Apraksin Anikita Repnin Mikhail Golitsyn Jacob Bruce Matvei Zmayevich

Augustus II
Augustus II
(personal union)

Jacob Heinrich von Flemming Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg Adam Mikołaj Sieniawski Stanisław Chomętowski

Frederick IV

Christian Ditlev Reventlow Ulrik Christian Gyldenløve Peter Tordenskjold

Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
(1700–08)

Danylo Apostol Ivan Skoropadsky

Frederick William I

Leopold I, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau

George I (personal union)

Strength

Initial force:

: 76,000[1] : 5,000[2]

Temporary support (1700):

: 10,000 : 13 ships[3] : 12 ships[3]

Later allies (1704–14):

: 24,000[4] : 130,000 (1710–11)[5] : 4,000[6]

Total initial strength: 85,000 men Initial force:

: 110,000[7] : 30,000[8] : 50,000[9] : 40,000[10] : 30,000[7]

Later allies (1715–20):

: 50,000 : 20,000[11]

Total initial strength: 260,000 men

Casualties and losses

About 200,000 Swedes: 25,000 killed in combat, 175,000 killed by famine, disease and exhaustion.[12] Unknown.

30,000 Russians killed in combat.[13] 14,000–20,000 Poles, Saxons and 8,000 Danes killed in the larger battles. 60,000 Danes dead in total between 1709–1719.[14]

v t e

Great Northern War

Campaigns

Denmark Russia
Russia
and the Baltic provinces Poland-Lithuania/Saxony Ottoman Empire Sweden
Sweden
and Northern Germany Norway Finland

Battles

Holstein

1st Tönning 2nd Tönning

Denmark

Humlebæk

Baltic campaigns

1st Riga Varja 1st Narva Petschora Rauge Erastfer Hummelshof Nöteborg Systerbäck Wesenberg Jakobstadt 2nd Narva Gemauerthof Neva Koporye Kolkanpää 2nd Riga

Polish campaign

Düna Darsūniškis Vilnius Kliszów Saladen Pultusk Thorn Posen Punitz Warsaw Praga 1st Grodno Fraustadt Olkieniki Kletsk Kalisz

Russian campaign

2nd Grodno Holowczyn Malatitze Rajovka Lesnaya Desna Koniecpol Veprik Oposhnya Krasnokutsk–Gorodnoye Sokolki Poltava Perevolochna

Scania

Helsingborg

Moldavia

Pruth
Pruth
Campaign Bender

Finland

2nd Vyborg Finland Pälkäne Napue

Pomerania

Wismar Gadebusch Stresow Stralsund

Norway

Strömstad Fredriksten Carolean Death March

Stockholm

Stäket

Naval battles

Køge Bay Fladstrand Hogland Gangut Fehmarn Rügen Dynekilen Göteborg Ösel Grengam

Treaties

v t e

Dano-Swedish wars

1470–71 1497 Swedish Liberation Northern Seven Years' Kalmar Torstenson 2nd Northern Scanian Great Northern Theatre Napoleonic

v t e

Polish–Swedish wars

Livonian Sigismund 1600–11 1617–18 1621–25 1626–29 2nd Northern (Deluge) Great Northern War of the Fourth Coalition War of the Sixth Coalition

v t e

Russo–Swedish wars

Middle Ages 1495–97 1554–57 Livonian (1558–83) 1590–95 Ingrian (1610–17) 2nd Northern (1655–60) (1656–58) Great Northern (1700–21) Hats' (1741–43) 1788–90 Finnish (1808–09)

v t e

Russo-Ottoman Wars

1568–70 1676–81 1686–1700 1710–11 1735–39 1768–74 1787–92 1806–12 1828–29 1853–56 1877–78 1914–18

Russo-Crimean Wars

History of Scandinavia

Prehistory

Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age

Migration Period Viking Age Christianization Kalmar Union Great Northern War Monetary Union Defence Union Nordic Council

v t e

The Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia
Russia
successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I of Russia, Frederick IV of Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and Augustus II
Augustus II
the Strong of Saxony–Poland–Lithuania. Frederick IV and Augustus II
Augustus II
were defeated by Sweden, under Charles XII, and forced out of the alliance in 1700 and 1706 respectively, but rejoined it in 1709 after the defeat of Charles XII
Charles XII
at the Battle of Poltava. George I of Great Britain and of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
(Hanover) joined the coalition in 1714 for Hanover and in 1717 for Britain, and Frederick William I of Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
joined it in 1715. Charles XII
Charles XII
led the Swedish army. Swedish allies included Holstein-Gottorp, several Polish magnates under Stanisław I Leszczyński (1704–1710) and Cossacks
Cossacks
under the Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
(1708–1710). The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
temporarily hosted Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
and intervened against Peter I. The war began when an alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony, Poland
Poland
and Russia, sensing an opportunity as Sweden
Sweden
was ruled by the young Charles XII, declared war on the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
and launched a threefold attack on Swedish Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish Livonia, and Swedish Ingria. Sweden
Sweden
parried the Danish and Russian attacks at Travendal (August 1700) and Narva
Narva
(November 1700) respectively, and in a counter-offensive pushed Augustus II's forces through the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
to Saxony, dethroning Augustus on the way (September 1706) and forcing him to acknowledge defeat in the Treaty of Altranstädt (October 1706). The treaty also secured the extradition and execution of Johann Reinhold Patkul, architect of the alliance seven years earlier. Meanwhile the forces of Peter I had recovered from defeat at Narva
Narva
and gained ground in Sweden's Baltic provinces, where they cemented Russian access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
by founding Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in 1703. Charles XII
Charles XII
moved from Saxony
Saxony
into Russia
Russia
to confront Peter, but the campaign ended in 1709 with the destruction of the main Swedish army at the decisive Battle of Poltava (in present-day Ukraine) and Charles' exile in the Ottoman town of Bender. The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
defeated the Russian-Moldavian army in the Pruth
Pruth
River Campaign, but that peace treaty was in the end without great consequence to Russia's position. After Poltava, the anti-Swedish coalition revived and subsequently Hanover and Prussia joined it. The remaining Swedish forces in plague-stricken areas south and east of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
were evicted, with the last city, Riga, falling in 1710. The coalition members partitioned most of the Swedish dominions among themselves, destroying the Swedish dominium maris baltici. Sweden
Sweden
proper was invaded from the west by Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
and from the east by Russia, which had occupied Finland by 1714. Sweden
Sweden
defeated the Danish invaders at the Battle of Helsingborg
Battle of Helsingborg
(1710). Charles XII
Charles XII
opened up a Norwegian front but was killed in Fredriksten
Fredriksten
in 1718. The war ended with the defeat of Sweden, leaving Russia
Russia
as the new dominant power in the Baltic region
Baltic region
and as a new major force in European politics. The Western powers, Great Britain and France, became caught up in the separate War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1715), which broke out over the Bourbon Philip of Anjou's succession to the Spanish throne and a possible joining of France and Spain. The formal conclusion of the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
came with the Swedish-Hanoverian and Swedish-Prussian Treaties of Stockholm
Stockholm
(1719), the Dano-Swedish Treaty of Frederiksborg (1720), and the Russo-Swedish Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
(1721). By these treaties Sweden
Sweden
ceded her exemption from the Sound Dues[15] and lost the Baltic provinces and the southern part of Swedish Pomerania. The peace treaties also ended her alliance with Holstein-Gottorp. Hanover gained Bremen-Verden, Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
incorporated the Oder
Oder
estuary (Stettin Lagoons), Russia
Russia
secured the Baltic Provinces, and Denmark
Denmark
strengthened her position in Schleswig-Holstein. In Sweden, the absolute monarchy had come to an end with the death of Charles XII, and Sweden's Age of Liberty began.[15]

