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The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Russian: Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol
Mongol
and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire.[6] With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi.[7] After the death of Batu Khan
Batu Khan
(the founder of the Golden Horde) in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late 1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg (1312–1341), who adopted Islam. The territory of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
at its peak included most of Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
from the Urals
Urals
to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, and the territories of the Mongol
Mongol
dynasty known as the Ilkhanate.[7] The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited (1381–1395) under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
broke into smaller Tatar
Tatar
khanates which declined steadily in power. At the start of the 15th century, the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466, it was being referred to simply as the "Great Horde". Within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern vassal state of Muscovy
Muscovy
to rid itself of the " Tatar
Tatar
Yoke" at the Great stand on the Ugra river
Great stand on the Ugra river
in 1480. The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively.

Contents

1 Name 2 Mongol
Mongol
origins (1225–1241) 3 Golden Age

3.1 Early rulers under the Great Khans (1241–1259) 3.2 Civil war of the Mongols
Mongols
(1260–1280) 3.3 Dual khanship (1281–1299) 3.4 General peace (1299–1312) 3.5 Political evolution (1312–1359)

4 Decline

4.1 Great troubles (1359–1381) 4.2 A brief reunion (1381–1419) 4.3 Disintegration (1420–1480) 4.4 Fall (1480–1582)

5 Geography and society

5.1 Internal organization 5.2 Vassals and allies 5.3 A change in trade routes 5.4 Provinces

5.4.1 Vassal territories

6 Coinage 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 Reference and notes 10 Bibliography 11 Further reading 12 External links

Name Further information: Wings of the Golden Horde The name Golden Horde
Golden Horde
is said to have been inspired by the golden color of the tents the Mongols
Mongols
lived in during wartime, or an actual golden tent used by Batu Khan
Batu Khan
or by Uzbek Khan,[8] or to have been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth of the khan. But the Mongolic word for the color yellow (Sarı/Saru) also meant "center" or "central" in Old Turkic and Mongolic languages, and "horde" probably comes from the Mongolic word ordu, meaning palace, camp or headquarters, so "Golden Horde" may simply have come from a Mongolic term for "central camp".[9] In any event, it was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term "Golden Horde" (Russian: Золотая Орда) to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu (Russian: Улуса Батыя), centered on Sarai.[10][11] In contemporary Persian, Armenian and Muslim writings, and in the records of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries such as the Yuanshi and the Jami' al-tawarikh, the khanate was called the "Ulus of Jochi" ("realm of Jochi" in Mongolian), "Dasht-i-Qifchaq" (Qipchaq Steppe) or " Khanate of the Qipchaq" and "Comania" (Cumania).[12][13] The eastern or left wing (or "left hand" in official Mongolian-sponsored Persian sources) was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources (e.g. Zafar-Nameh). Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources' nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde. But Ötemish Hajji (fl. 1550), a historian of Khwarezm, called the left wing the Blue Horde, and since he was familiar with the oral traditions of the khanate empire, it seems likely that the Russian chroniclers were correct, and that the khanate itself called its left wing the Blue Horde.[14] The khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batu's home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol
Mongol
period.[15]

Mongol
Mongol
origins (1225–1241) Main articles: Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Volga
Volga
Bulgaria, Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Kievan Rus', and Mongol
Mongol
Empire At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
divided the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
amongst his four sons as appanages, but the Empire
Empire
remained united under the supreme khan. Jochi
Jochi
was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis. The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which included what is today southern Russia
Russia
and Kazakhstan, were given to Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became the ruler of the Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White Horde.[16][17] In 1235, Batu with the great general Subedei
Subedei
began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs
Bashkirs
and then moving on to Volga Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
in 1236. From there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine
Ukraine
in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans
Cumans
to retreat westward. The military campaign against the Kypchaks
Kypchaks
and Cumans
Cumans
had started under Jochi
Jochi
and Subedei
Subedei
in 1216–1218 when the Merkits
Merkits
took shelter among them. By 1239 a large portion of Cumans
Cumans
were driven out of the Crimea
Crimea
peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire.[18] The remnants of the Crimean Cumans
Cumans
survived in the Crimean mountains, and they would, in time, mix with other groups in the Crimea
Crimea
(including Greeks, Goths, and Mongols) to form the Crimean Tatar
Tatar
population. Moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus'
Mongol invasion of Rus'
and for three years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus', whilst his cousins Möngke, Kadan, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania.

Decisive Golden Horde
Golden Horde
victory in the Battle of Mohi Using the migration of the Cumans
Cumans
as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the battles of Legnica and Mohi. In 1241, however, Ögedei Khan
Ögedei Khan
died in the Mongolian homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna
Vienna
to take part in disputing the succession. The Mongol
Mongol
armies would never again travel so far west. In 1242, after retreating through Hungary, destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria,[19] Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of the Volga
Volga
River, on the site of the Khazar
Khazar
capital of Atil. Shortly before that, the younger brother of Batu and Orda, Shiban, was given his own enormous ulus east of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
along the Ob and Irtysh Rivers. While the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
was undoubtedly in general use at the court of Batu, few Mongol
Mongol
texts written in the territory of the Golden Horde have survived, perhaps because of the prevalent general illiteracy. According to Grigor'ev, yarliq, or decrees of the Khans, were written in Mongol, then translated into the Cuman language. The existence of Arabic- Mongol
Mongol
and Persian- Mongol
Mongol
dictionaries dating from the middle of the 14th century and prepared for the use of the Egyptian Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate suggests that there was a practical need for such works in the chancelleries handling correspondence with the Golden Horde. It is thus reasonable to conclude that letters received by the Mamluks – if not also written by them – must have been in Mongol.[19]

Golden Age See also: Timeline of the Golden Horde Early rulers under the Great Khans (1241–1259) When the Great Khatun Töregene invited Batu to elect the next Emperor of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in 1242, he declined to attend a kurultai, thus delaying the succession for several years. Although Batu stated he was suffering from old age and illness and politely refused the invitation, it seems that he did not support the election of Güyük Khan because Güyük and Büri, grandson of Chagatai Khan, had quarreled violently with Batu at a victory banquet during the Mongol occupation of Eastern Europe. Finally, he sent his brothers to the kurultai, and the new Emperor of the Mongols
Mongols
was elected in 1246. All the senior Rus' princes, including Yaroslav II of Vladimir, Danylo of Halych, and Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, acknowledged Batu's supremacy. However, the Mongol
Mongol
court exterminated some anti-Mongol princes, such as Michael of Chernigov, who had killed a Mongol
Mongol
envoy in 1240.

Batu Khan
Batu Khan
establishes the Golden Horde. After a short time, Güyük called Batu to pay him homage several times. Batu sent Andrey and Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
to Karakorum
Karakorum
in Mongolia in 1247 after their father's death. Güyük appointed Andrey Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal
Vladimir-Suzdal
and Alexander prince of Kiev.[20] In 1248, he demanded Batu come eastward to meet him, a move that some contemporaries regarded as a pretext for Batu's arrest. In compliance with the order, Batu approached, bringing a large army. When Güyük moved westwards, Tolui's widow and a sister of Batu's stepmother Sorghaghtani
Sorghaghtani
warned Batu that the Jochids might be his target. Güyük died on the way, in what is now Xinjiang, at about the age of forty-two. Although some modern historians believe that he died of natural causes because of deteriorating health,[21] he may have succumbed to the combined effects of alcoholism and gout, or he may have been poisoned. William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck
and a Muslim chronicler state that Batu killed the imperial envoy, and one of his brothers murdered the Great Khan Güyük, but these claims are not completely corroborated by other major sources. Güyük's widow Oghul Qaimish took over as regent, but she would be unable to keep the succession within her branch of the family.

