The Info List - Golden Rose

The Golden Rose
Golden Rose
is a gold ornament, which popes of the Catholic Church have traditionally blessed annually. It is occasionally conferred as a token of reverence or affection. Recipients have included churches and sanctuaries, royalty, military figures, and governments.


1 Significance and symbolism 2 History and development of the modern Rose

2.1 Workmanship 2.2 Value of the ornament 2.3 Origin

3 Blessing of the Rose 4 Recipients 5 Sources 6 External links

Significance and symbolism[edit]

Golden Rose
Golden Rose
of Minucchio da Siena (1330), given by Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
to Rudolph III of Nidau, Earl of Neuchâtel

The rose is blessed on the fourth Sunday of Lent, Lætare Sunday
Lætare Sunday
(also known as Rose Sunday), when rose-coloured vestments and draperies substitute for the penitential purple, symbolizing hope and joy in the midst of Lenten solemnity. Throughout most of Lent, Catholics pray, fast, perform penance, and meditate upon the malice of sin and its negative effects; but Rose Sunday is an opportunity to look beyond Christ's death at Calvary and forward to His joyous, glorious Resurrection. The beautiful Golden Rose
Golden Rose
symbolizes the Risen Christ of glorious majesty. (The Messiah is hailed "the flower of the field and the lily of the valleys" in the Bible.)[1] The rose's fragrance, according to Pope Leo XIII, "shows the sweet odor of Christ which should be widely diffused by His faithful followers" (Acta, vol. VI, 104), and the thorns and red tint of the petals refer to His bloody Passion. Many popes, on the occasion of conferring the Rose, have in sermons and letters explained its mystical significance. Innocent III said: "As Lætare Sunday, the day set apart for the function, represents love after hate, joy after sorrow, and fullness after hunger, so does the rose designate by its colour, odour and taste, love, joy and satiety respectively," also comparing the rose to the flower referred to in Isaiah 11:1: "There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall rise up out of his root." History and development of the modern Rose[edit] Workmanship[edit] The blossom Prior to the pontificate of Sixtus IV
Sixtus IV
(1471–84) the Golden Rose consisted of a simple and single blossom made of pure gold and slightly tinted with red. Later, to embellish the ornament while still retaining the mystical symbolism, the gold was left untinted but rubies and afterwards many precious gems were placed in the heart of the rose or on its petals. Pope Sixtus IV
Sixtus IV
substituted in place of the single rose a thorny branch with leaves and many (ten or more) roses, the largest of which sprang from the top of the branch with smaller roses clustering around it. In the center of the principal rose was a tiny cup with a perforated cover, into which the pope poured musk and balsam to bless the rose. The whole ornament was of pure gold. This 'Sixtine' design was maintained but varied as to decoration, size, weight and value. Originally it was little over three inches in height, and was easily carried in pope's left hand as he blessed the multitude with his right hand, when passing in procession from the church of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme (in Rome) to the Lateran Palace. Afterwards, especially when a vase and large pedestal became part of the ornament, a robust cleric was required to carry it, preceding the papal cross in the procession. The rose sent to Wilhelmina Amalia of Brunswick, wife of Joseph I, afterwards emperor, by Innocent XI, weighed twenty pounds and was almost eighteen inches high. It was in bouquet form, with three twisting branches that came together after many windings at the top of the stem, supporting a large rose and cluster of leaves. Vase and pedestal The vase and the pedestal supporting it have varied as to material, weight, and form. In the beginning they were made of gold; but afterward of silver heavily gilt with gold. The pedestal can be either triangular, quadrangular, or octangular, and is richly ornamented with various decorations and bas-reliefs. In addition to the customary inscription, the coat of arms of the pope who had the ornament made, and that of he who blessed and conferred it, are engraved on the pedestal. Value of the ornament[edit]

Golden Rose
Golden Rose
from the Vatican Library.