Contents

1 Background 2 Opposing parties

2.1 Swedish camp 2.2 Allied camp 2.3 Army size

3 1700: Denmark, Riga
Riga
and Narva 4 1701–1706: Poland-Lithuania and Saxony 5 1702–1710: Russia
Russia
and the Baltic provinces 6 Formation of a new anti-Swedish alliance 7 1709–1714: Ottoman Empire 8 1710–1716: Sweden
Sweden
and Northern Germany 9 1716–1718: Norway 10 1710–1721: Finland 11 1719–1721: Sweden 12 Peace 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading

16.1 Other languages

Background[edit] Further information: Dominium maris baltici Between the years of 1560 and 1658, Sweden
Sweden
created a Baltic empire centred on the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
and comprising the provinces of Karelia, Ingria, Estonia, and Livonia. During the Thirty Years' War Sweden
Sweden
gained tracts in Germany as well, including Western Pomerania, Wismar, the Duchy of Bremen, and Verden. During the same period Sweden conquered Danish and Norwegian provinces north of the Sound (1645; 1658). These victories may be ascribed to a well-trained army, which despite its comparatively small size, was far more professional than most continental armies, and also to a modernization of administration (both civilian and military) in the course of the 17th century, which enabled the monarchy to harness the resources of the country and its empire in an effective way. Fighting in the field, the Swedish army (which during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
contained more German and Scottish mercenaries than ethnic Swedes, but was administered by the Swedish Crown[16]) was able, in particular, to make quick, sustained marches across large tracts of land and to maintain a high rate of small arms fire due to proficient military drill. However, the Swedish state ultimately proved unable to support and maintain its army in a prolonged war. Campaigns on the continent had been proposed on the basis that the army would be financially self-supporting through plunder and taxation of newly gained land, a concept shared by most major powers of the period. The cost of the warfare proved to be much higher than the occupied countries could fund, and Sweden's coffers, and resources in manpower, were eventually drained in the course of long conflicts. The foreign interventions in Russia
Russia
during the Time of Troubles resulted in Swedish gains in the Treaty of Stolbovo
Treaty of Stolbovo
(1617). The treaty deprived Russia
Russia
of direct access to the Baltic Sea. Russian fortunes began to reverse in the final years of the 17th century, notably with the rise to power of Peter the Great, who looked to address the earlier losses and re-establish a Baltic presence. In the late 1690s, the adventurer Johann Patkul
Johann Patkul
managed to ally Russia
Russia
with Denmark
Denmark
and Saxony
Saxony
by the secret Treaty of Preobrazhenskoye, and in 1700 the three powers attacked. Opposing parties[edit] Swedish camp[edit] Charles XII
Charles XII
of Sweden[nb 1] succeeded Charles XI of Sweden
Sweden
in 1697, aged 14. From his predecessor, he took over the Swedish Empire
Swedish Empire
as an absolute monarch. Charles XI had tried to keep the empire out of wars, and concentrated on inner reforms such as reduction and allotment, which had strengthened the monarch's status and the empire's military abilities. Charles XII
Charles XII
refrained from all kinds of luxury and alcohol and usage of the French language, since he considered these things decadent and superfluous. He preferred the life of an ordinary soldier on horseback, not that of contemporary baroque courts. He determinedly pursued his goal of dethroning his adversaries, whom he considered unworthy of their thrones due to broken promises, thereby refusing to take several chances to make peace. During the war, the most important Swedish commanders besides Charles XII
Charles XII
were his close friend Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld, also Magnus Stenbock
Magnus Stenbock
and Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt. Charles Frederick, son of Frederick IV, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
(a cousin of Charles XII)[nb 1] and Hedvig Sophia, daughter of Charles XI of Sweden, had been the Swedish heir since 1702. He claimed the throne upon Charles XII's death, but was supplanted by Ulrike Eleonora. Charles Frederick was married to a daughter of Peter I, Anna Petrovna. Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
was a Ukrainian Cossack
Cossack
hetman who fought for Russia
Russia
but defected to Charles XII
Charles XII
in 1708. Mazepa died in 1710 in Ottoman exile. Allied camp[edit]

Augustus II
Augustus II
of Poland
Poland
(left) and Frederick William I of Prussia (right)