14th-century Chinese drawing of young Batu Khan With the assistance of the Golden Horde, Möngke
Möngke
succeeded as Great Khan in 1251. Utilizing the discovery of a plot designed to remove him, Möngke
Möngke
as the new Great Khan began a purge of his opponents. Estimates of the deaths of aristocrats, officials, and Mongol commanders range from 77 to 300. Batu became the most influential person as his friendship with Möngke
Möngke
ensured the unity of the empire. Batu, Möngke, and other princely lines shared rule over the area from Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to Turkey. Batu allowed Möngke's census takers to operate freely in his realm, though his prestige as kingmaker and elder Borjigin
Borjigin
was at its height. In 1252–1259, Möngke
Möngke
conducted a census of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, including Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Armenia, Russia, Central Asia, and North China. While the census in China was completed in 1252, Novgorod
Novgorod
in the far northwest was not counted until winter 1258–59. There was an uprising in Novgorod
Novgorod
against the Mongol
Mongol
census, but Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
forced the city to submit to the census and taxation. The Grand Prince Andrey II gave umbrage to the Mongols. Batu sent a punitive expedition under Nevruy. On their approach, Andrey fled to Pskov, and thence to Sweden. The Mongols
Mongols
overran Vladimir and harshly punished the principality. The Livonian Knights
Livonian Knights
stopped their advance to Novgorod
Novgorod
and Pskov. Thanks to his friendship with Sartaq, Alexander was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir (i.e., the supreme Russian ruler) by Batu in 1252. In 1256 Andrey traveled to Sarai to ask pardon for his former infidelity and was shown mercy.

Jochi
Jochi
Mausoleum, Karagandy Region Möngke
Möngke
ordered the Jochid and Chagatayid families to join Hulagu's expedition to Iran. Berke's persuasion might have forced his brother Batu to postpone Hulagu's operation, little suspecting that it would result in eliminating the Jochid predominance there for several years. During the reign of Batu or his first two successors, the Golden Horde dispatched a large Jochid delegation to participate in Hulagu's expedition in the Middle East in 1256/57. After Batu died in 1256, his son Sartaq was appointed by Möngke. As soon as he returned from the court of the Great Khan in Mongolia, Sartaq died. After a brief reign of an infant Ulaghchi under the regency of Boragchin Khatun, Batu's younger brother Berke
Berke
was enthroned as khan of the Jochids in 1257. In 1257, Danylo repelled Mongol
Mongol
assaults led by the prince Kuremsa on Ponyzia and Volhynia and dispatched an expedition with the aim of taking Kiev. Despite initial successes, in 1259 a Mongol
Mongol
force under Boroldai entered Galicia and Volhynia and offered an ultimatum: Danylo was to destroy his fortifications or Boroldai would assault the towns. Danylo complied and pulled down the city walls. In 1259 Berke
Berke
launched savage attacks on Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland, and demanded the submission of Béla IV, the Hungarian monarch, and the French King Louis IX
Louis IX
in 1259 and 1260.[22] His assault on Prussia
Prussia
in 1259/60 inflicted heavy losses on the Teutonic Order.[23] The Lithuanians
Lithuanians
were probably tributary in the 1260s, when reports reached the Curia
Curia
that they were in league with the Mongols.[24]

Civil war of the Mongols
Mongols
(1260–1280) See also: Berke– Hulagu
Hulagu
war, Toluid Civil War, and Division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire vte Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Rus' Kalka River (1223) Voronezh River (1237) Ryazan (1237) Kolomna (1238) Moscow (1238) Vladimir (1238) Sit River (1238) Kozelsk (1238) Chernigov (1239) Batu's raid in Ruthenia (1240) Kiev (1240)

vte Mongol
Mongol
invasions of Poland1st invasion (1240–41) Sandomierz Tursko Chmielnik Tarczek Kraków Racibórz Opole Legnica Meissen 2nd invasion (1259–60)

Sandomierz Kraków 3rd invasion (1287–88)

Łagów Dunajec Stary Sacz vte Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Hungary1st invasion (1241–42) Brassó Nagyszeben Mohi Pest Esztergom Zagreb 2nd invasion (1285–86) After Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
died in 1259, the Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War
broke out between Kublai Khan
Kublai Khan
and Ariq Böke. While Hulagu
Hulagu
supported Kublai, Berke
Berke
threw his allegiance to Ariq Böke.[25] He also minted coins in Ariq Böke's name.[26] However, Berke
Berke
remained neutral militarily, and after the defeat of Ariq Böke, freely acceded to Kublai's enthronement.[27] However, some elites of the White Horde joined Ariq Böke's resistance. One of the Jochid princes who joined Hulagu's army was accused of witchcraft and sorcery against Hulagu. After receiving permission from Berke, Hulagu
Hulagu
executed him. After that two more Jochid princes died suspiciously. According to some Muslim sources, Hulagu
Hulagu
refused to share his war booty with Berke
Berke
in accordance with Genghis Khan's wish. Berke
Berke
was a devoted Muslim who had had a close relationship with the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliph
Caliph
Al-Musta'sim, who had been killed by Hulagu
Hulagu
in 1258. The Jochids believed that Hulagu's state eliminated their presence in the Transcaucasus.[28] Those events increased the anger of Berke
Berke
and the war between the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
soon broke out in 1262. In 1262 a rebellion erupted in Suzdal, killing Mongol
Mongol
darughachis and tax-collectors. Berke
Berke
planned a severe punitive expedition. But after Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
begged Berke
Berke
not to punish the Russian people and the Vladimir-Suzdal
Vladimir-Suzdal
cities agreed to pay a large indemnity, Berke relented. The increasing tension between Berke
Berke
and Hulagu
Hulagu
was a warning to the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
contingents in Hulagu's army that they had better escape. One section reached the Kipchak Steppe, another traversed Khorasan and a third body took refuge in Mamluk
Mamluk
ruled Syria
Syria
where they were well received by Sultan
Sultan
Baybars
Baybars
(1260–1277). Hulagu
Hulagu
harshly punished the rest of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
army in Iran. Berke
Berke
sought a joint attack with Baybars
Baybars
and forged an alliance with the Mamluks against Hulagu. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
dispatched Nogai to invade the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
but Hulagu forced him back in 1262. The Ilkhanids then crossed the Terek River, capturing an empty Jochid encampment, only to be routed in a surprise attack by Nogai's forces. Many of them were drowned as the ice broke on the frozen Terek River.

