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The Gospel
Gospel
According to Matthew (Greek: Τὸ κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, translit. Tò katà Matthaīon euangélion; also called the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament
New Testament
and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world.[1] Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110 (a pre-70 date remains a minority view).[2][3] The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time.[4] Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on three main sources: the Gospel
Gospel
of Mark, the hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, and material unique to his own community, called the M source or " Special
Special
Matthew".[5][6] The divine nature of Jesus
Jesus
was a major issue for the Matthaean community, the crucial element separating the early Christians from their Jewish neighbors; while Mark begins with Jesus' baptism and temptations, Matthew goes back to Jesus' origins, showing him as the Son of God
Son of God
from his birth, the fulfillment of Old Testament
Old Testament
messianic prophecies.[7] The title Son of David
David
identifies Jesus
Jesus
as the healing and miracle-working Messiah
Messiah
of Israel (it is used exclusively in relation to miracles), sent to Israel alone.[8] As Son of Man
Son of Man
he will return to judge the world, an expectation which his disciples recognise but of which his enemies are unaware.[9] As Son of God
Son of God
he is God revealing himself through his son, and Jesus
Jesus
proving his sonship through his obedience and example.[10] The gospel
The gospel
reflects the struggles and conflicts between the evangelist's community and the other Jews, particularly with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees.[11] Prior to the Crucifixion the Jews are called Israelites, the honorific title of God's chosen people; after it, they are called "Ioudaioi", Jews, a sign that through their rejection of the Christ the "Kingdom of Heaven" has been taken away from them and given instead to the church.[12]

Contents

1 Composition and setting

1.1 Background 1.2 Authorship and sources 1.3 Setting and date

2 Structure and content

2.1 Prologue: genealogy, Nativity and infancy 2.2 First narrative and discourse 2.3 Second narrative and discourse 2.4 Third narrative and discourse 2.5 Fourth narrative and discourse 2.6 Fifth narrative and discourse 2.7 Conclusion: Passion, Resurrection and Great Commission

3 Theology

3.1 Christology 3.2 Relationship with the Jews

4 Comparison with other writings

4.1 Christological development 4.2 Chronology

5 See also 6 References

6.1 Notes 6.2 Footnotes 6.3 Bibliography

6.3.1 Commentaries 6.3.2 General works

7 External links

Composition and setting[edit]

Papyrus

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4, fragment of a flyleaf with the title of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew, ευαγγελιον κ̣ατ̣α μαθ᾽θαιον (euangelion kata Maththaion). Dated to late 2nd or early 3rd century, it is the earliest manuscript title for Matthew

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37, a 3rd-century papyrus of Matthew 26

Background[edit] The oldest relatively complete manuscripts of the Bible
Bible
are the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus, which date from the 4th century. Besides these, there exist manuscript fragments ranging from a few verses to whole chapters.

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104 and

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67 are notable fragments of Matthew. These are copies of copies. In the process of recopying, variations slipped in, different regional manuscript traditions emerged, and corrections and adjustments were made. Modern textual scholars collate all major surviving manuscripts, as well as citations in the works of the Church Fathers, in order to produce a text which most likely approximates to the lost autographs.[13] Authorship and sources[edit]