The value of the rose varies according to the munificence of the pontiffs or the economic circumstances of the times. Baldassari (1709) says that the rose conferred about the year 1650 cost about 500 écus (scudi d'oro; 500 écus are the equivalent of about 1.7 kg of gold). The two roses sent by Pope Alexander VII
Pope Alexander VII
were valued at about 800 and 1200 écus respectively. Pope Clement IX
Pope Clement IX
sent the Queen of France one costing about 1600 écus, made of eight pounds of gold. The workmanship on this rose was exceedingly fine, for which the artificer received the equivalent of 300 écus. Innocent XI
Innocent XI
caused seven and one-half pounds of gold to be formed into a rose, which was further embellished with many sapphires, costing in all 1450 écus.[2] Rock (1909) adds that in the 19th century not a few of the roses cost 2000 écus and more.[3] Origin[edit] The custom of giving the rose supplanted the ancient practice of sending Catholic rulers the Golden Keys from St. Peter's Confessional, a custom introduced either by Pope Gregory II (716) or Pope Gregory III (740). A certain analogy exists between the rose and the keys: both are of pure gold blessed and bestowed by the pope upon illustrious Catholics, and also, both are somewhat reminiscent of a reliquary—the rose contains musk and balsam, the keys are filings from the Chair of St. Peter. The exact date of the institution of the rose is unknown. According to some it is anterior to Charlemagne
(742-814), according to others it had its origin at the end of the 12th century, but it certainly antedates the year 1050, since Pope Leo IX
Pope Leo IX
(1051) speaks of the rose as of an ancient institution at his time. The custom, started when the popes moved to Avignon, of conferring the rose upon the most deserving prince at the papal court, continued after the papacy moved back to Rome. The prince would receive the rose from the pope in a solemn ceremony and be accompanied by the College of Cardinals from the papal palace to his residence. From the beginning of the seventeenth century, the rose was sent only to queens, princesses and eminent noblemen. Emperors, kings and princes were given a blessed sword and hat as a more suitable gift. However, if a deserving Catholic emperor, king or other great prince was present in Rome on Lætare Sunday, he would be presented with the rose. The office of carrying and conferring the rose upon those living outside of Rome was given by the pope to cardinal legates a latere, nuncios, inter-nuncios and Apostolic ablegates. In 1895 a new office, called "Bearer of the Golden Rose" or "Keeper of the Golden Rose", destined for Members of Royal Houses (not hereditary), was instituted, and assigned to a secret chamberlain of sword and cloak participant, a rank within the Papal Household, but it has ceased to exist. Blessing of the Rose[edit]

Golden Rose
Golden Rose
presented to the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception by Pope Benedict XVI.

The earliest roses were not blessed; instead, blessing was introduced to render the ceremony more solemn and induce greater reverence for it on the part of the recipient. According to Cardinal Petra (Comment. in Constit. Apostolicas, III, 2, col. 1), Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV
(1245–54) was the first to bless it. However, others claim that Pope Innocent III (1198–1216), Pope Alexander III
Pope Alexander III
(1159–81) or Pope Leo IX (1049–55) was the first. It is said that Leo IX, in 1051, obliged the monastery (nuns) of Bamberg
in Franconia, to furnish a Golden Rose to be blessed and carried on Laetare Sunday
Laetare Sunday
each year (Theop. Raynaud, De rosa mediana a pontifice consecrata, IV, 413). Pope Benedict XIV attests that the ceremony of blessing originated at the end of the 14th or the beginning of the 15th century. Catalanus, papal master of ceremonies, believes that even the earliest roses were anointed with musk and balsam, but the blessing with prayers, incense, and holy water had its inception later on, sometime before pontificate of Pope Julius II (1503–13). Currently, the pope blesses the rose every year, but it is not always a new and different rose; the old one is used until it has been given away. Originally (before the papacy moved to Avignon) the rose was blessed in the Hall of Vestments
(sacristy) in the palace where the pope was; but the solemn Mass and the donation of the rose took place in the Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
Santa Croce in Gerusalemme
(a figure, according to Pope Innocent III, of the heavenly Jerusalem). The blessing was followed by a solemn Mass sung either by the pope himself or the first Cardinal Priest. In the former case the rose was placed on a veil of rose-colored silk richly embroidered with gold; in the latter the pope held the rose in his hand, except while kneeling, or during the Introit, Confiteor, Elevation
and the singing of "Laudemus in Domino". Rose in hand, the pope returned processionally to the Lateran Palace; the Prefect of Rome led his horse by the bridle and aided him in dismounting. Upon arrival, he gave the rose to the Prefect, as a recompense for these acts of respect and homage. Prior to 1305, the rose was given in Rome to no foreigner, except the Emperor on the day of his coronation. While residing at Avignon (1305–1375), the popes, unable to visit Roman churches and basilicas, performed many of their sacred functions, among them the blessing of the rose, in the private chapel of their palace (whence the origin of the Cappella Pontificia). On their return to Rome they ( Sixtus V
Sixtus V
excepted) retained this custom. The blessing of the rose now takes place in the Hall of Vestments (camera dei parimenti), and the solemn Mass in the papal chapel. The rose is placed on a table with lighted candles, and the pope, vested in alb and rose-colored stole and cope with precious mitre on his head, begins the ceremony with the usual versicles and the following poetical prayer:

"O God! by Whose word and power all things have been created, by Whose will all things are directed, we humbly beseech Thy Majesty, Who art the joy and gladness of all the faithful, that Thou wouldst deign in Thy fatherly love to bless and sanctify this rose, most delightful in odour and appearance, which we this day carry in sign of spiritual joy, in order that the people consecrated by Thee and delivered from the yoke of Babylonian slavery through the favour of Thine only-begotten Son, Who is the glory and exultation of the people of Israel and of that Jerusalem which is our Heavenly mother, may with sincere hearts show forth their joy. Wherefore, O Lord, on this day, when the Church exults in Thy name and manifests her joy by this sign [the rose], confer upon us through her true and perfect joy and accepting her devotion of today; do Thou remit sin, strengthen faith, increase piety, protect her in Thy mercy, drive away all things adverse to her and make her ways safe and prosperous, so that Thy Church, as the fruit of good works, may unite in giving forth the perfume of the ointment of that flower sprung from the root of Jesse and which is the mystical flower of the field and lily of the valleys, and remain happy without end in eternal glory together with all the saints."

The prayer finished, the pope puts incense (handed by the cardinal-deacon) into the censer and incenses the balsam and then the musk, and afterwards puts the balsam and powdered musk into the tiny cup in the heart of the principal rose. He then incenses the rose and sprinkles it with holy water. It is then given to the youngest cleric of the Camera, who carries it in front of the pope to the chapel, where it is placed on the altar at the foot of the cross upon a richly embroidered silk veil, where it remains during the Mass sung by the first cardinal-priest. After the Mass, the rose is carried in procession before the pope to the sacristy, where it is carefully put away in a place set apart for it, until bestowed upon some worthy personage. Recipients[edit]

Golden Rose
Golden Rose
of the Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel

Golden Roses have been awarded to people - men, women, and one married couple - as well as to states and churches. Until the sixteenth century Golden Roses were usually awarded to male sovereigns. From the sixteenth century onwards it became more common to award them to female sovereigns and to the wives of sovereigns. The last male to receive a Golden Rose
Golden Rose
was Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice, in 1759. The last female and the last sovereign to receive a Golden Rose
Golden Rose
was Grand Duchess Charlotte of Luxembourg in 1956. Among the principal churches to which the rose has been presented are St. Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
(five roses), the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (four roses),[4] and the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
(two roses).[5]

In the twentieth century Pope Pius X, Pope Benedict XV, Pope John XXIII, and Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I
made no awards of the Golden Rose. Pope Pius XI
Pope Pius XI
revived the practice which was continued by Pope Pius XII. Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI
(1963–1978) made five awards Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
(1978–2005) made nine awards Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI
(2005–2013) made eighteen awards Pope Francis
Pope Francis
has made four awards of the Golden Rose
Golden Rose
during his reign (in November 2013, July 2016, May and October 2017)

Since Pope Paul VI, all Golden Roses have been awarded to churches; all of Pope Benedict XVI's awards were to Marian shrines.

