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Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
is proposed statehood demand by the people of the hill regions of District Darjeeling
Darjeeling
demanding separate state from the Indian state of West Bengal. The demand for a separate administrative unit in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
has existed since 1907, when the Hillmen's Association of Darjeeling
Darjeeling
submitted a memorandum to Minto-Morley Reforms demanding a separate administrative setup.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration 3 2013 agitation 4 2017 agitation 5 Regional Political Parties Gorkhaland

5.1 Defunct Political Parties of Gorkhaland

6 See also 7 References

7.1 Sources

8 External links

History[edit] In the 1980s, Subhash Ghisingh raised the demand for the creation of a state called Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
within India to be carved out of the hills of Darjeeling
Darjeeling
and areas of Dooars and Siliguri
Siliguri
terai contiguous to Darjeeling. The demand took a violent turn, which led to the death of over 1,200 people. This movement culminated with the formation of Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council
Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council
(DGHC) in 1988. The DGHC administered the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hills for 23 years with some degree of autonomy.

Proposed map of Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
state in India

A new violent movement for a separate state of Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
was started in 1986 by Gorkha National Liberation Front
Gorkha National Liberation Front
(GNLF) led by Subhash Ghisingh. The agitation ultimately led to the establishment of a semiautonomous body in 1988 called the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Gorkha Hill Council (DGHC) to govern certain areas of Darjeeling
Darjeeling
district. However, in 2007, a new party called the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
(GJM) raised the demand for a separate state of Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
once again.[2] The fourth DGHC elections were due in 2004. However, the government decided not to hold elections and instead made Subhash Ghisingh the sole caretaker of the DGHC till a new Sixth Schedule tribal council was established. Resentment among the former councillors of DGHC grew rapidly. Among them, Bimal Gurung, once the trusted aide of Ghising, decided to break away from the GNLF. Riding on a mass support for Prashant Tamang, an Indian Idol
Indian Idol
contestant from Darjeeling, Bimal quickly capitalized on the public support he received for supporting Prashant, and was able to overthrow Ghisingh from the seat of power. He went on to found the Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
raising the demand a state of Gorkhaland.[3]

Torch rally in support of Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
district.

The demand for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
took a new turn with the assassination of Madan Tamang, leader of Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League. He was stabbed to death allegedly by Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
supporters on 21 May 2010, in Darjeeling, which led to a spontaneous shutdown in the three Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hill sub-divisions of Darjeeling, Kalimpong
Kalimpong
and Kurseong.[4][5] After the murder of Madan Tamang, the West Bengal government threatened action against Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, whose senior leaders are named in the FIR, meanwhile hinting discontinuation of ongoing talks over interim arrangement with the Gorkha party, saying it had "lost popular support following the assassination".[6] On 8 February 2011, three GJM activists were shot dead (one of whom succumbed to her injuries later) by the police as they tried to enter Jalpaiguri district on a padyatra led by Bimal Gurung from Gorubathan to Jaigaon. This led to violence in the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hills and an indefinite strike was called by GJM that lasted 9 days.[7] In the West Bengal
West Bengal
state assembly election, 2011 held on 18 April 2011, GJM candidates won three Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hill assembly seats, proving that the demand for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
was still strong in Darjeeling. GJM candidates Trilok Dewan won from Darjeeling
Darjeeling
constituency[8] Harka Bahadur Chhetri from Kalimpong
Kalimpong
constituency, and Rohit Sharma from Kurseong
Kurseong
constituency.[9] Wilson Champramari, an independent candidate supported by GJM, also won from Kalchini constituency in the Dooars.[10] Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration[edit] Main article: Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration The memorandum of agreement for the formation of a Gorkhaland Territorial Administration (GTA), a semi-autonomous administrative body for the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hills, was signed on 18 July 2011.[11] Earlier, during the West Bengal
West Bengal
assembly election (2011) campaign, Mamata Banerjee
Mamata Banerjee
had told that the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
is integrated part of Bengal. While Mamata implied that this would be the end of the Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
movement, Bimal Gurung reiterated that this was just another step towards statehood. Both spoke publicly at the same venue in Pintail Village near Siliguri, where the tripartite agreement was signed.[12] A bill for the creation of GTA was passed in the West Bengal Legislative Assembly on 2 September 2011.[13] The West Bengal government issued a gazette notification for the GTA Act on 14 March 2012, signalling preparations for elections for the GTA.[14] In the elections of the GTA held on 29 July 2012, GJM candidates won from 17 constituencies and the rest 28 seats unopposed.[15] After an agitation of about two years, the GJM also agreed to the setting up of another autonomous body, called Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration. Gurung is currently the chief executive of the GTA. However, over the last few months, the GJM has expressed severe dissatisfaction over the functioning of the GTA and have revived the call for the separate state of Gorkhaland.[16] On 30 July 2013, Gurung resigned from the GTA citing both interference from the West Bengal
West Bengal
government and the renewed agitation for Gorkhaland.[17] 2013 agitation[edit]

Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
supporters demonstrating in Mirik, Darjeeling.

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state from Andhra Pradesh to the INC-led central government.[18] This resulted in flaring up of demands throughout India, prominent among them were the demands for statehood for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
in West Bengal
West Bengal
and Bodoland
Bodoland
in Assam. Following a 3 days bandh,[19] GJM announced an indefinite bandh from 3 August.[20] Largely peaceful, political development took place in the background. With the West Bengal
West Bengal
government armed with Calcutta high court order declaring the bandh as illegal, the government toughened its stand by sending a total of 10 companies of paramilitary force to quell any violent protest and arresting prominent GJM leaders and workers.[21] In response GJM announced a unique form of protest 'Janta Bandh', in which with no picketing or the use of force, the people in the hills were asked to voluntarily stay inside on 13 and 14 August.[22] This proved to be a major success and an embarrassment for the government. After a marathon 'all party meeting' convened by the Gorkha Janamukti Morcha (GJM) on 16 August at Darjeeling, the pro Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
parties informally formed ' Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Joint Action Committee'.[23] 2017 agitation[edit] Between June and September 2017, there was another agitation in Darjeeling.[24] Protests first started after the West Bengal government announced on May 16 that Bengali language
Bengali language
should be a compulsory subject in all schools across the state. This was interpreted as an imposition of an alien culture by the Gorkha Janamukti Morcha (GJM) administered area where the majority of the people speak Nepali.[25] Initially, the protests were peaceful. They were stepped up around June 5–8 when the Chief Minister was visiting the regions. After initially ignoring the situation, the Government softened its tone when the protests and rallies intensified. After a cabinet meeting at Raj Bhavan in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
on June 8, the Government clarified that Bengali will be an optional subject in the hills. But the GJM leadership decided to not take this on face value, and intensified the protests further. The protesters then revived the old demand for a separate state of Gorkhaland.[25] On June 9, the Government called in the Army to control the situation.[26] There were a few clashes between the police and the agitators initially. Strikes were called on a few occasions. The situation worsened on June 15, when the police raided a GJM office and seized spade,sickle,bow,arrow,hoe,and shovel. This was followed by violent clashes between the police and the agitators. And following this, the GJM called an indefinite strike and shut down in the region.[25] There were widespread instances of violence including riots, arson, torching of vehicles, government properties and houses. In one of these protests, the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Himalayan Railway was torched by the protesters.[26] Mass rallies were taken out regularly by the supporters of the Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
agitation. There have been multiple injuries of both the Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
supporters and security personnel. A total of 11 people have died in the protests till date.[27] The internet services of the region were also suspended by the government for the duration of the shutdown.[28] There were complaints of the violation of human right in the region, and an APDR (Association for the Protection of Democratic Rights) team was sent to the region to investigate the issue.[29] On July 9, the protests reach New Delhi. Supporters staged a march from Raj Ghat to Jantar Mantar.[26] This was followed by the GJM rejecting the State Government’s offer of talks. On August 29, the state Government called a meeting with the hill parties. But the meeting was fruitless and they could not arrive at a conclusion. This was followed by another round of talks where there was a consensus to end the shutdown. The supporters met the Home Minister on September 19. This was followed by the hills slowly returning to normalcy. On September 26, internet services were restored in the region. Then on September 27, GJM finally called off the strike after 104 days.[26] Even after the strike was called off, there were a few stray incidents of violence and protests in the region.[27] But the region as a whole was much calmer than before. And so on October 27, the Supreme Court directed the Centre to withdraw 7 of the 15 central armed forces deployed in the region.[30] Regional Political Parties Gorkhaland[edit]

Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
Gorkha Janmukti Morcha
(GJM) Gorkha National Liberation Front
Gorkha National Liberation Front
(GNLF) Gorkha National Liberation Front
Gorkha National Liberation Front
(C.K. Pradhan) (GNLF-P) Gorkha Rashtriya Congress Akhil Bharatiya Gorkha League / All India Gorkha League (ABGL) Bharatiya Gorkha Janashakti (BGJ) Bharatiya Gorkha Parisangh (BGP) Communist Party of Revolutionary Marxists (CPRM) Sikkim Rashtriya Mukti Morcha (SRMM) Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Rajya Nirman Morcha (GRNM) Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Sikkim Merger Forum (DSMF) Bharatiya Nepali Bir Gorkha (BNBG) Matri Bhumi Surakhsa Sangathan (MBSS) Jan Andolan Party (JAP) Tarai Gorkha Ekta Sangh (TGES) Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Movement Coordination Committee (GMCC) Gorkha Sanyukt Sangharsh Samiti (GSSS)

Defunct Political Parties of Gorkhaland[edit]

Sikkim Janashakti Party (SJP) merged with Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
in 1999

See also[edit]

Gurkha Indian Gorkha Nepalese people Gorkha Kingdom

References[edit]

^ "The Parliament is the supreme and ultimate authority of India". Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Times. 23 November 2010. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Demand for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
raised again". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 16 November 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ " Indian Idol
Indian Idol
reignites demand for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
in Darjeeling
Darjeeling
hills". Live Mint. 19 March 2008. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Gorkha leader Madan Tamang killed, Darjeeling
Darjeeling
tense". The Indian Express. 21 May 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Gorkha leader Madan Tamang hacked in public". The Times of India. 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Tamang's murder threatens to derail Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
talks". The Times of India. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "2 killed in police firing on GJM protesters". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 8 February 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "GJM wins Darjeeling
Darjeeling
constituency by record margin of votes". Hindustan Times. 14 May 2011. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "GJM wins three Assembly seats in Darjeeling". Zee News. 13 May 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "GJMM to finalise stand today". The Statesman. 13 May 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ " Darjeeling
Darjeeling
tripartite pact signed for Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Territorial Administration". The Times of India. 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ " Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
struggle may not end with Mamata's deal". First Post. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "GTA Bill passed with 54 amendments". The Times of India. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "Gorkha Territory readies for polls". The Times of India. 15 March 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.  ^ "GJM sweeps maiden GTA polls, not to give up Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
demand". Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Times/IANS. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 5 August 2012.  ^ Sailen Debnath, The Dooars in Historical Transition, ISBN 9788186860441 ^ "After Telangana, GJM ratchets up Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
demand". Yahoo News. 30 July 2013. Retrieved 3 August 2013.  ^ http://www.rediff.com/news/slide-show/slide-show-1-big-announcement-on-telangana-statehood-andhra-pradesh/20130730.htm ^ http://zeenews.india.com/news/west-bengal/telangana-effect-gjm-calls-for-bandh-in-darjeeling-hills-for-gorkhaland_865170.html ^ http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/telangana-effect-gorkha-janmukti-morcha-calls-indefinite-shutdown-in-darjeeling-399204 ^ http://isikkim.com/2013-8-gta-councillor-arrested-in-kalimpong-13/ ^ http://www.myrepublica.com/portal/index.php?action=news_details&news_id=59469 ^ "Pro Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
organizations to remain on path of Darjeeling movement under GJAC name". The Times of India. 16 August 2013.  ^ "GJM ends 104-day strike: All about Darjeeling
Darjeeling
crisis, Gorkhaland demand". hindustantimes.com/. 2017-09-27. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ a b c "Demand for Gorkhaland: How Bengali language
Bengali language
derailed peace in Darjeeling". hindustantimes.com/. 2017-06-15. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ a b c d ScoopWhoop (2017-09-27). "Here's A Timeline Of 104-Day Long Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Agitation That Ended Today". ScoopWhoop. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ a b Majumdar, Arkamoy Dutta (2017-10-05). "Gorkhaland: BJP leaders visit Darjeeling, claims credit for ending 104-day strike". livemint.com/. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ " Darjeeling
Darjeeling
unrest : GJM demands restoration of Internet services in hills". Firstpost. 2017-07-20. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ "SILIGURI APDR team to visit hills over violation of human rights The Echo of India". The Echo of India. Retrieved 2017-11-17.  ^ Rajagopal, Krishnadas (2017-10-27). "Supreme Court allows Centre to withdraw half of its forces from trouble-hit Darjeeling, Kalimpong". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 