The anonymous author of Matthew was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time.[4] The majority of modern scholars believe that Mark was the first gospel to be composed and that Matthew (who includes some 600 of Mark's 661 verses) and Luke both drew upon it as a major source for their works.[14][15] The author of Matthew did not, however, simply copy Mark, but used it as a base, emphasising Jesus' place in the Jewish tradition and including other details not covered in Mark.[16] An additional 220 (approximately) verses, shared by Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark, from a second source, a hypothetical collection of sayings to which scholars give the name "Quelle" ("source" in the German language), or the Q source.[17] This view, known as the Two-source hypothesis
Two-source hypothesis
(Mark and Q), allows for a further body of tradition known as " Special
Special
Matthew", or the M source, meaning material unique to Matthew; this may represent a separate source, or it may come from the author's church, or he may have composed these verses himself.[15] The author also had the Greek scriptures at his disposal, both as book-scrolls (Greek translations of Isaiah, the Psalms
Psalms
etc.) and in the form of "testimony collections" (collections of excerpts), and, if Papias is correct, probably oral stories of his community.[18] These sources were predominantly in Greek,[19] but mostly not from any known version of the Septuagint;[20] although a few scholars hold that some of them may have been Greek translations of older Hebrew or Aramaic sources.[21][22] The tradition that the author was Matthew the Apostle
Matthew the Apostle
begins with Papias of Hierapolis (c. AD 100–140), an early bishop and Apostolic Father. Setting and date[edit] The majority view among scholars is that Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century.[23][Notes 1] This makes it a work of the second generation of Christians, for whom the defining event was the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple by the Romans in AD 70 in the course of the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
(AD 66–73); from this point on, what had begun with Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth as a Jewish messianic movement became an increasingly Gentile phenomenon evolving in time into a separate religion.[24] The Christian community to which Matthew belonged, like many 1st-century Christians, was still part of the larger Jewish community: hence the designation Jewish Christian
Jewish Christian
to describe them.[25] The relationship of Matthew to this wider world of Judaism remains a subject of study and contention, the principal question being to what extent, if any, Matthew's community had cut itself off from its Jewish roots.[26] Certainly there was conflict between Matthew's group and other Jewish groups, and it is generally agreed that the root of the conflict was the Matthew community's belief in Jesus
Jesus
as the Messiah
Messiah
and authoritative interpreter of the law, as one risen from the dead and uniquely endowed with divine authority.[27] The author of Matthew wrote for a community of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians located probably in Syria (Antioch, the largest city in Roman Syria and the third-largest in the empire, is often mentioned).[28] Unlike Mark, Matthew never bothers to explain Jewish customs, since his intended audience was a Jewish one; unlike Luke, who traces Jesus' ancestry back to Adam, father of the human race, he traces it only to Abraham, father of the Jews; of his three presumed sources only "M", the material from his own community, refers to a "church" (ecclesia), an organised group with rules for keeping order; and the content of "M" suggests that this community was strict in keeping the Jewish law, holding that they must exceed the scribes and the Pharisees
Pharisees
in "righteousness" (adherence to Jewish law).[29] Writing from within a Jewish-Christian community growing increasingly distant from other Jews and becoming increasingly Gentile in its membership and outlook, Matthew put down in his gospel his vision "of an assembly or church in which both Jew
Jew
and Gentile would flourish together".[30] Structure and content[edit]

Detailed content of Matthew

1. Birth Stories

Genealogy (1:1–17)

Nativity (1:18–25)

Biblical Magi
Biblical Magi
(2:1–12)

Flight into Egypt
Flight into Egypt
(2:13–20)

Jesus
Jesus
in Nazareth (2:21–23)

2. Baptism and early ministry

John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(3:1–12)

Baptism of Jesus
Jesus
(3:13–17)

Temptation of Jesus
Jesus
(4:1–11)

Capernaum
Capernaum
(4:12–17)

First disciples of Jesus
Jesus
(4:18–22)

Galilee
Galilee
preaching tour (4:23–25)

3. Sermon on the Mount
Sermon on the Mount
(5–7)

4. Healing and miracles

Healing many (8:1–17)

Foxes have holes (8:18–20)

Let the dead bury the dead (8:21–22)

Calming the storm
Calming the storm
(8:23–27)

Gadarene demoniacs (8:28–34)

Healing a paralytic (9:1–8)

Calling of Matthew
Calling of Matthew
(9:9–13)

On fasting (9:14–15)

New Wine into Old Wineskins
New Wine into Old Wineskins
(9:16–17)

Daughter of Jairus
Daughter of Jairus
(9:18–26)

Two blind men (9:27–31)

Exorcising a mute (9:32–34)

Good crop but few harvesters (9:35–38)

5. Little Commission (10:1–11:1)

6. Responses to Jesus

Messengers from John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(11:2–19)

Cursing Chorazin, Bethsaida, and Capernaum
Capernaum
(11:20–24)

Praising the Father (11:25–30)