Year Recipient Pope Type of recipient Geographical area of recipient Notes

1096 Fulk IV, Count of Anjou Pope Urban II man France [6]

1148 Alfonso VII, King of León and Castile Pope Eugene III man Spain

1163 Louis VII, King of France Pope Alexander III man France

1182 William I, King of Scots Pope Lucius III man Scotland

1227 Raimondo Orsini Pope Gregory IX man Italy [7]

1244 Church of Saint Juste, Lyon Pope Innocent IV church France [7]

1304 Church of San Domenico, Perugia Pope Benedict XI church Italy [7]

1348 Louis I, King of Naples Pope Clement VI man Italy

1348 Louis I, King of Hungary Pope Clement VI man Hungary [7]

1350 Niccolò Acciaioli, Grand Seneschal of Naples Pope Innocent VI man Italy [7]

1362-70 Valdemar IV of Denmark Pope Urban V man Denmark [7]

1368 Joanna I, Queen of Naples Pope Urban V woman Italy [7]

1369 St. Peter's Basilica Pope Urban V church Italy [7]

1389 Raimondo Del Balzo Orsini Pope Urban V man Italy [7]

1391 Alberto d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Pope Boniface IX man Italy [7]

1393 Astorre I Manfredi da Bagnacavallo Pope Boniface IX man Italy [7]

1398 Ugolino III Trinci, Lord of Foligno Pope Boniface IX man Italy [7]

1410 Niccolò III d'Este, Marquis of Ferrara Antipope Alexander V man Italy [8]

1411 Charles VI, King of France Antipope John XXIII man France [8]

1413 Luigi Alidosi, Lord of Imola Antipope John XXIII man Italy [8]

1415 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Antipope John XXIII man Germany [8]

1419 Republic of Florence Pope Martin V state Italy [8]

1420 Guidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino Pope Martin V man Italy [8]

1435 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor Pope Eugene IV man Germany [8]

1444 Henry VI, King of England Pope Eugene IV man England

1448 Casimir IV, King of Poland Pope Nicholas V man Poland

1452 Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Empress Eleonora Pope Nicholas V couple Germany received the day after they were crowned

1457 Charles VII, King of France Pope Callistus III man France

1477 Ludovico III Gonzaga, Marquis of Mantua Pope Sixtus IV man Italy [9]

1481 Louis XI of France Pope Sixtus IV man France [10]

1482 Eberhard I, Duke of Württemberg Pope Sixtus IV man Germany

1486 James III, King of Scotland Pope Innocent VIII man Scotland

1491 James IV, King of Scotland Pope Innocent VIII man Scotland

1493 Isabella I, Queen of Castile Pope Alexander VI woman Spain

1505 Alexander Jagiellon, King of Poland Pope Julius II man Poland

1506 Manuel I, King of Portugal Pope Julius II man Portugal

1514 Manuel I, King of Portugal Pope Leo X man Portugal Second award

1518 Frederick III, Elector of Saxony Pope Leo X man Germany

1512? Henry VIII, King of England Pope Julius II man England

1521? Henry VIII, King of England Pope Leo X man England

1524 Henry VIII, King of England Pope Clement VII man England

1537 Federico II Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua Pope Paul III man Italy [11] because of his kindness towards the Fathers of the Council of Trent

1543 Ercole II d'Este, Duke of Ferrara Pope Paul III man Italy [12]

1548 Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France Pope Paul III woman France [12]

1550 João Manuel, Prince of Portugal Pope Julius III man Portugal [12]

1551 Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Pope Julius III church Italy [12]