The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
army defeats the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
at the battle of Terek in 1262. Many of Hulagu's men drowned in the Terek River
Terek River
while withdrawing. When the former Seljuk Sultan
Sultan
Kaykaus II was arrested in the Byzantine Empire, his younger brother Kayqubad II appealed to Berke. An Egyptian envoy was also detained there. With the assistance of the Kingdom of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
(Berke's vassal), Nogai invaded the Empire
Empire
in 1264. He forced Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos
to release Kaykaus, pay tribute to the Horde, and marry one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiologina, to Nogai. Berke
Berke
gave Kaykaus Crimea
Crimea
as an appanage and had him marry a Mongol woman. Ariq Böke
Ariq Böke
had earlier placed Chagatai's grandson Alghu as Chagatayid Khan, ruling Central Asia. He took control of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara. When the Muslim elites and the Jochid retainers in Bukhara
Bukhara
declared their loyalty to Berke, Alghu smashed the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
appanages in Khorazm. Alghu insisted Hulagu
Hulagu
attack the Golden Horde; he accused Berke
Berke
of purging his family in 1252. In Bukhara, he and Hulagu slaughtered all the retainers of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and reduced their families into slavery, sparing only the Great Khan Kublai's men.[29] After Berke
Berke
gave his allegiance to Kublai, Alghu declared war on Berke, seizing Otrar
Otrar
and Khorazm. While the left bank of Khorazm
Khorazm
would eventually be retaken, Berke
Berke
had lost control over Transoxiana. In 1264 Berke
Berke
marched past Tiflis
Tiflis
to fight against Hulagu's successor Abagha, but he died en route. Batu's grandson Mengu- Timur
Timur
was nominated by Kublai and succeeded his uncle Berke.[30] However, Mengu- Timur
Timur
secretly supported the Ögedeid
Ögedeid
prince Kaidu
Kaidu
against Kublai and the Ilkhanate. After the defeat of Baraq (Chagatai Khan), a peace treaty was made among Mengu-Timur, Kaidu
Kaidu
and him in c. 1267. One-third of Transoxiana
Transoxiana
was granted to Kaidu
Kaidu
and Mengu- Timur
Timur
according to this peace treaty.[31] In 1268, when a group of princes operating in Central Asia
Central Asia
on Kublai's behalf mutinied and arrested two sons of the Qaghan (Great Khan), they sent them to Mengu-Timur. One of them, Nomoghan, favorite of Kublai, was located in the Crimea.[32] Mengu- Timur
Timur
might have struggled with Hulagu's successor Abagha
Abagha
for a brief period of time, but the Great Khan Kublai forced them to sign a peace treaty.[33] He was allowed to take his share in Persia. Independently from the Khan, Nogai expressed his desire to ally with Baybars
Baybars
in 1271. Despite the fact that he was proposing a joint attack on Iran
Iran
with the Mamluks of Egypt, Mengu- Timur
Timur
congratulated Abagha when Baraq was defeated by the Ilkhan in 1270.[34] In 1267, Mengu- Timur
Timur
issued a diploma – jarliq – to exempt Rus' clergy from any taxation and gave to the Genoese and Venice
Venice
exclusive rights to hold Caffa
Caffa
and Azov. Some of Mengu-Timur's relatives converted to Christianity at the same time and settled among the Rus' people. Even though Nogai invaded the Orthodox Christian Byzantine Empire
Empire
in 1271, the Khan sent his envoys to maintain friendly relationship with Michael VIII Palaiologos. He ordered the Grand prince of Rus to allow German merchants free travel through his lands. This gramota says:

.mw-parser-output .templatequote overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px .mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0 Mengu-Timur's word to Prince Yaroslav: give the German merchants way into your lands. From Prince Yaroslav to the people of Riga, to the great and the young, and to all: your way is clear through my lands; and who comes to fight, with them I do as I know; but for the merchant the way is clear.[35]

This decree also allowed Novgorod's merchants to travel throughout the Suzdal
Suzdal
lands without restraint.[36] Mengu Timur
Timur
honored his vow: when the Danes
Danes
and the Livonian Knights
Livonian Knights
attacked Novgorod Republic in 1269, the Khan's great basqaq (darughachi), Amraghan, and many Mongols
Mongols
assisted the Russian army assembled by the Grand duke Yaroslav. The Germans
Germans
and the Danes
Danes
were so cowed that they sent gifts to the Mongols
Mongols
and abandoned the region of Narva.[37] The Mongol
Mongol
Khan's authority extended to all Russian principalities, and in 1274–75 the census took place in all Rus' cities, including Smolensk and Vitebsk.[38]

Dual khanship (1281–1299) Tode Mongke
Tode Mongke
Khan of the Golden Horde Mengu- Timur
Timur
was succeeded in 1281 by his brother Töde Möngke, who was a Muslim. He made peace with Kublai, returned his sons to him, and acknowledged his supremacy.[39][40] Nogai and Köchü, Khan of the White Horde and son of Orda Khan, also made peace with the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and the Ilkhanate. According to Mamluk
Mamluk
historians, Töde Möngke
Möngke
sent the Mamluks a letter proposing to fight against their common enemy, the unbelieving Ilkhanate. This indicates that he might have had an interest in Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
and Georgia, which were both ruled by the Ilkhans. In the 1270s Nogai savagely raided Bulgaria[41] and Lithuania.[42] He blockaded Michael Asen II inside Drăstăr in 1279, executed the rebel emperor Ivailo
Ivailo
in 1280, and forced George Terter I to seek refuge in the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in 1292. In 1284 Saqchi came under the Mongol
Mongol
rule during the major invasion of Bulgaria, and coins were struck in the Khan's name.[43] Smilets became emperor of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
according to the wishes of Nogai Khan, who helped his allies the Byzantines. Accordingly, the reign of Smilets has been considered the height of Mongol
Mongol
overlordship in Bulgaria. When he was expelled by a local boyar c. 1295, the Mongols launched another invasion to protect their protege. Nogai compelled Serbian king Stefan Milutin
Stefan Milutin
to accept Mongol
Mongol
supremacy and received his son, Stefan Dečanski, as hostage in 1287. Under his rule, the Vlachs, Slavs, Alans, and Turco- Mongols
Mongols
lived in modern-day Moldavia. After their failed but devastating invasion of Hungary in 1285, Nogai, Talabuga, and other noyans overthrew Töde Möngke
Möngke
because he was not an active Khan surrounded by clerics and sheikhs. Talabuga
Talabuga
was elected as Khan, and Töde Möngke
Möngke
was left to live in peace. In addition to his attack on Poland in 1287, Talabuga's army made unsuccessful attempts to invade the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in 1288 and 1290.

Regions in the lower Volga
Volga
inhabited by the descendants of Nogai Khan At the same time, the influence of Nogai greatly increased in the Golden Horde. Backed by him, some Rus' princes, such as Dmitry of Pereslavl, refused to come to the court of the Khan in Sarai, while Dmitry's brother Andrey of Gorodets
Andrey of Gorodets
sought assistance from Töde Möngke. Nogai vowed to support Dmitry in his struggle for the grand ducal throne. On hearing about this, Andrey renounced his claims to Vladimir and Novgorod
Novgorod
and returned to Gorodets. In 1285 Andrey again led a Mongol
Mongol
army under the Borjigin
Borjigin
prince to Russia, but Dmitry expelled them. Under Nogai, the western part of the Horde and its vassals became de facto independent. During the punitive expedition against the Circassians, the Khan's suspicion of Nogai increased. Talabuga
Talabuga
challenged Nogai, who organized a coup and replaced him with Toqta
Toqta
in 1291. Mikhail Yaroslavich
Mikhail Yaroslavich
was summoned to appear before Nogai in Sarai, and Daniel of Moscow
Daniel of Moscow
declined to come. In 1293 Toqta
Toqta
sent a punitive expedition led by his brother, Tudaun (Dyeden in Russian chronicles), to Russia
Russia
and Belarus
Belarus
to punish those stubborn subjects. The latter sacked fourteen major cities, finally forcing Dmitry to abdicate.