Lord of the Sabbath
Lord of the Sabbath
(12:1–8)

Man with withered hand (12:9–14)

Chosen servant (12:15–21)

Blind-mute man (12:22–28)

Strong man (12:29)

Those not with me are against me (12:30)

Unforgivable sin (12:31–32)

The Tree and its Fruits (12:33–37)

Request for a sign (12:38–42)

Return of the unclean spirit (12:43–45)

Jesus' true relatives
Jesus' true relatives
(12:46–50)

Parabolic Discourse (13:1–52)

7. Conflicts, rejections, and conferences with disciples

Hometown rejection (13:53–58)

Death of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
(14:1–12)

Feeding the 5000 (14:13–21)

Walking on water (14:22–33)

Fringe of his cloak heals (14:34–36)

Discourse on Defilement
Discourse on Defilement
(15:1–20)

Canaanite woman's daughter (15:21–28)

Healing on a mountain (15:29–31)

Feeding the 4000 (15:32–39)

Sign of Jonah (16:1–4)

Beware of yeast (16:5–12)

Peter's confession
Peter's confession
(16:13–20)

Jesus
Jesus
predicts his death (16:21–28,17:22–23,20:17–19)

Transfiguration (17:1–13)

Possessed boy (17:14–21)

Coin in the fish's mouth
Coin in the fish's mouth
(17:24–27)

8. Life in the Christian community

The Little Children
The Little Children
(18:1–7)

If thy hand offend thee (18:8–9)

The Lost Sheep
The Lost Sheep
(18:10–14)

Binding and loosing (18:15–22)

Unmerciful Servant
Unmerciful Servant
(18:23–35)

9. Journey to Jerusalem

Entering Judea
Judea
(19:1–2)

Divorce (19:3–9)

Celibacy (19:10–12)

Little Children Blessed (19:13–15)

Jesus
Jesus
and the rich young man (19:16–30)

Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard
Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard
(20:1–16)

Son of man came to serve
Son of man came to serve
(20:20–28)

Blind near Jericho (20:29–34)

10. Jerusalem, cleansing of the temple, debates

Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
Triumphal entry into Jerusalem
(21:1–11)

Temple incident (21:12–17)

Cursing the fig tree
Cursing the fig tree
(21:18–22)

Authority questioned (21:23–27)

The Two Sons, The Wicked Husbandman, Parable of the Wedding Feast (21:28–22:14)

Render unto Caesar... (22:15–22)

Resurrection of the Dead
Resurrection of the Dead
(22:23–33)

Great Commandment
Great Commandment
(22:34–40)

Is the Messiah
Messiah
the son of David? (22:41–46)

11. Woes of the Pharisees
Woes of the Pharisees
(23:1–39)

12. Judgment day

Little Apocalypse
Apocalypse
(24)

Parables of the Ten Virgins, Talents (25:1–30)

Judgment of the Nations (25:31–46)

13. Trial, crucifixion, resurrection

Plot to kill Jesus
Jesus
(26:1–5)

Anointing of Jesus
Jesus
(26:6–13)

Bargain of Judas
Bargain of Judas
(26:14-16)

Last Supper
Last Supper
(26:17–30)

Denial of Peter
Denial of Peter
(26:31–35,69–75)

Agony in the Garden
Agony in the Garden
(26:36-46)

Kiss of Judas
Kiss of Judas
(26:47-49)

Arrest (26:50–56)

Before the High Priest (26:57–68)

Pilate's court
Pilate's court
(27:1–2,11–26)

Death of Judas (27:3-10)

Soldiers mock Jesus
Jesus
(27:27–31)

Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene
(27:32)

Crucifixion
Crucifixion
(27:33–56)

Entombment (27:57–61)

Guarding the tomb (27:62–66,28:11–15)

Empty tomb
Empty tomb
(28:1–6)

Appearance to the women (28:7–10)

Great Commission
Great Commission
(28:16–20)

This box:

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Beginning of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew in Minuscule 447

The Chi Rho monogram
Chi Rho monogram
from the Book of Kells
Book of Kells
is the most lavish such monogram