1555 Mary I, Queen of England Pope Paul IV woman England [12]

1557 María Enríquez de Toledo y Guzmán, Duchess of Alba Pope Paul IV woman Spain [12] wife of Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba

1560 Mary, Queen of Scots Pope Pius IV woman Scotland

1561 Anne, Queen of Bohemia Pope Pius IV woman Bohemia [12]

1564 Republic of Lucca Pope Pius IV state Italy [12]

1572 Charles IX, King of France Pope Gregory XIII man France given in appreciation of the King's role in enabling St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

1574 March 24 Don John of Austria Pope Gregory XIII man Spain given in the church of St. Clara, Naples, by the Pope's Chamberlain, "in token of his [the Pope's] benevolence and paternal love."[13]

1592 Henry IV, King of France and Navarre Pope Clement VIII man France

1597 Morosina Morosini Pope Clement VIII woman Venice given at the Ceremony
of her Coronation as Dogaressa of Venice

1598 Margaret, Queen of Spain Pope Clement VIII woman Spain received on the day she was married by proxy to Philip III, King of Spain

1607 Santa Maria sopra Minerva Pope Paul V church Italy [14]

1610 Sancta Sanctorum Pope Paul V church Italy [14]

1625 Henrietta Maria, Queen of England and Scotland Pope Urban VIII woman England and Scotland [14] received at Amiens

1626/7 Ferdinand II, Grand Duke of Tuscany Pope Urban VIII man Italy [14]

1628 Maddalena, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany Pope Urban VIII woman Italy [14]

1630 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Pope Urban VIII woman Germany [14] later Empress Consort

1631 Taddeo Barberini, Prefect of Rome Pope Urban VIII man Italy [14] he was the pope's nephew

1634 St. Peter's Basilica Pope Urban VIII church Italy [14]

1635 Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria Pope Urban VIII woman Germany [15]

1649 Mariana, Queen of Spain Pope Innocent X woman Spain [16]

1651? Marie Louise, Queen of Poland Pope Innocent X woman Poland [16]

1654 Lucrezia, Duchess of Modena Pope Innocent X woman Italy [16]

1658 Siena Cathedral Pope Alexander VII church Italy [16] cathedral of the pope's hometown

1668 Maria Theresa, Queen of France Pope Alexander VII woman France for her infant son, the Dauphin, for whom the pope was godfather

1672 Elenor, Queen of Poland Pope Clement X woman Poland

1684 Marie Casimire Louise, Queen of Poland Pope Innocent XI woman Poland

1699 Wilhelmina Amalia, Empress of Holy Roman Empire Pope Innocent XII woman Germany

1701 Maria Luisa, Queen of Spain Pope Clement XI woman Spain

1726 Violante Beatrice, Grand Princess of Tuscany Pope Benedict XIII woman Italy [17]

1736 Maria Josepha, Queen of Poland Pope Clement XII woman Poland [18]

1759 Francesco Loredan, Doge of Venice Pope Clement XIII man Italy

1776 Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen Pope Pius VI woman Austria

1784 Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma Pope Pius VI woman Italy

1790 Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples Pope Pius VI woman Italy

1819 Caroline Augusta, Empress of Austria Pope Leo XII woman Austria

1825 Maria Theresa, Queen Dowager of Sardinia Pope Leo XII woman Italy

1830 Cathedral of Cingoli Pope Pius VIII church Italy [19] cathedral of the pope's hometown

1832 Maria Anna, Queen of Hungary Pope Gregory XVI woman Austria [19] later Empress Consort of Austria

1833 St Mark's Basilica Pope Gregory XVI church Italy [19]

1842 Maria II, Queen of Portugal Pope Gregory XVI woman Portugal

1849 Princess Maria Pia of Savoy Pope Pius IX woman Italy given by her godfather on the day of her baptism; later Queen Consort of Portugal