Peter the Great
Peter the Great
became Tsar in 1682 upon the death of his elder brother Feodor but did not become the actual ruler until 1689. He commenced reforming the country, turning the Russian tsardom into a modernized empire relying on trade and on a strong, professional army and navy. He greatly expanded the size of Russia
Russia
during his reign while providing access to the Baltic, Black, and Caspian seas. Beside Peter, the principal Russian commanders were Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov and Boris Sheremetev. Augustus II
Augustus II
the Strong, elector of Saxony
Saxony
and another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] gained the Polish crown after the death of King John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
in 1696. His ambitions to transform the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
into an absolute monarchy were not realized due to the zealous nature of the Polish nobility and the previously initiated laws that decreased the power of the monarch. His meeting with Peter the Great
Peter the Great
in Rawa Ruska
Rawa Ruska
in September 1698, where the plans to attack Sweden
Sweden
were made, became legendary for its decadence. Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway, another cousin of Charles XII,[nb 1] succeeded Christian V in 1699 and continued his anti-Swedish policies. After the setbacks of 1700, he focused on transforming his state, an absolute monarchy, in a manner similar to Charles XI of Sweden. He did not achieve his main goal: to regain the former eastern Danish provinces lost to Sweden
Sweden
in the course of the 17th century. He was not able to keep northern Swedish Pomerania, Danish from 1715 to 1720. He did put an end to the Swedish threat south of Denmark. He ended Sweden's exemption from the Sound Dues
Sound Dues
(transit taxes/tariffs on cargo moved between the North Sea
North Sea
and the Baltic Sea). Frederick William I entered the war as elector of Brandenburg and king in Prussia – the royal title had been secured in 1701. He was determined to gain the Oder
Oder
estuary with its access to the Baltic Sea for the Brandenburgian core areas, which had been a state goal for centuries. George I of the House of Hanover, elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
and, since 1714, king of Great Britain and of Ireland, took the opportunity to connect his landlocked German electorate to the North Sea. Army size[edit] In 1700, Charles XII
Charles XII
had a standing army of 77,000 men (based on annual training). By 1707 this number had swollen to at least 120,000 despite casualties. Russia
Russia
was able to mobilize a larger army but could not put all of it into action simultaneously. The Russian mobilization system was ineffective and the expanding nation needed to be defended in many locations. A grand mobilization covering Russia's vast territories would have been unrealistic. Peter I tried to raise his army's morale to Swedish levels. Denmark
Denmark
contributed 20,000 men in their invasion of Holstein-Gottorp
Holstein-Gottorp
and more on other fronts. Poland
Poland
and Saxony
Saxony
together could mobilize at least 100,000 men. 1700: Denmark, Riga
Riga
and Narva[edit] Main articles: Siege of Tönning, Landing on Humlebæk, Peace of Travendal, and Battle of Narva
Narva
(1700)

The bombardment of Copenhagen, 1700

Frederik IV of Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
directed his first attack against Sweden's ally Holstein-Gottorp. In March 1700, a Danish army laid siege to Tönning.[17] Simultaneously, Augustus II's forces advanced through Swedish Livonia, captured Dünamünde
Dünamünde
and laid siege to Riga.[18] Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
first focused on attacking Denmark. The Swedish navy was able to outmaneuver the Danish Sound blockade and deploy an army near the Danish capital, Copenhagen. At the same time, a combined British-Dutch fleet had also set course towards Denmark. Together with the Swedish fleet, they carried out a bombardment of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
from 20–26 July. This surprise move and pressure by the Maritime Powers (England and the Dutch Republic) forced Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
to withdraw from the war in August 1700 according to the terms of the Peace of Travendal.[19] Charles XII
Charles XII
was now able to speedily deploy his army to the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and face his remaining enemies: besides the army of Augustus II
Augustus II
in Livonia, an army of Russian tsar Peter I was already on its way to invade Swedish Ingria,[19] where it laid siege to Narva
Narva
in October. In November, the Russian and Swedish armies met at the First Battle of Narva
Narva
where the Russians suffered a crushing defeat.[20] After the dissolution of the first coalition through the peace of Travendal and with the victory at Narva; the Swedish chancellor, Benedict Oxenstjerna, attempted to use the bidding for the favour of Sweden
Sweden
by France and the Maritime Powers (then on the eve of the War of the Spanish Succession)[15] to end the war and make Charles an arbiter of Europe. 1701–1706: Poland-Lithuania and Saxony[edit] Main articles: Crossing of the Düna, Battle of Kliszów, Battle of Fraustadt, Battle of Kalisz, Civil war in Poland
Poland
(1704–1706), Treaty of Narva, Campaign of Grodno, Treaty of Warsaw (1705), and Treaty of Altranstädt (1706)

Battle of Riga, the first major battle of the Swedish invasion of Poland, 1701

Charles XII
Charles XII
then turned south to meet Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, King of Poland
Poland
and Grand Duke of Lithuania. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formally neutral at this point, as Augustus started the war as an Elector of Saxony. Disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament, Charles crossed into the Commonwealth and decisively defeated the Saxe-Polish forces in the Battle of Klissow
Battle of Klissow
in 1702 and in the Battle of Pultusk in 1703. This successful invasion enabled Charles XII
Charles XII
to dethrone Augustus II
Augustus II
and coerce the Polish sejm to replace him with Stanisław I
Stanisław I
Leszczyński in 1704.[21]:694 August II resisted, still possessing control of his native Saxony, but was decisively defeated at the Battle of Fraustadt in 1706, a battle sometimes compared to the Ancient Battle of Cannae due to the Swedish forces' use of double envelopment, with a deadly result for the Saxon army. August II was forced to sign the Treaty of Altranstädt in 1706 in which he made peace with the Swedish Empire,[21]:701 renounced his claims to the Polish crown, accepted Stanisław Leszczyński as king, and ended his alliance with Russia. Patkul was also extradited and executed by breaking on the wheel in 1707, an incident which, given his diplomatic immunity, infuriated opinion against the Swedish king, who was then expected to win the war against the only hostile power remaining, Tsar Peter's Russia.[22] 1702–1710: Russia
Russia
and the Baltic provinces[edit] Main articles: Battle of Erastfer, Charles XII
Charles XII
invasion of Russia, Battle of Holowczyn, Battle of Malatitze, Battle of Lesnaya, Pursuit of Krasnokutsk, Battle of Poltava, and Capitulation of Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia

Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
(left) and Peter I of Russia
Russia
(right)

Peter the Great
Peter the Great
assaults the island fortress of Nöteborg, which he renamed Shlisselburg, recognising it as the "key" to taking Ingria