Matthew, alone among the gospels, alternates five blocks of narrative with five of discourse, marking each off with the phrase "When Jesus had finished..."[31] (see Five Discourses of Matthew). Some scholars see in this a deliberate plan to create a parallel to the first five books of the Old Testament; others see a three-part structure based around the idea of Jesus
Jesus
as Messiah; or a set of weekly readings spread out over the year; or no plan at all.[32] Davies and Allison, in their widely used commentary, draw attention to the use of "triads" (the gospel groups things in threes),[33] and R. T. France, in another influential commentary, notes the geographic movement from Galilee
Galilee
to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and back, with the post-resurrection appearances in Galilee as the culmination of the whole story.[34] Prologue: genealogy, Nativity and infancy[edit] Main articles: Genealogy of Jesus
Jesus
and Nativity of Jesus The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew begins with the words "The Book
Book
of Genealogy [in Greek, "Genesis"] of Jesus
Jesus
Christ", deliberately echoing the words of Genesis 2:4 in the Old Testament
Old Testament
in Greek.[Notes 2] The genealogy tells of Jesus' descent from Abraham
Abraham
and King David
King David
and the miraculous events surrounding his virgin birth,[Notes 3] and the infancy narrative tells of the massacre of the innocents, the flight into Egypt, and eventual journey to Nazareth. First narrative and discourse[edit] Main articles: Baptism of Jesus
Jesus
and Sermon on the Mount The first narrative section begins. John baptizes Jesus, and the Holy Spirit descends upon him. Jesus
Jesus
prays and meditates in the wilderness for forty days, and is tempted by Satan. His early ministry by word and deed in Galilee
Galilee
meets with much success, and leads to the Sermon on the Mount, the first of the discourses. The sermon presents the ethics of the kingdom of God, introduced by the Beatitudes
Beatitudes
("Blessed are..."). It concludes with a reminder that the response to the kingdom will have eternal consequences, and the crowd's amazed response leads into the next narrative block.[35] Second narrative and discourse[edit] From the authoritative words of Jesus
Jesus
the gospel turns to three sets of three miracles interwoven with two sets of two discipleship stories (the second narrative), followed by a discourse on mission and suffering.[36] Jesus
Jesus
commissions the Twelve Disciples
Twelve Disciples
and sends them to preach to the Jews, perform miracles, and prophesy the imminent coming of the Kingdom, commanding them to travel lightly, without staff or sandals.[37] Third narrative and discourse[edit] Opposition to Jesus
Jesus
comes to a head with accusations that his deeds are done through the power of Satan; Jesus
Jesus
in turn accuses his opponents of blaspheming the Holy Spirit. The discourse is a set of parables emphasising the sovereignty of God, and concluding with a challenge to the disciples to understand the teachings as scribes of the kingdom of heaven.[38] (Matthew avoids using the holy word God in the expression "Kingdom of God"; instead he prefers the term "Kingdom of Heaven", reflecting the Jewish tradition of not speaking the name of God).[39] Fourth narrative and discourse[edit] Main article: Confession of Peter The fourth narrative section reveals that the increasing opposition to Jesus
Jesus
will result in his crucifixion in Jerusalem, and that his disciples must therefore prepare for his absence.[40] The instructions for the post-crucifixion church emphasize responsibility and humility. (This section contains Matthew 16:13–19, in which Simon, newly renamed Peter, (πέτρος, petros, meaning "stone"), calls Jesus "the Christ, the son of the living God", and Jesus
Jesus
states that on this "bedrock" (πέτρα, petra) he will build his church: this passage forms the foundation for the papacy's claim of authority). Fifth narrative and discourse[edit] Main article: Second Coming Jesus
Jesus
travels toward Jerusalem, and the opposition intensifies: he is tested by Pharisees
Pharisees
as soon as he begins to move towards the city, and when he arrives he is soon in conflict with the Temple's traders and religious leaders. He teaches in the Temple, debating with the chief priests and religious leaders and speaking in parables about the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
and the failings of the chief priests and the Pharisees. The Herodian caucus also become involved in a scheme to entangle Jesus
Jesus
(Matthew 22:15–16), but Jesus' careful response to their enquiry, "Render therefore to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s" (Matthew 22:21), leaves them marveling at his words (Matthew 22:22). The disciples ask about the future, and in his final discourse (the Olivet Discourse) Jesus
Jesus
speaks of the coming end.[41] There will be false Messiahs, earthquakes, and persecutions, the sun, moon, and stars will fail, but "this generation" will not pass away before all the prophecies are fulfilled.[37] The disciples must steel themselves for ministry to all the nations. At the end of the discourse, Matthew notes that Jesus
Jesus
has finished all his words, and attention turns to the crucifixion.[41] Conclusion: Passion, Resurrection and Great Commission[edit] The events of Jesus' last week occupy a third of the content of all four gospels.[42] Jesus
Jesus
enters Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in triumph and drives the money changers from the temple, holds a last supper, prays to be spared the coming agony (but concludes "if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done"), and is betrayed. He is tried by the Jewish leaders (the Sanhedrin) and before Pontius Pilate, and Pilate washes his hands to indicate that he does not assume responsibility. Jesus
Jesus
is crucified as king of the Jews, mocked by all. On his death there is an earthquake, the veil of the Temple is rent, and saints rise from their tombs. Mary Magdalene
Mary Magdalene
and another Mary discover the empty tomb, guarded by an angel, and Jesus
Jesus
himself tells them to tell the disciples to meet him in Galilee. After the resurrection the remaining disciples return to Galilee, "to the mountain that Jesus
Jesus
had appointed", where he comes to them and tells them that he has been given "all authority in heaven and on Earth." He gives the Great Commission: "Therefore go and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you". Jesus
Jesus
will be with them "to the very end of the age".[43] Theology[edit]