1856 Eugenie, Empress of the French Pope Pius IX woman France

1861 Maria Sophie, Queen of the Two Sicilies Pope Pius IX woman Italy

1868 Elisabeth, Empress of Austria Pope Pius IX woman Austria

1868 Isabella II, Queen of Spain Pope Pius IX woman Spain

1870 Sant'Antonio dei Portoghesi Pope Pius IX church Italy [20]

1877 Sep. Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes Pope Pius IX shrine France [21]

1886 Maria Christina, Queen Dowager of Spain Pope Leo XIII woman Spain

1888 Isabel, Princess Imperial of Brazil Pope Leo XIII woman Brazil see Lei Áurea

1892 Amélie, Queen of Portugal Pope Leo XIII woman Portugal

1893 Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians Pope Leo XIII woman Belgium

1923 Victoria Eugenie, Queen of Spain Pope Pius XI woman Spain

1926 Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians Pope Pius XI woman Belgium

1930 Elena, Queen of Italy Pope Pius XI woman Italy [22]

1937 Elena, Queen of Italy Pope Pius XI woman Italy [23] in observance of her 40th wedding anniversary

1953 Se Cathedral Pope Pius XII church India [24] placed on the tomb of Saint Francis Xavier

1956 Charlotte, Grand Duchess of Luxembourg Pope Pius XII woman Luxembourg

1964 Church of the Nativity Pope Paul VI church Palestine [25]

1965 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Pope Paul VI shrine Portugal [26]

1966 March 25 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Pope Paul VI church Mexico [24]

1967 Basilica of Our Lady of Aparecida (now known as the "Old Basilica of Aparecida") Pope Paul VI church Brazil [24]

1979 June Black Madonna of Częstochowa Pope John Paul II shrine Poland [27]

1979 Sep. Knock Shrine Pope John Paul II shrine Ireland [28]

1982 June Basilica of Our Lady of Luján Pope John Paul II shrine Argentina [29][30][31][32]

1987 June Kalwaria Zebrzydowska Pope John Paul II shrine Poland [33]

1988 May 14 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Evangelization Pope John Paul II shrine Lima, Peru [34]

2000 Dec. Holy House of Loreto Pope John Paul II shrine Italy [35]

2004 Aug. 14 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Lourdes Pope John Paul II shrine France [36] Second award

2004 Oct. 17 Saint Joseph's Oratory Pope John Paul II church Montreal, Canada


2004 Dec. Sameiro Sanctuary Pope John Paul II shrine Braga, Portugal


2006 Black Madonna of Częstochowa Pope Benedict XVI shrine Poland [39] Second award

2007 May 12 Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
("New Basilica of Aparecida") Pope Benedict XVI shrine Brazil Second award to the image of Our Lady Aparecida. The first award was given to the image in 1967 when it was housed in the Old Basilica, before the construction and consecration of the new Basilica in 1980.[40]

2007 Sep. 8 Basilica of the Birth of the Virgin Mary Mariazell Pope Benedict XVI shrine Austria [41][42]

2008 Apr. 9 Shrine of Our Lady of Altötting Pope Benedict XVI shrine Altötting, Germany [43]

2008 Apr. 16 Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception Pope Benedict XVI shrine Washington D.C., USA [44]

2008 May 17 Sanctuary of Nostra Signora della Misericordia Pope Benedict XVI shrine Savona, Italy [45]

2008 May 18 Shrine of Nostra Signora della Guardia Pope Benedict XVI shrine Genoa, Italy [45]

2008 Sep. 7 Shrine of Our Lady of Bonaria Pope Benedict XVI shrine Cagliary, Italy [45]

2008 Oct. 19 Shrine of the Virgin of the Rosary of Pompei Pope Benedict XVI shrine Pompei, Italy [46] [47]

2009 Apr. 28 Shrine of Our Lady of the Cross Pope Benedict XVI shrine Aquila, Italy after the earthquake[48]

2009 May Shrine of Our Lady of Europe Pope Benedict XVI shrine Gibraltar [49][50]

2009 Nov. 22 Basilica of Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza Pope Benedict XVI shrine Jaén, Spain [45]