Decisive Russian victory at Poltava 1709

The Battle of Narva
Narva
dealt a severe setback to Peter the Great, but the shift of Charles XII's army to the Polish-Saxon threat soon afterwards provided him with an opportunity to regroup and regain territory in the Baltic provinces. Russian victories at Erastfer and Nöteborg (Shlisselburg) provided access to Ingria
Ingria
in 1703, where Peter captured the Swedish fortress of Nyen, guarding the mouth of the River Neva.[21]:691 Thanks to General Adam Ludwig Lewenhaupt, whose outnumbered forces fended the Russians off in the battles of Gemäuerthof and Jakobstadt, Sweden
Sweden
was able to maintain control of most of her Baltic provinces. Before going to war, Peter had made preparations for a navy and a modern-style army, based primarily on infantry drilled in the use of firearms. The Nyen
Nyen
fortress was soon abandoned and demolished by Peter, who constructed nearby a superior fortress as a beginning to the city of Saint Petersburg. By 1704, other fortresses were situated on the island of Kotlin and the sand flats to its south. These became known as Kronstadt
Kronstadt
and Kronslot.[21]:691 The Swedes attempted a raid on the Neva fort on 13 July 1704 with ships and landing forces, but the Russian fortifications held. In 1705, repeated Swedish attacks were made against Russian fortifications in the area, to little effect. A major assault on 15 July 1705 resulted in the deaths of more than a third of a 1,500-strong Swedish landing force.[23] In view of continued failure to check Russian consolidation, and with declining manpower, Sweden
Sweden
opted to blockade Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
in 1705. In the summer of 1706, Swedish General Georg Johan Maidel crossed the Neva with 4,000 troops and defeated an opposing Russian force, but made no move on Saint Petersburg. Later in the autumn Peter I led an army of 20,000 men in an attempt to take the Swedish town and fortress of Viborg. However, bad roads proved impassable to his heavy siege guns. The troops, who arrived on 12 October, therefore had to abandon the siege after only a few days. On 12 May 1708, a Russian galley fleet made a lightning raid on Borgå and managed to return to Kronslot just one day before the Swedish battlefleet returned to the blockade, after being delayed by unfavourable winds. In August 1708, a Swedish army of 12,000 men under General Georg Henrik Lybecker attacked Ingria, crossing the Neva from the north. They met stubborn resistance, ran out of supplies and, after reaching the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
west of Kronstadt, had to be evacuated by sea between 10–17 October. Over 11,000 men were evacuated but more than 5000 horses were slaughtered, which crippled the mobility and offensive capability of the Swedish army in Finland for several years. Peter I took advantage of this by redeploying a large number of men from Ingria
Ingria
to Ukraine.[24] Charles spent the years 1702–06 in a protracted struggle with Augustus II
Augustus II
the Strong; he had already inflicted defeat on him at Riga in June 1701 and took Warsaw the following year, but trying to force a decisive defeat proved elusive. Russia
Russia
withdrew from Poland
Poland
in the spring of 1706, abandoning artillery but escaping from the pursuing Swedes, who stopped at Pinsk.[21]:700 Charles wanted not just to defeat the Commonwealth army but to depose Augustus, whom he regarded as especially treasonous, and have him replaced with someone who would be a Swedish ally, though this goal proved hard to achieve. After years of marches and fighting around Poland
Poland
he finally had to invade Augustus' hereditary Saxony
Saxony
to bring him out of the war.[21]:701 In the treaty of Altranstädt (1706), Augustus was indeed forced to step down from the Polish throne, but Charles had lost a valuable time advantage over his main enemy in the east, Peter I, who had had the time to recover and build up a new and better army. At this point, in 1707, Peter offered to retrocede everything he had so far occupied (essentially Ingria) except Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
and the line of the Neva,[15] to avoid a full-scale war, but Charles XII refused.[21]:703 Instead he initiated a march from Saxony
Saxony
to invade Russia. Though his primary goal was Moscow, the strength of his forces was sapped by the cold weather (the winter of 1708/09 being one of the most severe in modern European history)[21]:707 and Peter's use of scorched earth tactics.[21]:704 When the main army turned south to recover in Ukraine,[21]:706 the second army with supplies and reinforcements was intercepted and routed at Lesnaya—and so were the supplies and reinforcements of Swedish ally Ivan Mazepa
Ivan Mazepa
in Baturyn. Charles was crushingly defeated by a larger Russian force under Peter in the Battle of Poltava
Battle of Poltava
and fled to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
while the remains of his army surrendered at Perevolochna.[25] This shattering defeat in 1709 did not end the war, although it decided it. Denmark
Denmark
and Saxony
Saxony
joined the war again and Augustus the Strong, through the politics of Boris Kurakin, regained the Polish throne.[21]:710 Peter continued his campaigns in the Baltics, and eventually he built up a powerful navy. In 1710 the Russian forces captured Riga,[21]:711 at the time the most populated city in the Swedish realm, and Tallinn, evicting the Swedes from the Baltic provinces, now integrated in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
by the capitulation of Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia. Formation of a new anti-Swedish alliance[edit] After Poltava, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
and Augustus the Strong allied again in the Treaty of Thorn (1709); Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway
Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway
with Augustus the Strong in the Treaty of Dresden (1709); and Russia
Russia
with Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
in the subsequent Treaty of Copenhagen. In the Treaty of Hanover (1710), Brunswick-Lüneburg
Brunswick-Lüneburg
(Hanover) whose elector was to become George I of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
allied with Russia. In 1713, Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
allied with Russia
Russia
in the Treaty of Schwedt. George I of Great Britain
George I of Great Britain
and Hanover concluded three alliances in 1715: the Treaty of Berlin with Denmark–Norway, the Treaty of Stettin with Brandenburg-Prussia, and the Treaty of Greifswald with Russia. 1709–1714: Ottoman Empire[edit] Main articles: Pruth Campaign
Pruth Campaign
and Skirmish at Bender When his army surrendered, Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
and a few soldiers escaped to Ottoman territory, founding a colony in front of Bender, Moldova. Peter I demanded Charles's eviction, and when the sultan refused, Peter decided to force it by invading the Ottoman Empire. Peter's army was trapped by an Ottoman army at the Pruth
Pruth
river. Peter managed to negotiate a retreat, making a few territorial concessions and promising to withdraw his forces from the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
as well as allowing Charles's return to Sweden. These terms were laid out in the Treaty of Adrianople (1713). Charles showed no interest in returning, established a provisional court in his colony, and sought to persuade the sultan to engage in an Ottoman-Swedish assault on Russia. The sultan put an end to the generous hospitality granted and had the king arrested in what became known as the "kalabalik" in 1713. Charles was then confined at Timurtash and Demotika; later he abandoned his hopes for an Ottoman front and returned to Sweden
Sweden
in a 14-day ride.[26] 1710–1716: Sweden
Sweden
and Northern Germany[edit] Main articles: Battle of Helsingborg, Siege of Stralsund (1711–1715), Battle of Gadebusch, Siege of Tönning, and Landing on Groß Stresow

Danish Altona burned down during Stenbock's campaign (1713). Russian forces retaliated by burning down Swedish Wolgast
Wolgast
(same year)

