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The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada, which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario
Ontario
with outer boundaries stretching south from Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and north to Lake Scugog. It includes Greater Toronto, Hamilton, and the Regional Municipality of Niagara. The region is a part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The region is the most densely populated and industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,826,367 people in its core and 9,245,438 in its greater area,[1] the Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
accounts for over 21% of the population of Canada
Canada
and more than 55% of Ontario's population.[2] The core of the region starts from Niagara Falls at the eastern end of the Niagara Peninsula
Niagara Peninsula
and extends west, wrapping around the western end of Lake Ontario
Ontario
at Hamilton and then turning northeast to Toronto
Toronto
(on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario), before finally terminating at Oshawa. The Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
is also used today to describe a broader region that stretches from the area of the Trent–Severn Waterway to at least the Grand River area, including centres outside the core region (Brantford, Waterloo Region, Guelph, Barrie, and Peterborough). The extended region's area covers approximately 33,500 km2 (13,000 sq mi), out of this, 7,300 km2 (2,800 sq mi) or approximately 22% of the area is covered by the environmentally protected Greenbelt.

Contents

1 Definition 2 Demographics 3 Economy 4 Name 5 Attractions

5.1 Sports

6 Education 7 Transportation 8 Divisions

8.1 Census Metropolitan Areas

8.1.1 Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
CMAs 8.1.2 Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
CMAs

8.2 Municipalities

9 References 10 External links

Definition[edit] The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
has been recognised as a geographic region since the 1950s, but it was only on July 13, 2004 that a report from the provincial Ministry of Public Infrastructure Renewal entitled Places to Grow coined the term Greater Golden Horseshoe, extending the boundaries west to Waterloo Region, north to Barrie/Simcoe County, and northeast to the county and city of Peterborough.[3] A subsequent edition released February 16, 2005, broadened the term further, adding Brant, Haldimand and Northumberland Counties to the now quasi-administrative region. The Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
region is officially designated in Ontario
Ontario
Regulation 416/05[4] under the Places to Grow Act. The designation Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
has legal significance with respect to taxation: In April 2017, the Government of Ontario
Ontario
announced plans to impose a 15 per cent Non-Resident Speculation Tax (NRST) on non-Canadian citizens, non-permanent residents and non-Canadian corporations (with exceptions or rebates for refugees, qualifying students and certain people working in Ontario[5]) buying residential properties containing one to six units in the Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
(GGH).[6]

Demographics[edit] The population of the Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
was 7.82 million residents at the 2016 census. The region is projected to grow to 11.5 million people by 2031.[7] Economy[edit]

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (July 2012)

Main articles: Economy of Toronto
Toronto
and Economy of Hamilton, Ontario The economy of this region is very diverse. The Toronto
Toronto
Stock Exchange is the third largest in North America by market capitalization (after the New York Stock Exchange
New York Stock Exchange
and NASDAQ), and seventh largest in the world.[8] Niagara Falls has one of the world's largest per-capita tourist economies, benefiting from millions of tourists coming to see its majestic waterfalls, shop in its numerous stores, and visit its many attractions. The winemaking and fruit growing industries of the Niagara Peninsula
Niagara Peninsula
produce award-winning wines, which are beginning to attract attention around the world, in particular the ice wine for which the region is known. Cities such as Hamilton, Oshawa, Oakville, Whitby and Kitchener all contain major large-scale industrial production facilities, Hamilton being dominated by the steel industry and Oakville and Oshawa primarily in the automotive industry. Other significant automotive-production facilities also exist in Brampton, St. Catharines, Cambridge and Alliston. Hamilton and Toronto
Toronto
also have two of the largest seaports in Lake Ontario. The Welland Canal
Welland Canal
system handles tanker ship and recreational traffic through the Great Lakes. Large rail and truck distribution facilities are located in Toronto, Vaughan
Vaughan
and Brampton. Food processing is also a key ingredient in the economy. While manufacturing remains important to the economy of the region, the manufacturing sector has experienced a significant decline since 2000 as a result of unfavourable currency exchange rates, increasing energy costs, and reduced demand from the United States, which is by far the largest market for Ontario's goods. As of 2014, sectors such as information technology, health care, tourism, research and finance provide the bulk of growth. The suburban cities of Brampton, Markham and Mississauga
Mississauga
are emerging as technology hubs. Name[edit] The "horseshoe" part of the region's name is derived from the characteristic horseshoe shape of the west end of Lake Ontario
Ontario
with Cootes Paradise
Cootes Paradise
between Burlington and Hamilton roughly positioned in the centre. The "golden" part is historically attributed to the region's wealth and prosperity, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary.[9] The phrase "Golden Horseshoe" was first used by Westinghouse Electric Corporation president Herbert H. Rogge in a speech to the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce on January 12, 1954:

Hamilton in 50 years will be the forward cleat in a 'golden horseshoe' of industrial development from Oshawa
Oshawa
to the Niagara River ... 150 miles [240 km] long and 50 miles [80 km] wide ... It will run from Niagara Falls on the south to about Oshawa
Oshawa
on the north and take in numerous cities and towns already there, including Hamilton and Toronto. — Herbert H. Rogge[10]

The speech writer who actually penned the phrase was Charles Hunter MacBain, executive assistant to five Westinghouse presidents including Rogge.[11] Attractions[edit]

Aerial view of Canada's Wonderland
Canada's Wonderland
on May 2011

See also: Attractions in Toronto Toronto
Toronto
is an alpha global city, known for its performing arts and night life. Downtown
Downtown
Toronto
Toronto
is one of the largest downtowns in North America. The city is pedestrian friendly and has one of the lowest crime rates in Canada; the 45 murders committed in 2011 is the lowest for a major North American city.[12] Formerly the tallest freestanding structure on land in the world, the CN Tower
CN Tower
in Toronto
Toronto
is among the most internationally notable attractions in the Golden Horseshoe. Toronto's Yorkville is an example of a world-class shopping district in the city. The city also is home to several notable shopping malls such as Yorkdale Shopping Centre, Toronto
Toronto
Eaton Centre (which is North America's busiest shopping mall),[13] Scarborough Town Centre, and Sherway Gardens. Located in the suburbs of Toronto
Toronto
are Vaughan
Vaughan
Mills in Vaughan, Bramalea City Centre
Bramalea City Centre
in Brampton
Brampton
and Square One Shopping Centre in Mississauga, the largest suburban shopping mall in Ontario. Pacific Mall, in Markham, is the largest ethnic shopping mall in eastern Canada. Large annual cultural festivals that draw tourists and local alike include Oktoberfest
Oktoberfest
in Kitchener and the Peeks Caribbean Carnival (formerly known as Caribana) and Taste of the Danforth in Toronto. The Niagara Region has become one of the major wine-production areas in Canada. The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
contains many small towns with tourist-jammed, historic main streets, most notably the community of Niagara-on-the-Lake, located at the mouth of the Niagara River. Niagara Falls is one of the world's largest waterfalls, and attracts millions to Clifton Hill, a neighbourhood featuring hundreds of amusements, souvenir stores, restaurants and skyline-changing hotels. Casinos here are also a huge draw. The Niagara Escarpment, a world biosphere as designated by the United Nations, runs from the north at Bruce Peninsula and then east through the region cutting the Niagara Gorge at Niagara Falls. The Bruce Trail runs along the escarpment through mostly protected woodlands. The Cheltenham Badlands
Cheltenham Badlands
in Caledon is an environmentally degraded area along the Niagara Escarpment. Similar protection of some wooded areas exists on the Oak Ridges Moraine
Oak Ridges Moraine
running east–west in the north end of the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area, although development pressures continue to threaten the natural habitat. Hamilton has the historical reputation of being a blue-collar city; however, waterfront redevelopments and large-scale gentrification have been rapidly changing the perception of the city, although it retains a dominant industrial base. Barrie
Barrie
and Peterborough are situated close to scenic lakes, rivers and hills in the northern reaches of the Golden Horseshoe, where all-year around recreation contributes to the local economies, in addition to being major service centres. There are a number of theme parks in the Golden Horseshoe, all of which are seasonal. Canada's Wonderland, run by Cedar Fair
Cedar Fair
in Vaughan, 2 km (1.2 mi) north of Vaughan
Vaughan
Mills, is the largest and most attended theme park in Canada, as well as the most attended seasonal theme park in North America. Other theme parks include Wet'n'Wild Toronto
Toronto
(formerly Wild Water Kingdom) in Brampton, African Lion Safari in Flamborough (part of Hamilton, though geographically closer to Cambridge), and Marineland in Niagara Falls. Though not a theme park per se, the Exhibition Place
Exhibition Place
hosts the annual Canadian National Exhibition. Sports[edit] The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
is home to many professional sports teams, most of which are Toronto-based. These teams include:

Brampton
Brampton
Beast (ice hockey) Hamilton Tiger-Cats
Hamilton Tiger-Cats
(Canadian football) K-W United FC (soccer) Markham Thunder
Markham Thunder
(ice hockey) Oshawa
Oshawa
Generals (ice hockey) Raptors 905
Raptors 905
(basketball) Toronto
Toronto
Argonauts (Canadian football) Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays (baseball) Toronto
Toronto
FC (soccer) Toronto
Toronto
FC II (soccer) Toronto
Toronto
Furies (ice hockey) Toronto
Toronto
Lady Lynx (soccer) Toronto
Toronto
Maple Leafs (ice hockey) Toronto
Toronto
Marlies (ice hockey) Toronto
Toronto
Raptors (basketball) Toronto
Toronto
Rock (indoor lacrosse) Toronto
Toronto
Wolfpack (Rugby League)

The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
hosted the 2015 Pan American Games
2015 Pan American Games
and the 2015 Parapan American Games. Education[edit]

The University
University
of Toronto's Convocation Hall

McMaster University
McMaster University
promotes itself as the "most innovative" university in Canada.[14]

The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
is home to several universities, including the University
University
of Toronto
Toronto
and McMaster University
McMaster University
in Hamilton, which are ranked 1st and 4th in Canada, respectively, by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. Other universities in the region include Brock University, Trent University, York University, OCAD University, University
University
of Ontario
Ontario
Institute of Technology, and Ryerson University. There is also a strong integration between the universities and hospitals in the area, particularly in Toronto
Toronto
and Hamilton. Both cities have an extensive medical research core. Transportation[edit] See also: Transportation in Toronto The Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
is served by an extensive network of expressways, the backbone of which is Highway 401, one of the widest and busiest expressways in the world. Regional transit is provided by GO Transit trains and buses, and by private bus operators Greyhound and Coach Canada. Local transit is provided by municipal agencies, the largest of which is the Toronto
Toronto
Transit Commission, which operates three subway lines and one light metro line and an extensive bus and streetcar network. Toronto
Toronto
is currently the only city in the area with a rail-based local transit network. However, several cities in the region have light rail lines in the works.[15][16] These include the approved Hurontario LRT
Hurontario LRT
in Peel Region and B-Line in Hamilton. The primary airport of the region is Toronto
Toronto
Pearson International Airport (officially Lester B. Pearson International Airport), located in Mississauga, which is the busiest in Canada
Canada
and the 33rd busiest in the world, handling over 44 million passengers in 2016, and offering non-stop flights worldwide. Other regional airports of significance include John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport
John C. Munro Hamilton International Airport
located in southern Hamilton, which is a major regional freight and courier location; Buttonville Airport and Billy Bishop airport in the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area, both of which mostly serve regional business travellers but the latter being the third largest in the region for passenger volume. Within driving distance are Buffalo Niagara International Airport, near Niagara Falls, New York, in the United States. Buffalo Niagara carries the second largest passenger volume in the region, serving 5.5 million passengers in 2008. It is frequently used by Canadian passengers flying to U.S. destinations. Divisions[edit] Census Metropolitan Areas[edit] Population figures are from the 2016 census.

Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
CMAs[edit]

Toronto
Toronto
5,928,040 Hamilton 747,545 St. Catharines-Niagara 406,074 Oshawa
Oshawa
379,848

Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
CMAs[edit]

Barrie
Barrie
197,059 Kitchener-Cambridge-Waterloo 523,894 Guelph
Guelph
151,984 Brantford
Brantford
134,203 Peterborough 121,721

Municipalities[edit] See also: List of municipalities in the Greater Toronto
Toronto
Area

Census subdivision Census division

Ajax Durham Region

Aurora York Region

Brampton Peel Region

Brock Durham Region

Burlington Halton Region

Caledon Peel Region

Clarington Durham Region

East Gwillimbury York Region

Fort Erie Niagara Region

Georgina York Region

Grimsby Niagara Region

Halton Hills Halton Region

Hamilton Hamilton (single-tier)

King York Region

Lincoln Niagara Region

Markham York Region

Milton Halton Region

Mississauga Peel Region

Newmarket York Region

Niagara Falls Niagara Region

Niagara-on-the-Lake Niagara Region

Oakville Halton Region

Oshawa Durham Region

Pelham Niagara Region

Pickering Durham Region

Port Colborne Niagara Region

Richmond Hill York Region

St. Catharines Niagara Region

Scugog Durham Region

Thorold Niagara Region

Toronto Toronto
Toronto
(single-tier)

Uxbridge Durham Region

Vaughan York Region

Wainfleet Niagara Region

Welland Niagara Region

West Lincoln Niagara Region

Whitby Durham Region

Whitchurch-Stouffville York Region

References[edit]

Ontario
Ontario
portal

^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics. "Table 1.1Population and demographic factors of growth by census metropolitan area, Canada". www.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved 2018-01-30.  ^ "Portrait of the Canadian Population in 2006: Subprovincial population dynamics, Greater Golden Horseshoe". Statistics Canada, 2006 Census of Population. 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2007-03-13.  ^ "Places to Grow". Archived from the original on 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2006-09-13.  ^ Ontario
Ontario
Statutes and Regulations ^ Marr, Garry. " Ontario
Ontario
slaps 15% tax on foreign buyers, expands rent control in 16-point plan to cool housing". Financial Post. Retrieved 30 April 2017.  ^ Office of the Premier (April 20, 2017). "News Release: Making Housing More Affordable". Queen's Printer for Ontario. Retrieved 30 April 2017. introducing a 15 per cent Non-Resident Speculation Tax (NRST) on non-Canadian citizens, non-permanent residents and non-Canadian corporations buying residential properties containing one to six units in the Greater Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
(GGH).  ^ Greater Golden Horseshoe, GTA and Hamilton Population, Household and Employment Forecasts ^ 2 Ontario ^ Barber, Katherine, ed. (2005). "Golden Horseshoe". Canadian Oxford Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 9780195418163. Retrieved 11 September 2017. ORIGIN: So called with reference to the area's wealth and horseshoe-like shape.  ^ "Fast Facts from Hamilton's Past". Archived from the original on 2006-09-05. Retrieved 2007-01-08.  ^ Strada, Eric. "Looking Back: The Golden Truth". Biz Magazine. Postmedia Network. Retrieved September 13, 2017.  ^ Toronto
Toronto
26th most dangerous city in Canada: report, CTV News, March 13, 2008 ^ "Canadian Shopping Centre Study" (PDF). Retail Council of Canada. December 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.  ^ " McMaster University
McMaster University
Website". Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 2007-06-26.  ^ Outhit, Jeff (Oct 27, 2011). "Rail yard purchased for rapid transit". Waterloo Region Record. Retrieved 2012-04-08.  ^ "Hurontario/Main Street Corridor Master Plan" (PDF). MMM Group. October 2010. p. 578. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-24. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 

External links[edit]

Golden Horseshoe
Horseshoe
travel guide from Wikivoyage

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