2010 Cathedral Basilica of Nuestra Señora del Valle Pope Benedict XVI church Argentina [32][51]

2010 Apr. 18 Shrine of Our Lady of Ta' Pinu Pope Benedict XVI shrine Malta [52]

2010 May 12 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Pope Benedict XVI shrine Portugal Second award[53] [54]

2010 Aug. 23 Sanctuary of Our Lady of the Valley Pope Benedict XVI shrine Catamarca, Argentina [55]

2010 Nov. 13 Virgen of Socorro Pope Benedict XVI shrine Valencia, Venezuela [56]

2011 May 15 Basilica of Our Lady of Scherpenheuvel Pope Benedict XVI shrine Belgium


2012 March 26 Basílica Santuario Nacional de Nuestra Señora de la Caridad Pope Benedict XVI church Cobre, Cuba [58][59]

2013 Nov. 22 Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe Pope Francis shrine Mexico

[60] Second award

2016 July 28 Black Madonna of Częstochowa Pope Francis shrine Poland [61] Third Award

2017 May 13 Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima Pope Francis shrine Portugal Third Award[62]

2017 October 7 Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida
("New Basilica of Aparecida") Pope Francis shrine Brazil Third award of the Golden Rose
Golden Rose
to the icon of Our Lady Aparecida; second award since the icon was transferred from the Old Basilica to the new Basilica. This award commemorates the 300 anniversary of the icon's appearance and of devotion to it[63].


 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton.  [9] article "Golden Rose" by PMJ Rock, 1909.