In 1710, the Swedish army in Poland
Poland
retreated to Swedish Pomerania, pursued by the coalition. In 1711, siege was laid to Stralsund. Yet the town could not be taken due to the arrival of a Swedish relief army, which secured the Pomeranian pocket before turning west to defeat an allied army in the Battle of Gadebusch. Pursued by coalition forces, the Swedish army was trapped and surrendered in the Siege of Tönning.[27] In 1714, Charles XII
Charles XII
returned from the Ottoman Empire, arriving in Stralsund
Stralsund
in November. In nearby Greifswald, already lost to Sweden, Russian tsar Peter the Great
Peter the Great
and British king George I, in his position as Elector of Hanover, had just signed an alliance on 17 (OS)/28 (NS) October.[28] Previously a formally neutral party in the Pomeranian campaigns, Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
openly joined the coalition by declaring war on Sweden
Sweden
in the summer of 1715.[29] Charles was then at war with much of Northern Europe, and Stralsund
Stralsund
was doomed. Charles remained there until December 1715, escaping only days before Stralsund
Stralsund
fell. When Wismar
Wismar
surrendered in 1716, all of Sweden's Baltic and German possessions were lost.[30] 1716–1718: Norway[edit] Main articles: Great Northern War
Great Northern War
and Norway, Fredriksten, and Carolean Death March

Representation of Charles XII
Charles XII
of Sweden, shot dead during the siege of Fredriksten
Fredriksten
in 1718.

After Charles XII
Charles XII
had returned from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and resumed personal control of the war effort, he initiated two Norwegian Campaigns, starting in February 1716, to force Denmark–Norway
Denmark–Norway
into a separate peace treaty. Furthermore, he attempted to bar Great Britain access to the Baltic Sea. In search for allies, Charles XII
Charles XII
also negotiated with the British Jacobite party. This resulted in Great Britain declaring war on Sweden
Sweden
in 1717. The Norwegian campaigns were halted and the army withdrawn when Charles XII
Charles XII
was shot dead while besieging Norwegian Fredriksten
Fredriksten
on 30 November 1718 (OS). He was succeeded by his sister, Ulrika Eleonora.[31] 1710–1721: Finland[edit] Main articles: Battle of Gangut, Greater Wrath, and Battle of Grengam

Battle of Gangut
Battle of Gangut
(Hanko)[32]

The war between Russia
Russia
and Sweden
Sweden
continued after the disaster of Poltava in 1709, though the shattered Swedish continental army could provide very little help. Russia
Russia
captured Viborg (ru. Vyborg) in 1710 and successfully held it against Swedish attempts to retake the town in 1711.[33] In 1712 the first Russian campaign to capture Finland began under the command of General Admiral Fyodor Apraksin. Apraksin gathered an army of 15,000 men at Vyborg
Vyborg
and started the operation in late August. Swedish General Georg Henrik Lybecker
Georg Henrik Lybecker
chose not to face the Russians with his 7,500 men in the prepared positions close to Vyborg
Vyborg
and instead withdrew west of Kymijoki
Kymijoki
river using scorched earth tactics. Apraksin's forces reached the river but chose not to cross it and instead withdrew back to Vyborg, likely due to problems in supply.[34] Swedish efforts to maintain their defences were greatly hampered by the drain of manpower by the continental army and various garrisons around the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
as well as by the plague outbreak that struck Finland and Sweden]] between 1710–1713, which devastated the land killing, amongst others, over half of the population of Helsingfors (Helsinki).[35]

The final days of the siege of Vyborg, by Alexei Rostovtsev

After the failure of 1712, Peter the Great
Peter the Great
ordered that further campaigns in war-ravaged regions of Finland with poor transportation networks were to be performed along the coastline and the seaways near the coast. Alarmed by the Russian preparations Lybecker requested naval units to be brought in as soon as possible in the spring of 1713. However, like so often, Swedish naval units arrived only after the initial Russian spring campaign had ended.[36] Nominally under the command of Apraksin, but accompanied Peter the Great, a fleet of coastal ships together with 12,000 men – infantry and artillery – began the campaign by sailing from Kronstadt
Kronstadt
on 2 May 1713; a further 4,000 cavalry were later sent overland to join with the army. The fleet had already arrived at Helsinki on 8 May and were met by 1,800 Swedish infantry under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. Together with rowers from the ships the Russians had 20,000 men at their disposal even without the cavalry. The defenders, however, managed to fend off landing attempts by the attackers until the Russians landed at their flank at Sandviken, which forced Armfelt to retire towards Porvoo (Borgå) after setting afire both the town and all the supplies stored there as well as bridges leading north from the town. It was only on 12 May that Swedish squadron under Admiral Erik Johan Lillie made it to Helsinki but there was nothing it could do.[37] The bulk of the Russian forces moved along the coast towards Borgå and the forces of Lybecker, whom Armfelt had joined. On 21–22 May 1713 a Russian force of 10,000 men landed at Pernå
Pernå
(Pernaja) and constructed fortifications there. Large stores of supplies and munitions were transported from Vyborg
Vyborg
and Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
to the new base of operations. Russian cavalry managed to link up with the rest of the army there as well. Lybecker's army of 7000 infantry and 3000 cavalry avoided contact with the Russians and instead kept withdrawing further inland without even contesting the control of Borgå region or the important coastal road between Helsinki (Helsingfors) and Turku (Åbo). This also severed the contact between Swedish fleet and ground forces and prevented Swedish naval units from supplying it. Soldiers in the Swedish army who were mostly Finnish resented being repeatedly ordered to withdraw without even seeing the enemy. Lybecker was soon recalled to Stockholm
Stockholm
for a hearing and Armfelt was ordered to the command of the army. Under his command the Swedish army in Finland stopped to engage the advancing Russians at Pälkäne in October 1713, where a Russian flanking manoeuvre forced him to withdraw to avoid getting encircled. The armies met again later at Napue in February 1714, where the Russians won a decisive victory.[38] In 1714 far greater Swedish naval assets were diverted towards Finland, which managed to cut the coastal sea route past Hangö
Hangö
cape already in early May 1714. This caused severe trouble for Russian supply route to Turku
Turku
and beyond as supplies had to be carried overland. The Russian galley fleet arrived to the area on 29 June but stayed idle until 26–27 July when, under the leadership of Peter, Russian galleys managed to run the blockade making use of calm weather, which immobilized the Swedish battlefleet while losing only one galley of roughly 100. A small, hastily assembled Swedish coastal squadron met the Russian galley fleet west of Hangö
Hangö
cape in the battle of Gangut and was overpowered by the Russians who had nearly ten-fold superiority. Russian breach of the blockade at Hangö
Hangö
forced the Swedish fleet to withdraw to prevent the Russian fleet from reaching Sweden
Sweden
itself. The Russian army occupied Finland mostly in 1713–1714, capturing Åland from where the population had already fled to Sweden
Sweden
on 13 August 1714. Since the Russian galley fleet was not able to raid the Swedish coast, with the exception of Umeå, which was plundered on 18 September, the fleet instead supported the advance of the Russian army, which led to hastily withdrawal by the Swedish army from Raahe
Raahe
(Brahestad) to Tornio
Tornio
(Torneå). The occupation period of Finland in 1714–1721 is known as the Greater Wrath.[39] 1719–1721: Sweden[edit] Main article: Russian Pillage of 1719–21