Woodcut from Anton Koberger's Bible
Bible
(Nuremberg, 1483): The angelically inspired Saint Matthew musters the Old Testament
Old Testament
figures, led by Abraham
Abraham
and David

Christology[edit] Christology
Christology
is the theological doctrine of Christ, "the affirmations and definitions of Christ's humanity and deity".[44] There is a variety of Christologies in the New Testament, albeit with a single centre— Jesus
Jesus
is the figure in whom God has acted for mankind's salvation.[45] Matthew has taken over his key Christological texts from Mark, but sometimes he has changed the stories he found in Mark, giving evidence of his own concerns.[46] The title Son of David
David
identifies Jesus
Jesus
as the healing and miracle-working Messiah
Messiah
of Israel (it is used exclusively in relation to miracles), and the Jewish messiah is sent to Israel alone.[8] As Son of Man
Son of Man
he will return to judge the world, a fact his disciples recognise but of which his enemies are unaware.[9] As Son of God
Son of God
he is named Immanuel
Immanuel
(God with us) (Matthew 1:23), God revealing himself through his son, and Jesus
Jesus
proving his sonship through his obedience and example.[10] Relationship with the Jews[edit] Matthew's prime concern was that the Jewish tradition should not be lost in a church that was increasingly becoming gentile.[47] This concern lies behind the frequent citations of Jewish scripture, the evocation of Jesus
Jesus
as the new Moses along with other events from Jewish history, and the concern to present Jesus
Jesus
as fulfilling, not destroying, the Law.[48] Matthew must have been aware of the tendency to distort Paul's teaching of the law no longer having power over the New Testament
New Testament
Christian into antinomianism, and addressed Christ's fulfilling of what the Israelites
Israelites
expected from the "Law and the Prophets" in an eschatological sense, in that he was all that the Old Testament had predicted in the Messiah. [49] The gospel
The gospel
has been interpreted as reflecting the struggles and conflicts between the evangelist's community and the other Jews, particularly with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees.[11] Prior to the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
the Jews are called Israelites, the honorific title of God's chosen people; after it, they are called "Ioudaioi", Jews, a sign that through their rejection of the Christ the "Kingdom of Heaven" has been taken away from them and given instead to the church.[12] Comparison with other writings[edit] Christological development[edit] The divine nature of Jesus
Jesus
was a major issue for the community of Matthew, the crucial element marking them from their Jewish neighbors. Early understandings of this nature grew as the gospels were being written. Before the gospels, that understanding was focused on the revelation of Jesus
Jesus
as God in his resurrection, but the gospels reflect a broadened focus extended backwards in time.[7] The gospel
The gospel
of Mark recounts prior revelations in Jesus' lifetime on earth, at his baptism and transfiguration. Matthew and Luke go back further still, showing Jesus
Jesus
as the Son of God
Son of God
from his birth. Matthew more than all the other gospels identifies how his coming to earth was the fulfillment of many Old Testament
Old Testament
prophecies. Finally John calls God the Word (Jesus) pre-existent before creation, and thus before all time.[citation needed] Matthew is a creative reinterpretation of Mark,[50] stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts,[51] and making subtle changes in order to stress his divine nature: for example, Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb becomes "a radiant angel" in Matthew.[52] The miracle stories in Mark do not demonstrate the divinity of Jesus, but rather confirm his status as an emissary of God (which was Mark's understanding of the Messiah).[53] Chronology[edit] There is a broad disagreement over chronology between Matthew, Mark and Luke on one hand and John on the other: all four agree that Jesus' public ministry began with an encounter with John the Baptist, but Matthew, Mark and Luke follow this with an account of teaching and healing in Galilee, then a trip to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
where there is an incident in the Temple, climaxing with the crucifixion on the day of the Passover
Passover
holiday. John, by contrast, puts the Temple incident very early in Jesus' ministry, has several trips to Jerusalem, and puts the crucifixion immediately before the Passover
Passover
holiday, on the day when the lambs for the Passover
Passover
meal were being sacrificed in Temple.[54] See also[edit]