^ Song of Solomon 2:1 ^ Antonio Baldassari, La rosa d'oro, che si benedice nella quarta domenica di quaresima dal sommo pontefice (1709), 190f. ^ Rock, P.M.J., "Golden Rose" in The Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
(1909). ^ According to some sources, two of the four roses were given to the basilica proper and two to the chapel called Sancta Sanctorum. ^ http://archive.thetablet.co.uk/article/31st-january-1959/10/from-our-notebook ^ Gaetano Moroni, "Rosa d'Oro", Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica (Venezia: Tipografia Emiliana, 1852), LIX, 116. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Moroni, LIX, 125. ^ a b c d e f g Moroni, LIX, 126. ^ Treccani.it. Ludovico III Gonzaga. ^ Joseph Combet (1903). Louis XI et le Saint-Siège: 1461-1483 (in French). Paris: Hachette. p. 186.  ^ Moroni, LIX, 130-31. ^ a b c d e f g h Moroni, LIX, 131. ^ Coloma, Luis. "The Story of Don John of Austria".  ^ a b c d e f g h Moroni, LIX, 135. ^ Moroni, LIX, 135-36. ^ a b c d Moroni, LIX, 136. ^ Young, G. F.: The Medici: Volume 2, E. P. Dutton and Company, 1920, p. 488 ^ Rożek, M.: The Royal Cathedral at Wawel, Interpress, 1981, p. 158 and 165 ^ a b c Moroni, LIX, 144. ^ Lodovico Antonio Muratori, Annali d'Italia dal principio dell'era volgare sino all'anno 1750 (Firenze: Leonardo Marchini, 1827), XXXIII, 33. ^ [1] ^ "Pontiff Will Bless Golden Rose
Golden Rose
Today", New York Times (March 30, 1930): 25. ^ "Pope Blesses Gift for Queen Elena", New York Times (March 8, 1937): 12. ^ a b c Bernard Berthod and Pierre Blanchard, Trésors inconnus du Vatican: cérémonial et liturgie (Paris: Editions de l'Amateur, 2001), 300. ^ "Paul VI Starts Trip to the Holy Land", New York Times (January 4, 1964): 1. ^ "Pontiff Adjourns Vatican Council and Honors Mary", New York Times (November 22, 1964): 1. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-11-14. Retrieved 2015-11-14.  ^ [2] ^ [3] ^ Papal honors Archived 2013-04-15 at Archive.is ^ Basílica Nacional Nuestra Señora de Luján ^ a b Rosa de Oro y los papas (Spanish) ^ (Polish) ^ [4] ^ http://visnews-en.blogspot.nl/2000/12/cardinal-places-golden-rose-in-marian.html ^ A Papal rose in tribute to the "Queen" of joy and sorrow" ^ "Pope honors largest shrine to St. Joseph with Golden Rose" ^ [5] ^ http://robertaconnor.blogspot.nl/2011/05/fatima-golden-rose-benedict-and-escriva.html ^ http://www.marana-tha.net/wp/?p=442 ^ (in German) ^ "Papst brachte "Goldene Rose" nach Mariazell" (in German). 2007-09-11. Retrieved 2007-09-13.  ^ http://www.catholicculture.org/news/features/index.cfm?recnum=57728 ^ http://www.nationalshrine.com/atf/cf/%257BB0534716-4524-407D-A065-B68C4BFCB4BE%257D/Facts%2520Figures%2520%2520Features%2520of%2520the%2520Basilica.pdf ^ a b c d http://popes-and-papacy.com/wordpress/the-golden-rose-more-information-directly-from-the-vatican/ ^ [6] ^ Pastoral Visit to the Pontifical Shrine of Pompeii ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2009/april/documents/hf_ben-xvi_spe_20090428_sisma-laquila_sp.html ^ http://www.ourladyofeurope.net ^ It was conferred by Cardinal Jose Saraiva Martins, Prefect Emeritus of the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Pope Benedict XVI's special envoy [7] at the celebrations of the closure of the Jubilee to mark the 700th Anniversary of the veneration of Our Lady of Europe [8]. ^ Basílica Nacional Nuestra Señora del Valle ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/angelus/2010/documents/hf_ben-xvi_reg_20100418_floriana_en.html ^ http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/fatima-shrine-receives-golden-rose ^ ZENIT - Fatima Shrine receives Golden Rose ^ http://www.zenit.org/en/articles/pope-sends-golden-rose-to-our-lady-in-argentina ^ http://m.authorstream.com/presentation/sandamichaela-2128223-golden-rose/ ^ "Pauselijke en Internationale Erkenning voor Scherpenheuvel" (in Dutch). Kerknet. 15 May 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2011.  ^ http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/news/pope-to-place-golden-rose-before-patroness-of-cuba/ ^ "Pope gives Golden Rose
Golden Rose
to sanctuary of the Virgen de la Caridad de Cobre". News.va. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 27 March 2012.  ^ " Pope Francis
Pope Francis
sends golden rose to Our Lady of Guadalupe". CNA. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.  ^ "Mass in the Jasna Góra shrine on the 1050th anniversary of the baptism of Poland: leave behind all past wrongs and wounds, and build fellowship with all". press.vatican.va. Retrieved 2016-08-16.  ^ "Papa Francisco oferece a terceira Rosa de Ouro ao Santuário de Fátima". publico.pt. Retrieved 2017-05-13.  ^ http://www.a12.com/santuario/noticias/papa-francisco-concede-terceira-rosa-de-ouro-ao-santuario-nacional

External links[edit]

Catholic Encyclopedia
Catholic Encyclopedia
article "Golden Rose"

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Orders, decorations, and medals of the Holy See

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Pro Ecclesia et Pontifice Benemerenti medal Golden Rose Jerusalem Pilgrim's Cross

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Order of Saint Sylvester
and the Militia Aurata (1905) Advocates of Saint Peter (1909) Blessed sword and hat
Blessed sword and hat
(1823) Medal of Military Merit Fidei et Virtuti Pro Petri Sede Lauretan Cross (middle part of the 20th Century) Papal Lateran Cross
Papal Lateran Cross

See also

Papal Household Swiss Guard Other Catholic orders of chivaly Catholic ecclesiastical decorations

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