The Jochid vassal princes of Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
contributed troops for invasions of Europe by Nogai Khan
Nogai Khan
and Talabuga. Nogai's daughter married a son of Kublai's niece, Kelmish, who was wife of a Qongirat
Qongirat
general of the Golden Horde. Nogai was angry with Kelmish's family because her Buddhist
Buddhist
son despised his Muslim daughter. For this reason, he demanded Toqta
Toqta
send Kelmish's husband to him. Nogai's independent actions related to Rus' princes and foreign merchants had already annoyed the Khan. The Khan thus refused and declared war on Nogai. Toqta
Toqta
was defeated in their first battle. When the legitimate Khan Toqta
Toqta
tried a second time, Nogai was killed in battle in 1299 at the Kagamlik, near the Dnieper. Toqta
Toqta
had his son stationed in Saqchi and along the Danube
Danube
as far as the Iron Gate.[44] Nogai's son Chaka, who had briefly made himself Emperor of Bulgaria, was murdered by Theodore Svetoslav
Theodore Svetoslav
on the orders of Toqta.[45] After Mengu- Timur
Timur
died, rulers of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
withdrew their support from Kaidu, the head of the House of Ögedei. Kaidu
Kaidu
tried to restore his influence in the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
by sponsoring his own candidate Kobeleg against Bayan (r. 1299–1304), Khan of the White Horde.[46] After taking military support from Toqta, Bayan asked help from the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
to organize a unified attack on the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
under the leadership of Kaidu and his number two Duwa. However, the Yuan court was unable to send quick military support.[47]

General peace (1299–1312) The division of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, c. 1300, with the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
in yellow From 1300 to 1303 a severe drought occurred in the areas surrounding the Black Sea. Toqta
Toqta
allowed the remnants of Nogai's followers to live in his lands. He demanded that the Ilkhan Ghazan
Ghazan
and his successor Oljeitu
Oljeitu
give Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
back but was refused. Then he sought assistance from Egypt
Egypt
against the Ilkhanate. Toqta
Toqta
made his man ruler in Ghazna, but he was expelled by its people. Toqta
Toqta
dispatched a peace mission to the Ilkhan Gaykhatu
Gaykhatu
in 1294, and peace was maintained mostly uninterrupted until 1318.[48] In 1304 ambassadors from the Mongol
Mongol
rulers of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Yuan announced to Toqta
Toqta
their general peace proposal. Toqta immediately accepted the supremacy of Yuan emperor Temür Öljeytü, and all yams (postal relays) and commercial networks across the Mongol khanates reopened. Toqta
Toqta
introduced the general peace among the Mongol khanates to Rus' princes at the assembly in Pereyaslavl.[49] The Yuan influence seemed to have increased in the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
as some of Toqta's coins carried 'Phags-pa script
'Phags-pa script
in addition to Mongolian script
Mongolian script
and Persian characters.[50]

The Bulgarian Empire
Bulgarian Empire
was still tributary to the Mongols
Mongols
in 1308.[51] The Khan arrested the Italian residents of Sarai and besieged Caffa
Caffa
in 1307. The cause was apparently Toqta's displeasure at the Genoese slave trade of his subjects, who were mostly sold as soldiers to Egypt.[52] The Genoese resisted for a year, but in 1308 they set fire to their city and abandoned it. Relations between the Italians and the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
remained tense until Toqta's death. The Khan was married to Mary, illegitimate daughter of the Byzantine Emperor, securing the Byzantine- Mongol
Mongol
alliance after the defeat of Nogai.[53] A report reached Western Europe that Toqta
Toqta
was highly favourable to the Christians.[54] According to Muslim observers, however, Toqta
Toqta
remained an idol-worshiper ( Buddhism
Buddhism
and Tengerism) and showed favour to religious men of all faiths, though he preferred Muslims.[55] During the late reign of Toqta, tensions between princes of Tver
Tver
and Moscow
Moscow
became violent. Toqta
Toqta
might have considered eliminating the special status of the Grand principality of Vladimir, placing all the Rus' princes on the same level. Toqta
Toqta
decided to personally visit northern Russia, but he died while crossing the Volga
Volga
in 1313.[56]

Political evolution (1312–1359) After Uzbeg (Öz-Beg) assumed the throne in 1313, he adopted Islam
Islam
as the state religion. He proscribed Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shamanism
Shamanism
among the Mongols
Mongols
in Russia, thus reversing the spread of the Yuan culture. By 1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid princes and Buddhist
Buddhist
lamas who opposed his religious policy and succession of the throne. Uzbeg Khan
Uzbeg Khan
continued the alliance with the Mamluks begun by Berke
Berke
and his predecessors. He kept a friendly relationship with the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
and his shadow Caliph
Caliph
in Cairo. After a long delay and much discussion, he married a princess of the blood to Al-Nasir Muhammad, Sultan
Sultan
of Egypt.

Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury. The policy of Mongol
Mongol
rulers regarding the Rus' was to constantly switch alliances in an attempt to keep Russia
Russia
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
weak and divided. With the assistance of Sarai, the Grand duke Mikhail Yaroslavich won the battle against the party in Novgorod
Novgorod
in 1316. While Mikhail was asserting his authority, his rival Yury of Moscow ingratiated himself into the favor of Uzbeg so that he appointed him chief of the Rus' princes and gave him his sister, Konchak, in marriage. After spending three years at Uzbeg's court, Yury returned with an army of Mongols
Mongols
and Mordvins. After he ravaged the villages of Tver, Yury was defeated by Mikhail in December 1318, and his new wife and the Mongol
Mongol
general, Kawgady, were captured. While she stayed in Tver, Konchak, who converted to Christianity and adopted the name Agatha, died. Mikhail's rivals suggested to Uzbeg Khan
Uzbeg Khan
that he had poisoned the Khan's sister and revolted against his rule. Mikhail was summoned to Sarai and executed on November 22, 1318.[57][58] In 1322, Mikhail's son, Dmitry, seeking revenge for his father's murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the Khan that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the Horde. Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial, but he was killed by Dmitry before any formal investigation. Eight months later, Dmitry was also executed by the Horde for his crime. At first Uzbeg did not want to empower Moscow. In 1327, the Baskaki Shevkal, cousin of Uzbeg, arrived in Tver
Tver
from the Horde, with a large retinue. They took up residence at Aleksander's palace. Rumors spread that Shevkal wanted to occupy the throne for himself and introduce Islam
Islam
to the city. When, on 15 August 1327, the Mongols
Mongols
tried to take a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob of furious people fell on the Tatars
Tatars
and killed them all. Shevkal and his remaining guards were burnt alive. Thus Uzbeg Khan
Uzbeg Khan
began backing Moscow
Moscow
as the leading Russian state. Ivan I Kalita was granted the title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other Russian potentates. The Khan also sent Ivan at the head of an army of 50,000 soldiers to punish Tver. Aleksander was shown mercy in 1335, however, when Moscow
Moscow
requested that he and his son Feoder be quartered in Sarai by orders of the Khan on October 29, 1339.