Authorship of the Bible Gospel
Gospel
of the Ebionites Gospel
Gospel
of the Hebrews Gospel
Gospel
of the Nazarenes Hebrew Gospel
Gospel
hypothesis The Visual Bible: Matthew Il vangelo secondo Matteo, a film by Pier Paolo Pasolini Jewish–Christian gospels List of omitted Bible
Bible
verses Sermon on the Mount St Matthew Passion
St Matthew Passion
– an oratorio by J. S. Bach Textual variants in the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ This view is based on three arguments: (a) the setting reflects the final separation of Church and Synagogue, about 85 AD; (b) it reflects the capture of Rome and destruction of the Temple by the Romans in 70 AD; (c) it uses Mark, usually dated around 70 AD, as a source. (See R.T France (2007), "The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew", p. 18.) France himself is not convinced by the majority – see his Commentary, pp. 18–19. ^ France, p. 26 note 1, and p. 28: "The first two words of Matthew's gospel are literally "book of genesis". ^ France, p. 28 note 7: "All MSS and versions agree in making it explicit that Joseph was not Jesus' father, with the one exception of sys, which reads "Joseph, to whom was betrothed Mary the virgin, begot Jesus."

Footnotes[edit]

^ Luz 2005, pp. 249–50. ^ Duling 2010, pp. 298–99. ^ France 2007, p. 19. ^ a b Duling 2010, p. 302. ^ Duling 2010, p. 306. ^ Burkett 2002, p. 175. ^ a b Peppard 2011, p. 133. ^ a b Luz 1995, pp. 86, 111. ^ a b Luz 1995, pp. 91, 97. ^ a b Luz 1995, p. 93. ^ a b Burkett 2002, p. 182. ^ a b Strecker 2000, pp. 369–70. ^ Wallace 2011. ^ Turner 2008, pp. 6–7. ^ a b Senior 1996, p. 22. ^ Harrington 1991, pp. 5–6. ^ McMahon 2008, p. 57. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 116. ^ Nolland 2005, p. 3. ^ Duling 2010, p. 314. ^ Casey 2010, pp. 87–88. ^ Davies & Allison 1988, pp. 12–13. ^ Davies & Allison 1988, p. 128. ^ Scholtz 2009, pp. 34–35. ^ Saldarini 1994, p. 4. ^ Senior 2001, pp. 7–8, 72. ^ Senior 2001, p. 11. ^ Nolland 2005, p. 18. ^ Burkett 2002, pp. 180–81. ^ Senior 2001, p. 19. ^ Turner 2008, p. 9. ^ Davies & Allison 1988, pp. 59–61. ^ Davies & Allison 1988, pp. 62ff. ^ France 2007, pp. 2ff. ^ Turner 2008, p. 101. ^ Turner 2008, p. 226. ^ a b Harris 1985. ^ Turner 2008, p. 285. ^ Browning 2004, p. 248. ^ Turner 2008, p. 265. ^ a b Turner 2008, p. 445. ^ Turner 2008, p. 613. ^ Turner 2008, pp. 687–88. ^ Levison & Pope-Levison 2009, p. 167. ^ Fuller 2001, pp. 68–69. ^ Tuckett 2001, p. 119. ^ Davies & Allison 1997, p. 722. ^ Senior 2001, pp. 17–18. ^ France 2007, pp. 179–81, 185–86. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 117. ^ Morris 1986, p. 114. ^ Beaton 2005, p. 123. ^ Aune 1987, p. 59. ^ Levine 2001, p. 373.