The battle of Grengam. A 1721 etching by Alexey Zubov

After the death of Charles XII, Sweden
Sweden
still refused to make peace with Russia
Russia
on Peter's terms. Despite a continued Swedish naval presence and strong patrols to protect the coast, small Russian raids took place in 1716 at Öregrund, while in July 1717 a Russian squadron landed troops at Gotland
Gotland
who raided for supplies. To place pressure on Sweden, Russia
Russia
sent a large fleet to the Swedish east coast in July 1719. There, under protection of the Russian battlefleet, the Russian galley fleet was split into three groups. One group headed for the coast of Uppland, the second to the vicinity of Stockholm, and the last to coast of Södermanland. Together they carried a landing force of nearly 30,000 men. Raiding continued for a month and devastated amongst others the towns of Norrtälje, Södertälje, Nyköping
Nyköping
and Norrköping, and almost all the buildings in the archipelago of Stockholm
Stockholm
were burned. A smaller Russian force advanced on the Swedish capital but was stopped at the battle of Stäket on 13 August. Swedish and British fleets, now allied with Sweden, sailing from the west coast of Sweden
Sweden
but failed to catch the raiders.[40] After treaty of Frederiksborg in early 1720, Sweden
Sweden
was no longer at war with Denmark, which allowed more forces to be placed against the Russians. This did not prevent Russian galleys from raiding the town of Umeå
Umeå
once again. Later in July 1720 a squadron from the Swedish battlefleet engaged the Russian galley fleet in the battle of Grengam. While the result of the battle is contested, it ended Russian galley raids in 1720. As negotiations for peace did not progress, the Russian galleys were once again sent to raid the Swedish coast in 1721, targeting primarily the Swedish coast between Gävle
Gävle
and Piteå.[41] Peace[edit] Main articles: Treaty of Frederiksborg, Treaties of Stockholm
Stockholm
(Great Northern War), and Treaty of Nystad

Campaigns and territorial changes 1700–1709 (left) and 1709–1721 (right)

By the time of Charles XII's death, the anti-Swedish allies became increasingly divided on how to fill the power gap left behind by the defeated and retreating Swedish armies. George I and Frederik IV both coveted hegemony in northern Germany, while Augustus the Strong was concerned about the ambitions of Frederick William I on the southeastern Baltic coast. Peter the Great, whose forces were spread all around the Baltic Sea, envisioned hegemony in East Central Europe and sought to establish naval bases as far west as Mecklenburg. In January 1719, George I, Augustus and emperor Charles VI concluded a treaty in Vienna aimed at reducing Russia's frontiers to the pre-war limits.[31] Hanover-Great Britain and Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
thereupon negotiated separate peace treaties with Sweden, the treaties of Stockholm
Stockholm
in 1719 and early 1720, which partitioned Sweden's northern German dominions among the parties. The negotiations were mediated by French diplomats, who sought to prevent a complete collapse of Sweden's position on the southern Baltic coast and assured that Sweden
Sweden
was to retain Wismar
Wismar
and northern Swedish Pomerania. Hanover gained Swedish Bremen-Verden, while Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
incorporated southern Swedish Pomerania.[42] In addition to the rivalries in the anti-Swedish coalition, there was an inner-Swedish rivalry between Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, and Frederick I of Hesse-Cassel for the Swedish throne. The Gottorp party succumbed and Ulrike Eleonora, wife of Frederick I, transferred power to her husband in May 1720. When peace was concluded with Denmark, the anti-Swedish coalition had already fallen apart, and Denmark
Denmark
was not in a military position to negotiate a return of her former eastern provinces across the sound. Frederick I was, however, willing to cede Swedish support for his rival in Holstein-Gottorp, which came under Danish control with its northern part annexed, and furthermore cede the Swedish privilege of exemption from the Sound Dues. A respective treaty was concluded in Frederiksborg in June 1720.[42]

Timeline of each main participator in the war

When Sweden
Sweden
finally was at peace with Hanover, Great Britain, Brandenburg-Prussia
Brandenburg-Prussia
and Denmark–Norway, she hoped that the anti-Russian sentiments of the Vienna parties and France would culminate in an alliance that would restore her Russian-occupied eastern provinces. Yet, primarily due to internal conflicts in Great Britain and France, that did not happen. Therefore, the war was finally concluded by the Treaty of Nystad
Treaty of Nystad
between Russia
Russia
and Sweden
Sweden
in Uusikaupunki
Uusikaupunki
(Nystad) on 30 August 1721 (OS). Finland was returned to Sweden, while Swedish Estonia, Livonia, Ingria, Kexholm
Kexholm
and the bulk of Karelia
Karelia
were ceded to Russia. Sweden's dissatisfaction with the result led to fruitless attempts at recovering the lost territories in the course of the following century, such as the Russo-Swedish War (1741–1743), and the Russo-Swedish War (1788–1790).[42] Saxe-Poland-Lithuania and Sweden
Sweden
did not conclude a formal peace treaty; instead, they renewed the Peace of Oliva
Peace of Oliva
that had ended the Second Northern War
Second Northern War
in 1660.[43] Sweden
Sweden
had lost almost all of its "overseas" holdings gained in the 17th century and ceased to be a major power. Russia
Russia
gained its Baltic territories and became one of the greatest powers in Europe. See also[edit]

Military of the Swedish Empire

Notes[edit]

^ a b c d Charles XII
Charles XII
of Sweden, Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp, Augustus II
Augustus II
and Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway
Frederick IV of Denmark-Norway
were all grandsons of Frederik III of Denmark-Norway

References[edit]