Territories of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
under Öz Beg Khan. Uzbeg, whose total army exceeded 300,000, repeatedly raided Thrace, partly in service of Bulgaria's war against Byzantium and Serbia beginning in 1319. The Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under Andronikos II Palaiologos and Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos
was raided by the Golden Horde between 1320 and 1341, until the Byzantine port of Vicina Macaria was occupied. Some sources report that Uzbeg also married Andronikos III's illegitimate daughter, who had taken the name Bayalun, and who later, after relations between the Horde and the Byzantines deteriorated, fled back to the Byzantine Empire, apparently fearing her forced conversion to Islam.[59][60] His armies pillaged Thrace for forty days in 1324 and for fifteen days in 1337, taking 300,000 captives. However, his attempt to reassert Mongol control over Serbia in 1330 was unsuccessful.[61] Backed by Uzbeg, Basarab I of Wallachia
Basarab I of Wallachia
declared an independent state from the Hungarian crown in 1330.[51] Uzbeg allowed the Genoese to settle in Crimea
Crimea
after his accession, but the Mongols
Mongols
sacked their outpost Sudak
Sudak
in 1322 when the Christians defied the Muslims in the city.[62] The Genoese merchants in the other towns were not molested. Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII
requested Uzbeg to restore Roman Catholic churches destroyed in the region. Thus, the Khan signed a new trade treaty with the Genoese in 1339 and allowed them to rebuild the walls of Kaffa. In 1332 he had allowed the Venetians to establish a colony at Tanais on the Don. A decree, issued probably by Mengu-Timur, allowing the Franciscans
Franciscans
to proselytize, was renewed by Uzbeg in 1314. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
invaded the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
under Abu Sa'id in 1318, 1324, and 1335. Uzbeg's ally Al-Nasir refused to attack Abu Sa'id because the Ilkhan and the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultan
Sultan
signed a peace treaty in 1323. In 1326 Uzbeg reopened friendly relations with the Empire
Empire
of the Great Khan and began to send tributes thereafter.[63] From 1339 he received annually 24,000 ding in Yuan paper currency from the Jochid appanages in China.[64] When the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
collapsed after Abu Sa'id's death, its senior-beys approached Uzbeg in their desperation to find a leader, but the latter declined after consulting with his senior emir, Qutluq Timür. In 1323 Grand Duke Gediminas
Gediminas
of Lithuania
Lithuania
gained control of Kiev
Kiev
and installed his brother Fedor as prince, but the principality's tribute to the Khan continued. On a campaign a few years later, the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
under Fedor included the Khan's basqaq in their entourage.[65] Under Uzbeg and his successor Janibeg
Janibeg
(1342–1357), Islam, which among some of the Turks in Eurasia had deep roots going back into pre- Mongol
Mongol
times, gained general acceptance, though its adherents remained tolerant of other beliefs. In order to successfully expand Islam, the Mongols
Mongols
built a mosque and other "elaborate places" requiring baths — an important element of Muslim culture. Sarai attracted merchants from other countries. The slave trade flourished due to strengthening ties with the Mamluk
Mamluk
Sultanate. Growth of wealth and increasing demand for products typically produce population growth, and so it was with Sarai. Housing in the region increased, which transformed the capital into the center of a large Muslim Sultanate. Janibeg
Janibeg
sponsored joint Mongol-Rus' military expeditions against Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland. In 1344 his army marched against Poland with auxiliaries from Galicia–Volhynia, as Volhynia was part of Lithuania. In 1349, however, Galicia–Volhynia was occupied by a Polish-Hungarian force, and the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was finally conquered and incorporated into Poland. This act put an end to the relationship of vassalage between the Galicia–Volhynia Rus' and the Golden Horde.[66] The Black Death
Black Death
of the 1340s was a major factor contributing to the economic downfall of the Golden Horde. Janibeg
Janibeg
abandoned his father's Balkan ambitions and backed Moscow
Moscow
against Lithuania
Lithuania
and Poland. He also asserted Jochid dominance over the Chagatai Khanate
Chagatai Khanate
and conquered Tabriz, ending Chobanid rule there in 1356. After accepting the surrender of the Jalayirids, Janibeg
Janibeg
boasted that three uluses of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
were under his control. The Polish King, Casimir III the Great, submitted to the Horde and undertook to pay tribute in order to avoid more conflicts.[full citation needed][67] The seven Mongol
Mongol
princes were sent by Janibeg
Janibeg
to assist Poland.[verification needed][68] Following the subsequent assassination of Janibeg, the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
quickly lost Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to the Jalayir
Jalayir
king Shaikh Uvais in 1357.

Decline Great troubles (1359–1381) The Battle of Kulikovo
Battle of Kulikovo
in 1380 Following the assassination of Berdibek by his brother in 1359, the Khanate sank into prolonged internecine war, in which sometimes as many as four Khans vied for recognition by the emirs and for possession of major cities like Sarai, Qirim, and Azaq. After the overthrow of their nominal suzerain, Yuan Emperor Toghan Temür,[69] the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
lost touch with Mongolia
Mongolia
and China.[70] White Horde descendants of Orda and Tuqa-Timur carried on generally free from trouble until the late 1370s. Urus Khan of the White Horde took Sarai and reunited most of the Horde from Khorazm
Khorazm
to Desht-i-Kipchak in 1375. By the 1380s, Shaybanids, Muscovites, and Qashan attempted to break free of the Khan's power. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
profited from this situation and pushed deeper into Golden Horde
Golden Horde
territory than in any previous expedition, and the Grand Duke Algirdas
Algirdas
defeated forces of Murad Khan at the battle of Blue Waters c.1362. In western Pontic steppe, Mamai, a Tatar
Tatar
general who was a king-maker, attempted to reassert Tatar
Tatar
authority over Russia. His army was defeated by the Grand prince
Grand prince
Dmitri Donskoy
Dmitri Donskoy
at the Battle of Kulikovo in 1380, Donskoy's second consecutive victory over the Tatars. While preparing another invasion of Moscow, Mamai faced a greater challenge from the east. In 1379, Tokhtamysh, a kinsman of Urus Khan, won leadership of the White Horde with the assistance of Tamerlane. He then defeated Mamai and annexed the territory of the Blue Horde, briefly reestablishing the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
as a dominant regional power in 1381.

A brief reunion (1381–1419) See also: Tokhtamysh– Timur
Timur
war Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
besieges Moscow. After Mamai's defeat, Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
restored the dominance of the Golden Horde over Russia
Russia
by attacking Russian lands
Russian lands
in 1382. He besieged Moscow
Moscow
on August 23, but Muscovites beat off his attack, using firearms for the first time in Russian history.[71] On August 26, two sons of Tokhtamysh's supporter Dmitry of Suzdal, Dukes Vasily of Suzdal
Suzdal
and Semyon of Nizhny Novgorod, who were present in Tokhtamysh's forces, persuaded the Muscovites to open the city gates, promising that their forces would not harm the city.[72] This allowed Tokhtamysh's troops to burst in and destroy Moscow, killing 24,000 people.[73] Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
also crushed the Lithuanian army at Poltava
Poltava
in the next year.[74] Władysław II Jagiełło, Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
and King of Poland, accepted his supremacy and agreed to pay tribute in turn for a grant of Rus' territory.[75] For another century, Russia
Russia
was forced back under the Tatar
Tatar
yoke. Elated by his success, Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
invaded Azerbaijan, Khwarezm, and Transoxiana, parts of Timur's empire, and Timur
Timur
declared war against him. In 1395-1396, Timur
Timur
annihilated Tokhtamysh's army, destroyed his capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand. When Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
fled, Urus Khan's grandson, Temür Qutlugh, was chosen Khan in Sarai, and Koirijak was appointed sovereign of the White Horde by Timur.[76] Temür Qutlugh's chief emir Edigu
Edigu
was the real rulers of the Golden Horde.