Sources[edit]

Ed. Poddar, Prem; Prasad, Anmole (2009). Gorkhas Imagined: Indra Bahadur Rai in Translation. Mukti Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-909354-0-1.  Subba, Tanka Bahadur (1992). Ethnicity, State, and Development: A Case Study of the Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Movement in Darjeeling. Har-Anand Publications & Vikas Publishing House. ISBN 0-7069-5695-8.  Roy, Barun (2012). Gorkhas and Gorkhaland. Parbati Roy Foundation. Archived from the original on 2013-01-10.  Samanta, Amiya K. (2000). Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Movement: A Study in Ethnic Separatism. APH Publishing. ISBN 81-7648-166-1.  Lama, Mahendra P. (1996). Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Movement: Quest for an Identity. Department of Information and Cultural Affairs, Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Gorkha Hill Council.  Kumar, Braj Bihari (1998). "10. Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Imbroglio". Small States Syndrome in India. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-7022-691-0.  Chaklader, Snehamoy (2004). Sub-Regional Movement in India: With Reference to Bodoland
Bodoland
and Gorkhaland. K.P. Bagchi & Co. ISBN 81-7074-266-8.  Samdara, Ranbir (2005). "7. Silence Under Freedom: Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Hills". The Politics of Autonomy: Indian Experiences. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-3452-9.  Chadha, Vivek (2005). "16. Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Movement". In United Service Institution of India. Low Intensity Conflicts in India: An Analysis. SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-3325-5.  Kaushik, Anupma (2007). Gorkhaland
Gorkhaland
Revisited. Navjeewan Publication. ISBN 81-8268-029-8.  Why Gorkhaland. Gorkha Janmukti Morcha. 2009.  Debnath, Sailen. West Bengal
West Bengal
in Doldrums. ISBN 978-81-86860-34-2.  Debnath, Sailen. Essays on Cultural History of North Bengal. ISBN 978-81-86860-42-7.  Debnath, Sailen. The Dooars in Historical Transition. ISBN 978-81-86860-44-1. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gorkhaland.

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Darjeeling
Darjeeling
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History and government

Darjeeling
Darjeeling
district History of Sikkim History of Bengal History of Nepal British Raj Gorkha National Liberation Front Gorkhaland Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Gorkha Hill Council Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Municipality Darjeeling
Darjeeling
(Lok Sabha constituency)

Geography

Kangchenjunga Darjeeling
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Education

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Economy and Transport

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Culture

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Sadar subdivision

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Kalimpong
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I Kalimpong
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II Gorubathan

Kurseong
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subdivision

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Categories

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district Villages in Darjeeling
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Proposed states and territories of India

Proposed states

Awadh
Awadh
(Uttar Pradesh) Baghelkhand
Baghelkhand
(Uttar Pradesh/Madhya Pradesh) Bhojpur (Uttar Pradesh/Bihar) Bodoland
Bodoland
(Assam) Bundelkhand
Bundelkhand
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Chola Nadu
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Gorkhaland
(West Bengal) Harit Pradesh
Harit Pradesh
(Uttar Pradesh) Kalyana Karnataka
Kalyana Karnataka
(Karnataka) Kamtapur
Kamtapur
(West Bengal) Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir) Khandesh
Khandesh
(Maharashtra) Kodagu (Karnataka) Kongu Nadu
Kongu Nadu
(Tamil Nadu) Konkan
Konkan
(Maharashtra/Goa/Karnataka) Kosal (Odisha) Kutch
Kutch
(Gujarat) Mahakoshal
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(Tamil Nadu) Panun Kashmir
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Purvanchal
(Uttar Pradesh) Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
(Andhra Pradesh) Saurashtra (Gujarat) Seemanchal (Bihar) Tipraland
Tipraland
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Vidarbha
(Maharashtra) Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
(Madhya Pradesh) Uttarandhra
Uttarandhra
(Andhra Pradesh)

Proposed territories

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Karbi Anglong
(Assam) Ladakh
Ladakh
(Jammu and Kashmir)

Current states and

.