^ Olle Larsson, Stormaktens sista krig (2009) Lund, Historiska Media. p. 78. ISBN 978-91-85873-59-3 ^ Bengt Liljegren (2000). Karl XII: En biografi. Lund: Historiska media ^ a b Ericson, Sjöslag och rysshärjningar (2011) Stockholm, Norstedts. p. 55. ISBN 978-91-1-303042-5 ^ Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. pp. 214. ^ A Military History of Russia: From Ivan the Terrible to the War in Chechnya, David R. Stone. Greenwood Publishing Group (2006). pp. 57. ^ Peter From, Katastrofen vid Poltava (2007) Lund, Historiska media. pp. 240. ^ a b Boris Grigorjev & Aleksandr Bespalov (2012). Kampen mot övermakten. Baltikums fall 1700–1710. pp. 52 ^ Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700–1721, II. p 51. ^ Józef Andrzej Gierowski – Historia Polski 1505–1764 (History of Poland
Poland
1505–1764), pp. 258–261 ^ "Tacitus.nu, Örjan Martinsson. Danish force". Tacitus.nu. Retrieved 2014-08-24.  ^ Lars-Eric Höglund, Åke Sallnäs, The Great Northern War 1700–1721, II. p 132. ^ Ericson, Lars, Svenska knektar (2004) Lund: Historiska media[page needed] ^ Urlanis, B.Ts. (1960). Wars and population. p. 55.  ^ Lindegren, Jan, Det danska och svenska resurssystemet i komparation (1995) Umeå : Björkås : Mitthögsk[page needed] ^ a b c d  Gosse, Edmund (1911). "Sweden". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 26 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 205–206.  ^ Richard Brzezinski. Lützen 1632: Climax of the Thirty Years' War. Osprey Publishing, 2001. p. 19 ^ Frost (2000), pp. 227–228 ^ Frost (2000), pp. 228–229 ^ a b Frost (2000), p. 229 ^ Frost (2000), p. 230 ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Tucker, S.C., 2010, A Global Chronology of Conflict, Vol. Two, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, LLC, ISBN 9781851096671 ^ Frost (2000), pp. 230, 263ff ^ Mattila (1983), p. 10–19. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 20–27. ^ Frost (200), pp.231, 286ff ^ Petersen (2007), pp. 268–272, 275; Bengtsson (1960), pp. 393ff, 409ff, 420–445 ^ Wilson (1998), p.140 ^ Torke (2005), p.165 ^ Meier (2008), p.23 ^ North (2008), p.53 ^ a b Frost (2000), pp. 295–296 ^ The Russian Victory at Gangut (Hanko), 1714 by Maurice Baquoi, etched 1724 ^ Mattila (1983), p. 27–31. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 32–33. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 30. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 33. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 33–35. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 35. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 38–46. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 47. ^ Mattila (1983), p. 48-51. ^ a b c Frost (2000), p. 296 ^ Donnert (1997), p. 510

Further reading[edit]

Bain, R. Nisbet. Charles XII
Charles XII
and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 1682–1719 (1899) online Bengtsson, Frans Gunnar (1960). The sword does not jest. The heroic life of King Charles XII
Charles XII
of Sweden. St. Martin's Press.  Englund, Peter. Battle That Shook Europe: Poltava & the Birth of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(2003, Frost, Robert I (2000). The Northern Wars. War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe 1558–1721. Longman. ISBN 978-0-582-06429-4.  Hatton, Ragnhild M. " Charles XII
Charles XII
and the Great Northern War." in J.S. Bromley, ed., New Cambridge Modern History VI: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia
Russia
1688–1725 (1970) pp 648–80. Lisk, Jill. The struggle for supremacy in the Baltic, 1600–1725 (1968). Lunde, Henrik O. A Warrior Dynasty: The Rise and Decline of Sweden
Sweden
as a Military Superpower (Casemate, 2014). McKay, Derek, and H. M. Scott. The Rise of the Great Powers 1648–1815 (1983) pp 77–93. Moulton, James R. Peter the Great
Peter the Great
and the Russian Military Campaigns During the Final Years of the Great Northern War, 1719–1721 (University Press of America, 2005). Oakley, Stewart P. War and Peace in the Baltic, 1560–1790 (Routledge, 2005). Peterson, Gary Dean (2007). Warrior kings of Sweden. The rise of an empire in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2873-2.  Stiles, Andrina. Sweden
Sweden
and the Baltic 1523–1721 (Hodder & Stoughton, 1992). Wilson, Derek. "Poltava: The battle that changed the world." History Today 59.3 (2009): 23. Wilson, Peter Hamish (1998). German armies. War and German politics, 1648–1806. Warfare and history. Routledge. ISBN 1-85728-106-3. 

Other languages[edit]

Baskakov, Benjamin I. (1890) (in Russian). The Northern War of 1700–1721. Campaign from Grodno to Poltava 1706–1709 at Runivers.ru
Runivers.ru
in DjVu and PDF
PDF
formats Donnert, Erich (1997). Europa in der Frühen Neuzeit: Festschrift für Günter Mühlpfordt. Aufbruch zur Moderne (in German). 3. Böhlau. ISBN 3-412-00697-1.  Mattila, Tapani (1983). Meri maamme turvana [Sea safeguarding our country] (in Finnish). Jyväskylä: K. J. Gummerus Osakeyhtiö. ISBN 951-99487-0-8.  Meier, Martin (2008). Vorpommern nördlich der Peene unter dänischer Verwaltung 1715 bis 1721. Aufbau einer Verwaltung und Herrschaftssicherung in einem eroberten Gebiet. Beiträge zur Militär- und Kriegsgeschichte (in German). 65. Munich: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag. ISBN 3-486-58285-2.  North, Michael (2008). Geschichte Mecklenburg-Vorpommerns. Beck Wissen (in German). 2608. CH Beck. ISBN 3-406-57767-9.  Torke, Hans-Joachim (2005). Die russischen Zaren 1547–1917 (in German) (3 ed.). C.H.Beck. ISBN 3-406-42105-9. 

v t e

Treaties of the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–1721)

Preobrazhenskoye Dresden Travendal Narva Warsaw Altranstädt (1706) Altranstädt (1707) Dresden Thorn Copenhagen Hanover Capitulation of Estonia
Estonia
and Livonia Lutsk Pruth Adrianople Schwedt Stettin Berlin Greifswald Frederiksborg Stockholm Nystad

Campaigns

v t e

Polish wars and conflicts

Piast Poland

Battle of Cedynia German–Polish War (1002–18) Bolesław I's intervention in the Kievan succession crisis 1072 war against Bohemia Battle of Głogów 1146 war against Germany 1156 war against Germany First Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1240/41) Second Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1259/60) Third Mongol invasion of Poland
Poland
(1287/88)