Emir
Emir
Timur
Timur
and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan Tokhtamysh. Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
escaped to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
and asked Vytautas for assistance in regaining his power over the Horde. In exchange for such assistance, he offered his suzerainty over the Rus' lands. Edigu defeated Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
and Vytautas
Vytautas
at the Battle of the Vorskla River
Battle of the Vorskla River
in 1399. The trade routes never recovered from Timur's destruction, and Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
died in obscurity in 1405. His son Jalal al-Din fled to Lithuania. While in Lithuania, he fought in the Battle of Grunwald against the Teutonic Order. Edigu
Edigu
forced the Grand Prince of Moscow
Moscow
to accept the Khan's supremacy in 1408. Seeing Tatar
Tatar
commoners selling their children into slavery as damaging to both the manpower and the prestige of the Golden Horde's army, Edigu
Edigu
and his puppet Khan prohibited the slave trade at a kurultai. Despite some rebellions of Genghisid
Genghisid
princes, he kept the Horde united until 1410 when he was expelled to Central Asia. While he was absent, Jalal al-Din returned from Lithuania
Lithuania
and briefly took the throne. Edigu
Edigu
returned to the Horde and set up his ordo in Crimea, challenging the sons of Tokhtamysh
Tokhtamysh
before his murder in 1419.

Disintegration (1420–1480) After 1419, Olug Moxammat became Khan of the Golden Horde. However, his authority was limited to the lower banks of the Volga
Volga
where Tokhtamysh's other son Kepek reigned. Together with the Khan claimant Dawlat Berdi, they were beaten by Baraq of the Uzbeks in 1421. The latter was assassinated in 1427 and Olug Moxammat reenthroned. The Lithuanian monarch Svitrigaila
Svitrigaila
supported Olugh Moxammat's rival Sayid Ahmad I, who in 1433 gained the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
throne. Vasili II of Russia
Russia
also supported Sayid Ahmad in order to weaken Olugh Moxammat who established the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
and made Moscow
Moscow
a tributary. Sayid supported Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
during the Lithuanian Civil War (1431–1435).[77] The Horde (Great Horde) broke up into separate Khanates:

Tyumen Khanate (1468, later Khanate of Sibir) Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
(1438) – Qasim Khanate
Qasim Khanate
(1452) Khanate of Crimea
Crimea
(1441) Nogai Horde
Nogai Horde
(1440s) Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
(1456) Khanate of Astrakhan (1466) In the summer of 1470 (other sources give 1469), the last prominent Khan, Ahmed, organized an attack against Moldavia, the Kingdom of Poland, and Lithuania. By August 20, the Moldavian forces under Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great
defeated the Tatars
Tatars
at the battle of Lipnic. In 1474 and 1476, Ahmed insisted that Ivan III should recognize Russia's vassal dependence on the Horde. However, the correlation of forces was not in the Horde's favor. In 1480, Ahmed organized another military campaign against Moscow, which would result in the Horde's failure. Russia
Russia
finally freed itself from the Horde, thus ending over 250 years of Tatar- Mongol
Mongol
control. On 6 January 1481, the Khan was killed by Ibak Khan, the prince of Tyumen, and Nogays
Nogays
at the mouth of the Donets River.

Fall (1480–1582) See also: Great Horde The Great stand on the Ugra river, 1480 The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
(which possessed much of the Ukraine
Ukraine
at the time) were attacked in 1487–1491 by the remnant of the Golden Horde. They reached as far as Lublin
Lublin
in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at Zaslavl.[78] The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
became a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in 1502. After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed, last Khan of the Horde, died in prison in Kaunas
Kaunas
some time after 1504. According to other sources, he was released from the Lithuanian prison in 1527.[79] A unified Rus conquered the Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan
in 1552, the Khanate of Astrakhan in 1556, and the Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir
in 1582. The Crimean Tatars
Tatars
wreaked havoc in southern Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and even Poland in the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries (see Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands), but they were not able to defeat Russia or take Moscow. Under Ottoman protection, the Khanate of Crimea continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed it on April 8, 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the successor states to the Golden Horde.

Geography and society Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
assigned four Mongol
Mongol
mingghans: the Sanchi'ud (or Salji'ud), Keniges, Uushin, and Je'ured clans to Jochi.[80] By the beginning of the 14th century, noyans from the Sanchi'ud, Hongirat, Ongud
Ongud
(Arghun), Keniges, Jajirad, Besud, Oirat, and Je'ured clans held importants positions at the court or elsewehere. There existed four mingghans (4,000) of the Jalayir
Jalayir
in the left wing of the Ulus of Jochi
Jochi
(Golden Horde). The population of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
was largely a mixture of Turks and Mongols
Mongols
who adopted Islam
Islam
later, as well as smaller numbers of Finno-Ugrians, Sarmato-Scythians, Slavs, and people from the Caucasus, among others (whether Muslim or not).[81] Most of the Horde's population was Turkic: Kipchaks, Cumans, Volga
Volga
Bulgars, Khwarezmians, and others. The Horde was gradually Turkified and lost its Mongol identity, while the descendants of Batu's original Mongol
Mongol
warriors constituted the upper class.[82] They were commonly named the Tatars
Tatars
by the Russians and Europeans. Russians preserved this common name for this group down to the 20th century. Whereas most members of this group identified themselves by their ethnic or tribal names, most also considered themselves to be Muslims. Most of the population, both agricultural and nomadic, adopted the Kypchak language, which developed into the regional languages of Kypchak groups after the Horde disintegrated. The descendants of Batu ruled the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
from Sarai Batu and later Sarai Berke, controlling an area ranging from the Volga
Volga
River and the Carpathian mountains
Carpathian mountains
to the mouth of the Danube
Danube
River. The descendants of Orda ruled the area from the Ural River
Ural River
to Lake Balkhash. Censuses recorded Chinese living quarters in the Tatar parts of Novgorod, Tver
Tver
and Moscow.

Internal organization Tilework fragments of a palace in Sarai. The Golden Horde's elites were descended from four Mongol
Mongol
clans, Qiyat, Manghut, Sicivut and Qonqirat. Their supreme ruler was the Khan, chosen by the kurultai among Batu Khan's descendants. The prime minister, also ethnically Mongol, was known as "prince of princes", or beklare-bek. The ministers were called viziers. Local governors, or basqaqs, were responsible for levying taxes and dealing with popular discontent. Civil and military administration, as a rule, were not separate. The Horde developed as a sedentary rather than nomadic culture, with Sarai evolving into a large, prosperous metropolis. In the early 14th century, the capital was moved considerably upstream to Sarai Berqe, which became one of the largest cities of the medieval world, with 600,000 inhabitants.[83] Sarai was described by the famous traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
as "one of the most beautiful cities ... full of people, with the beautiful bazaars and wide streets", and having 13 congregational mosques along with "plenty of lesser mosques".[84] Another contemporary source describes it as "a grand city accommodating markets, baths and religious institutions".[84] An astrolabe was discovered during excavations at the site and the city was home to many poets, most of whom are known to us only by name.[84][85] Despite Russian efforts at proselytizing in Sarai, the Mongols
Mongols
clung to their traditional animist or shamanist beliefs until Uzbeg Khan (1312–41) adopted Islam
Islam
as a state religion. Several rulers of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
Mikhail of Chernigov
Mikhail of Chernigov
and Mikhail of Tver
Tver
among them – were reportedly assassinated in Sarai, but the Khans were generally tolerant and even released the Russian Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
from paying taxes.