Bibliography[edit] Commentaries[edit]

Allison, D.C. (2004). Matthew: A Shorter Commentary. T&T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-08249-7.  Davies, William David; Allison, Dale C. (1988). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
According to Saint Matthew. I: Introduction and Commentary on Matthew I–VII. T&T Clark Ltd. ISBN 9780567094810.  ——; —— (1999) [1991]. A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
According to Saint Matthew. II: Commentary on Matthew VIII–XVIII. T&T Clark Ltd. ISBN 9780567095459.  ——; —— (1997). A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
According to Saint Matthew. III: Commentary on Matthew XIX–XXVIII. T&T Clark Ltd. ISBN 9780567085184.  Duling, Dennis C. (2010). "The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew". In Aune, David
David
E. The Blackwell Companion to the New Testament. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0825-6.  France, R.T (2007). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew. Eerdmans. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8028-2501-8.  Harrington, Daniel J. (1991). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658031  Keener, Craig S. (1999). A commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3821-6.  Luz, Ulrich (1989). Matthew 1–7. Matthew: A Commentary. 1. Translated by Linss, Wilhelm C. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 9780806624020.  —— (2001). Matthew 8–20. Matthew: A Commentary. 2. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 9780800660345.  —— (2005). Matthew 21–28. Matthew: A Commentary. 3. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. ISBN 9780800637705.  Morris, Leon (1992). The Gospel
Gospel
according to Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-85111-338-8.  Nolland, John (2005). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-2389-2.  Saunders, Stanley P. (2009). "Matthew". In O’Day, Gail. Theological Bible
Bible
Commentary. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0664227111.  Turner, David
David
L. (2008). Matthew. Baker. ISBN 978-0-8010-2684-3. 

General works[edit]