Battle of Legnica

Polish–Teutonic War (1326–32)

Battle of Płowce

Galicia–Volhynia Wars

Jagiellon Poland

Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War

Battle of Grunwald

Polish–Teutonic War (1414) Polish–Teutonic War (1422) Polish–Teutonic War (1431–35) Battle of Grotniki 1444 war against the Ottomans

Battle of Varna

Thirteen Years' War War of the Priests Polish–Moldavian War Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1512–22)

Battle of Orsha

Polish–Teutonic War (1519–21) Polish–Lithuanian–Muscovite War (1534–37) Ottoman–Tatar Invasion of Lithuania and Poland

Commonwealth

Northern Seven Years' War Danzig rebellion

Battle of Lubieszów

Siege of Danzig (1577) Livonian War

Livonian campaign of Stephen Báthory

War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1587–88)

Battle of Byczyna

1589 Tatar Invasion Kosiński Uprising 1593 Tatar Invasion Nalyvaiko Uprising Moldavian Magnate Wars Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21) Polish–Swedish wars War against Sigismund

Battle of Stångebro

Polish–Swedish War (1600–29)

Polish–Swedish War (1600–11)

Battle of Kircholm

Polish–Swedish War (1617–18) Polish–Swedish War (1621–25) Polish–Swedish War (1626–29)

Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)

Battle of Kłuszyn

Zebrzydowski Rebellion Thirty Years' War

Battle of Humenné

Polish–Ottoman War (1620–21)

Battle of Chocim (1621)

1624 Tatar Invasion Zhmaylo Uprising Fedorovych Uprising Smolensk War

Siege of Smolensk (1632–33)

Polish–Ottoman War (1633–34) Pawluk Uprising Ostrzanin Uprising 1644 Tatar Invasion Khmelnytsky Uprising

Battle of Berestechko

Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War

The Deluge

Polish–Cossack–Tatar War (1666–71) Polish–Ottoman War (1672–76)

Battle of Chocim (1673)

Polish–Ottoman War (1683–99)

Battle of Vienna

Great Northern War War of the Polish Succession War of the Bar Confederation Polish–Russian War of 1792 Kościuszko Uprising

Poland
Poland
partitioned

Napoleonic Wars Peninsular War War of the Fourth Coalition

Prussian campaign

War of the Fifth Coalition

Polish–Austrian War

War of the Sixth Coalition

French invasion of Russia

Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1848) November Uprising January Uprising World War I

Second Republic

Polish–Ukrainian War Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising Polish–Czechoslovak War First Silesian Uprising Polish–Soviet War

Battle of Warsaw

Second Silesian Uprising Polish–Lithuanian War Third Silesian Uprising

Second World War

World War II German Invasion of Poland Polish contribution to World War II Italian Campaign Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising Białystok Ghetto Uprising Częstochowa Ghetto Uprising

Operation Tempest

Operation Ostra Brama Lwów uprising Warsaw Uprising

People's Republic

Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Third Republic

War in Afghanistan Iraq War

2003 invasion of Iraq Occupation of Iraq

v t e

Armed conflicts involving Russia
Russia
(incl. Imperial and Soviet times)

Internal

Razin's Rebellion Bulavin Rebellion Pugachev's Rebellion Decembrist revolt Russian Civil War August Uprising Bitch Wars Coup d'état attempt (1991) 1993 Russian constitutional crisis First Chechen War War of Dagestan Second Chechen War Insurgency in the North Caucasus

Pre-17th century

Muscovite–Volga Bulgars war (1376) First Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1492–94) Russo-Swedish War (1495–97) Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Second Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1500–03) Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Third Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1507–08) Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
Fourth Muscovite–Lithuanian War
(1512–22) Fifth Muscovite–Lithuanian War (1534–37) Russo-Crimean Wars Russo-Kazan Wars Russo-Swedish War (1554–57) Livonian War Russian Conquest of Siberia (1580–1747) Russo-Swedish War (1590–95) Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
Polish–Muscovite War (1605–18)
and the Time of Troubles Ingrian War Smolensk War Russo-Persian War (1651–53) Sino-Russian border conflicts
Sino-Russian border conflicts
(1652–89) Russo-Polish War (1654–67) Second Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1676–81) Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700)

18th–19th century

Great Northern War Russo-Turkish War (1710–11) Russo-Persian War (1722–23) War of the Polish Succession
War of the Polish Succession
(1733–38) Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–39) War of the Austrian Succession
War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48) Russo-Swedish War (1741–43) Seven Years' War Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) Bar Confederation Russo-Turkish War (1787–92) Russo-Swedish War (1788–90) Russo-Polish War (1792) Kościuszko Uprising Russo-Persian War (1796) War of the Second Coalition War of the Third Coalition Russo-Persian War (1804–13) War of the Fourth Coalition Russo-Turkish War (1806–12) Anglo-Russian War Finnish War War of the Fifth Coalition French invasion of Russia War of the Sixth Coalition War of the Seventh Coalition Russian conquest of the Caucasus Caucasian War

Russo-Circassian War Murid War

Russo-Persian War (1826–28) Russo-Turkish War (1828–29) November Uprising Russian conquest of Bukhara Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Crimean War January Uprising Russo-Turkish War (1877–78) Boxer Rebellion

Russian invasion of Manchuria

20th century

Russo-Japanese War Russian Invasion of Tabriz, 1911 World War I Russian Civil War Ukrainian–Soviet War Finnish Civil War Heimosodat Soviet westward offensive of 1918–19

Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence Lithuanian–Soviet War

Polish–Soviet War Red Army invasion of Azerbaijan Red Army invasion of Armenia Red Army invasion of Georgia Red Army intervention in Mongolia Sino-Soviet conflict (1929) Soviet–Japanese border conflicts Soviet invasion of Xinjiang Xinjiang War (1937) World War II

Soviet invasion of Poland Winter War Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940) Continuation War Eastern Front (World War II) Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran Soviet–Japanese War

Guerrilla war in the Baltic states Ili Rebellion First Indochina War Korean War Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Eritrean War of Independence War of Attrition Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia Sino-Soviet border conflict Vietnam War Ogaden War South African Border War Soviet–Afghan War

Post-Soviet

Nagorno-Karabakh War Transnistria War Georgian Civil War Tajikistani Civil War Russo-Georgian War Intervention in Ukraine

Annexation of Crimea War in Donbass

Intervention in Syria

Military history of Russia Russian Winter Russian Revolution Cold War Sphere of influence

Authority control

GN

.