Vassals and allies Alexander Nevsky
Alexander Nevsky
and a Mongol
Mongol
shaman The Horde exacted tax payments from its subject peoples – Rus' people, Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, Alans, Crimean Greeks, Crimean Goths, and others (Bulgarians, Vlachs). The territories of Christian subjects were regarded as peripheral areas of little interest as long as they continued to pay taxes. These vassal states were never fully incorporated into the Horde, and Russian rulers early obtained the privilege of collecting the Tatar
Tatar
tax themselves. To maintain control over Rus' and Eastern Europe, the Tatar
Tatar
warlords carried out regular punitive raids on their tributaries. At its height, the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
controlled the areas from Central Siberia
Siberia
and Khorazm
Khorazm
to the Danube
Danube
and Narva. There is a point of view, much propagated by Lev Gumilev, that the Horde and Russian polities entered into a defensive alliance against the Teutonic knights
Teutonic knights
and pagan Lithuanians. Proponents point to the fact that the Mongol
Mongol
court was frequented by Russian princes, notably Yaroslavl's Feodor the Black, who boasted his own ulus near Sarai, and Novgorod's Alexander Nevsky, the sworn brother (or anda) of Batu's successor Sartaq Khan. A Mongol
Mongol
contingent supported the Novgorodians in the Battle of the Ice
Battle of the Ice
and Novgorodians paid taxes to the Horde. Sarai carried on a brisk trade with the Genoese trade emporiums on the coast of the Black Sea
Black Sea
– Soldaia, Caffa, and Azak. Mamluk
Mamluk
Egypt
Egypt
was the Khans' long-standing trade partner and ally in the Mediterranean. Berke, the Khan of Kipchak had drawn up an alliance with the Mamluk Sultan
Sultan
Baibars
Baibars
against the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in 1261.[86]

A change in trade routes According to Baumer [87] the natural trade route was down the Volga
Volga
to Serai where it intersected the east-west route north of the Caspian, and then down the west side of the Caspian to Tabriz
Tabriz
in Persian Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
where it met the larger east-west route south of the Caspian. Around 1262 Berke
Berke
broke with the Il-Khan Hulagu
Hulagu
Khan. This led to several wars on the west side of the Caspian which the Horde usually lost. The interruption of trade and conflict with Persia led the Horde to build trading towns along the northern route. They also allied with the Mamluks of Egypt
Egypt
who were the Il-Khan's enemies. Trade between the Horde and Egypt
Egypt
was carried by the Genoese based in Crimea. An important part of this trade was slaves for the Mamluk army. Trade was weakened by a quarrel with the Genoese in 1307 and a Mumluk-Persian peace in 1323. Circa 1336 the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
began to disintegrate which shifted trade north. Around 1340 the route north of the Caspian was described by Pegolotti. In 1347 a Horde siege of the Genoese Crimean port of Kaffa led to the spread of the black death to Europe. In 1395-96 Tamerlane
Tamerlane
laid waste to the Horde's trading towns. Since they had no agricultural hinterland many of the towns vanished and trade shifted south.

Provinces See also: Wings of the Golden Horde The Mongols
Mongols
favored decimal organization, which was inherited from Genghis Khan. It is said that there were a total of ten political divisions within the Golden Horde. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
majorly was divided into Blue Horde (Kok Horde) and White Horde (Ak Horde). Blue Horde consisted of Pontic-Caspian steppe, Khazaria, Volga
Volga
Bulgaria, while White Horde encompassed the lands of the princes of the left hand: Taibugin Yurt, Ulus Shiban, Ulus Tok-timur, Ulus Ezhen Horde.

Vassal territories Venetian port cities in Crimea
Crimea
(center at Qırım). After the Mongol conquest in 1238, the port cities in Crimea
Crimea
paid the Jochids custom duties, and the revenues were divided among all Chingisid princes of the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
in accordance with the appanage system.,[88] the banks of Azov, the country of Circassians, Walachia, Alania, Russian lands.[89] Coinage

Tulabuga's silver dirham

Coin of Berdi Beg of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
762 Hijri (1359 AD).

Gallery

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
raid at Rayzan

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
raid at Kyev

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
raid at Kozelsk

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
raid Vladimir

Golden Horde
Golden Horde
raid Suzdal

Mongol- Tatar
Tatar
warriors besiege their opponents.

Mongols
Mongols
chase Hungarian king from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum.

The Mongol
Mongol
army captures a Rus' city

Mongol
Mongol
invasion of Hungary in 1285

Edigu's invasion of Rus.

The sack of Suzdal
Suzdal
by Batu Khan
Batu Khan
in 1238, miniature from 16th-century chronicle.

The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig legend.

Drawing of Mongols
Mongols
of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
outside Vladimir presumably demanding submission before sacking the city

Paiza
Paiza
of Abdullah Khan (r. 1361–70) with Mongolian script

Mongol- Tatar
Tatar
raid

A Rus' prince being punished by the Golden Horde

See also History of the Mongols Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility

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^ a b c Kołodziejczyk (2011), p. 4.

^ Zahler, Diane (2013). The Black Death
Black Death
(Revised Edition). Twenty-First Century Books. p. 70. ISBN 978-1-4677-0375-8..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12 September 2016.

^ Rein Taagepera
Rein Taagepera
(September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 498. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.

^ German A. Fedorov-Davydov The Monetary System of The Golden Horde*. Translated by L. I. Smirnova (Holden). Retrieved: 14 July 2017.

^ Perrie, Maureen, ed. (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume 1, From Early Rus' to 1689. Cambridge University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-81227-6.

^ a b "Golden Horde". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Also called Kipchak Khanate Russian designation for Juchi's Ulus, the western part of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to the end of the 14th century. The people of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
were mainly a mixture of Turkic and Uralic peoples and Sarmatians
Sarmatians
& Scythians
Scythians
and, to a lesser extent, Mongols, with the latter generally constituting the aristocracy. Distinguish the Kipchak Khanate from the earlier Cuman-Kipchak confederation in the same region that had previously held sway, before its conquest by the Mongols.

^ Atwood (2004), p. 201.

^ Gleason, Abbott (2009). A Companion to Russian History. John Wiley & Sons. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-4443-0842-6.

^ "рЕПЛХМ гНКНРЮЪ нПДЮ - НЬХАЙЮ РНКЛЮВЮ 16 ЯРНКЕРХЪ (мХК лЮЙЯХМЪ) / оПНГЮ.ПС - МЮЖХНМЮКЭМШИ ЯЕПБЕП ЯНБПЕЛЕММНИ ОПНГШ". Proza.ru. Retrieved 2014-04-11.

^ Ostrowski, Donald G. (Spring 2007). "Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, and: The Mongols
Mongols
and the West, 1221–1410, and: Daily Life in the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, and: The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century (review)". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History. Project MUSE. 8 (2): 431–441. doi:10.1353/kri.2007.0019.

^ May, T. (2001). " Khanate of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
(Kipchak)". North Georgia College and State University. Archived from the original on December 14, 2006.

^ Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of the Danube
Danube
Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. BRILL. p. 38. ISBN 978-90-04-17536-5.

^ Atwood (2004), p. 41.

^ Allsen (1985), pp. 5-40.

^ Edward L. Keenan, Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article

^ Grekov, B. D.; Yakubovski, A. Y. (1998) [1950]. The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and its Downfall (in Russian). Moscow: Bogorodskii Pechatnik. ISBN 978-5-8958-9005-9.

^ "History of Crimean Khanate". Archived from the original on 2009-01-06.‹See Tfd›(in English)

^ a b Sinor, Denis (1999). "The Mongols
Mongols
in the West". Journal of Asian History. Harrassowitz Verlag. 33 (1): 1–44. JSTOR 41933117.

^ Martin (2007), p. 152.

^ Atwood (2004), p. 213.

^ Jackson (2014), pp. 123–124.