Aune, David
David
E. (ed.) (2001). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew in current study. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-4673-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) —— (1987). The New Testament
New Testament
in its literary environment. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25018-8.  Beaton, Richard C. (2005). "How Matthew Writes". In Bockmuehl, Markus; Hagner, Donald A. The Written Gospel. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83285-4.  Browning, W.R.F (2004). Oxford Dictionary of the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860890-5.  Burkett, Delbert (2002). An introduction to the New Testament
New Testament
and the origins of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00720-7.  Casey, Maurice (2010). Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth: An Independent Historian's Account of His Life and Teaching. Continuum. ISBN 978-0-567-64517-3.  Clarke, Howard W. (2003). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew and Its Readers. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-34235-5.  Cross, Frank L.; Livingstone, Elizabeth A., eds. (2005) [1997]. "Matthew, Gospel
Gospel
acc. to St.". The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (3 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 1064. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.  Dunn, James D.G. (2003). Jesus
Jesus
Remembered. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3931-2.  Ehrman, Bart D. (1999). Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-512474-3.  —— (2009). Misquoting Jesus: The Story Behind Who Changed the Bible
Bible
and Why. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780061977022.  —— (2012). Did Jesus
Jesus
Exist?: The Historical Argument for Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-220460-8.  Fuller, Reginald H. (2001). "Biblical Theology". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Guide to Ideas & Issues of the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195149173.  Hagner, D.A. (1986). "Matthew, Gospel
Gospel
According to". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia, Vol. 3: K-P. Wm. B. Eerdmans. pp. 280–88. ISBN 978-0-8028-8163-2.  Harris, Stephen L. (1985). Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield.  Kupp, David
David
D. (1996). Matthew's Emmanuel: Divine Presence and God's People in the First Gospel. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-57007-7.  Levine, Amy-Jill (2001). "Visions of kingdoms: From Pompey to the first Jewish revolt". In Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford History of the Biblical World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-513937-2.  Levison, J.; Pope-Levison, P. (2009). "Christology". In Dyrness, William A.; Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti. Global Dictionary of Theology. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830878116.  Luz, Ulrich (2005). Studies in Matthew. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3964-0.  —— (1995). The Theology of the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43576-5.  McMahon, Christopher (2008). "Introduction to the Gospels and Acts of the Apostles". In Ruff, Jerry. Understanding the Bible: A Guide to Reading the Scriptures. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780884898528.  Morris, Leon (1986). New Testament
New Testament
Theology. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-45571-4.  Peppard, Michael (2011). The Son of God
Son of God
in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in Its Social and Political Context. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199753703.  Perkins, Pheme (1998-07-28). "The Synoptic Gospels
Synoptic Gospels
and the Acts of the Apostles: Telling the Christian Story". The Cambridge Companion to Biblical Interpretation. ISBN 0521485932. , in Kee, Howard Clark, ed. (1997). The Cambridge companion to the bible: part 3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48593-7. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Saldarini, Anthony (2003). "Matthew". Eerdmans commentary on the Bible. ISBN 0802837115. , in Dunn, James D.G.; Rogerson, John William (2003). Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-3711-0.  Saldarini, Anthony (1994). Matthew's Christian-Jewish Community. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-73421-7.  Sanford, Christopher B. (2005). Matthew: Christian Rabbi. Author House. ISBN 9781420883718.  Scholtz, Donald (2009). Jesus
Jesus
in the Gospels and Acts: Introducing the New Testament. Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884899556.  Senior, Donald (2001). "Directions in Matthean Studies". The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew in Current Study: Studies in Memory of William G. Thompson, S.J. ISBN 0802846734. , in Aune, David
David
E. (ed.) (2001). The Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew in current study. Eerdmans. ISBN 978-0-8028-4673-0. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Senior, Donald (1996). What are they saying about Matthew?. PaulistPress. ISBN 978-0-8091-3624-7.  Stanton, Graham (1993). A gospel for a new people: studies in Matthew. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-25499-5.  Strecker, Georg (2000) [1996]. Theology of the New Testament. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-0-664-22336-6.  Tuckett, Christopher Mark (2001). Christology
Christology
and the New Testament: Jesus
Jesus
and His Earliest Followers. Westminster John Knox Press.  Van de Sandt, H.W.M. (2005). "Introduction". Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu ?. ISBN 9023240774. , in Van de Sandt, H.W.M, ed. (2005). Matthew and the Didache. Royal Van Gorcum&Fortress Press. ISBN 978-90-232-4077-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Wallace, Daniel B., ed. (2011). Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament: Manuscript, Patristic, and Apocryphal Evidence. Text and canon of the New Testament. Kregel Academic. ISBN 9780825489068.  Weren, Wim (2005). "The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community". Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu ?. ISBN 9023240774. , in Van de Sandt, H.W.M, ed. (2005). Matthew and the Didache. Royal Van Gorcum&Fortress Press. ISBN 978-90-232-4077-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Biblegateway.com (opens at Matt.1:1, NIV) A textual commentary on the Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew Detailed text-critical discussion of the 300 most important variants of the Greek text (PDF, 438 pages). Early Christian Writings Gospel
Gospel
of Matthew: introductions and e-texts. Bible: Matthew public domain audiobook at LibriVox
LibriVox
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 188427863 GND: 4038001-4 SUDOC: 069913218 BNF: cb1200

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