^ Annales Mellicenses. Continuatio Zwetlensis tertia, MGHS, IX, p.644

^ Jackson (2014), p. 202.

^ Kirakos, Istoriia p. 236

^ Mukhamadiev, A. G. Bulgaro-Tatarskiya monetnaia sistema, p. 50

^ Rashid al-Din-Jawal al Tawarikhi, (Boyle) p. 256

^ Jackson, Peter (1995). "The Mongols
Mongols
and Europe". In Abulafia, David (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 5, C.1198-c.1300. Cambridge University Press. p. 709. ISBN 978-0-521-36289-4.

^ Barthold, W. (2008) [1958]. Turkestan Down to the Mongol
Mongol
Invasion. ACLS Humanities E-Book. p. 446. ISBN 978-1-59740-450-1.

^ Howorth (1880).

^ Biran, Michal (2013). Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol State In Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-136-80044-3.

^ Man, John (2012). Kublai Khan. Transworld. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-4464-8615-3.

^ Saunders, J. J. (2001). The History of the Mongol
Mongol
Conquests. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 130–132. ISBN 978-0-8122-1766-7.

^ Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (2005). Mongols
Mongols
and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281. Cambridge University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-521-52290-8.

^ Anton Cooper On the Edge of Empire: Novgorod's trade with the Golden Horde, p.19

^ GVNP, p.13; Gramota#3

^ Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Zenkovsky, Betty Jean, eds. (1986). The Nikonian Chronicle: From the year 1241 to the year 1381. Kingston Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-940670-02-0.

^ Vernadsky, George; Karpovich, Michael (1943). A History of Russia: The Mongols
Mongols
and Russia, by George Vernadsky. Yale University Press. p. 172.

^ Rashid al Din-II Successors (Boyle), p. 897

^ Allsen (1985), p. 21.

^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1250. Cambridge University Press. p. 414. ISBN 978-0-521-81539-0.

^ Howorth (1880), p. 130.

^ Byzantino Tatarica, p.209

^ Baybars
Baybars
al Mansuri-Zubdat al-Fikra, p. 355

^ Spuler (1943), p. 78.

^ Barthold, V.V. Four Studies on Central Asia. Translated by Minorsky, V.; Minorsky, T. Brill. p. 127.

^ Grousset, René (1970). The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 335. ISBN 978-0-8135-1304-1.

^ Boyle, J. A. (1968). "Dynastic and Political History of the Il-Khans". In Boyle, J. A. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran. Cambridge University Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-521-06936-6.

^ G. V. Vernadsky The Mongols
Mongols
and Russia, p. 74

^ Badarch Nyamaa – The coins of Mongol
Mongol
empire and clan tamgna of khans (XIII–XIV) (Монеты монгольских ханов), Ch. 2.

^ a b Jackson (2014), p. 204.

^ Spuler (1943), p. 84.

^ Vásáry, István (2005). Cumans
Cumans
and Tatars: Oriental Military in the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365. Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-1-139-44408-8.

^ Ptolomy of Lucca Annales, p.237

^ DeWeese, Devin (2010). Islamization and Native Religion in the Golden Horde: Baba TŸkles and Conversion to Islam
Islam
in Historical and Epic Tradition. Penn State Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-271-04445-3.

^ Journal of Asiatic Studies, 4th ser. xvii., 115[full citation needed]

^ Martin (2007), p. 175.

^ Fennell, John (1988). "Princely Executions in the Horde 1308–1339". Forschungen zur Osteuropaischen Geschichte. 38: 9–19.

^ Mihail-Dimitri Sturdza, Dictionnaire historique et Généalogique des grandes familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (Great families of Greece, Albania and Constantinople: Historical and genealogical dictionary) (1983), page 373

^ Saunders (2001).

^ Jireuek Bulgaria, pp. 293–295

^ Ibn Battuta-, 2, 414 415

^ Allsen, Thomas T. (2006). The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8122-0107-9.

^ Atwood (2004), "Golden Horde".

^ Rowell, S. C. (2014). Lithuania
Lithuania
Ascending. Cambridge University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-65876-9.

^ Zdan, Michael B. (June 1957). "The Dependence of Halych-Volyn' Rus' on the Golden Horde". The Slavonic and East European Review. 35 (85): 521–522. JSTOR 4204855.

^ CICO-X, pp.189

^ Jackson (2014), p. 211.

^ Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and Mongol
Mongol
Empire

^ Russia
Russia
and the Golden Horde, by Charles J. Halperin, page 28

^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Dmitri Donskoi Epoch Archived 2005-03-12 at the Wayback Machine

^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) History of Moscow
Moscow
settlements – Suchevo Archived 2007-01-27 at the Wayback Machine

^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, Entry on "Московское восстание 1382"

^ René Grousset, The Empire
Empire
of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, p. 407

^ ed. Johann Voigt, Codex diplomaticus Prussicus, 6 vols, VI, p. 47

^ Howorth (1880), p. 287.

^ (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et al., ed (1985–1988). "Ašmenos mūšis". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. I. Vilnius, Lithuania: Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. p. 115. LCC 86232954

^ "Russian Interaction with Foreign Lands". Strangelove.net. Archived from the original on 2009-01-18. Retrieved 2014-04-11.

^ Kołodziejczyk (2011), p. 66.

^ Blair, Sheila; Art, Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic (1995). جامع التواريخ: Rashid Al-Din's Illustrated History of the World. Nour Foundation. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-19-727627-3.

^ Halperin, Charles J. (1987). Russia
Russia
and the Golden Horde: The Mongol Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5.

^ Encyclopædia Britannica

^ Encyclopædia Britannica

^ a b c Ravil Bukharaev (2014). Islam
Islam
in Russia: The Four Seasons. Routledge. p. 116. ISBN 9781136808005.

^ Ravil Bukharaev, David Matthews, eds. (2013). Historical Anthology of Kazan Tatar
Tatar
Verse. Routledge. p. 15. ISBN 9781136814655.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)

^ Mantran, Robert (Fossier, Robert, ed.) "A Turkish or Mongolian Islam" in The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages: 1250-1520, p. 298

^ Christoph Baumer, History of Central Asia, volume 3, pp 263-270, 2016. He seems to be following Virgil Ciociltan, The Mongols
Mongols
and the Black Sea
Black Sea
Trade, 2012

^ Jackson, Peter (1978). The Dissolution of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. Harrassowitz. pp. 186–243.

^ A. P. Grigorev and O. B. Frolova, Geographicheskoy opisaniye Zolotoy Ordi v encyclopedia al-Kashkandi-Tyurkologicheskyh sbornik, 2001, pp. 262-302

Bibliography Allsen, Thomas T. (1985). "The Princes of the Left Hand: An Introduction to the History of the Ulus of Ordu in the Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Centuries". Archivum Eurasiae Medii Aevi. V. Harrassowitz. pp. 5–40. ISBN 978-3-447-08610-3. Atwood, Christopher Pratt (2004). Encyclopedia of Mongolia
Mongolia
and the Mongol
Mongol
Empire. Facts On File. ISBN 978-0-8160-4671-3. Howorth, Sir Henry Hoyle (1880). History of the Mongols: From the 9th to the 19th Century. New York: Burt Franklin. Jackson, Peter (2014). The Mongols
Mongols
and the West: 1221-1410. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-87898-8. Kołodziejczyk, Dariusz (2011). The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
and Poland-Lithuania: International Diplomacy on the European Periphery (15th-18th Century). A Study of Peace Treaties Followed by Annotated Documents. Leiden: BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-19190-7. Martin, Janet (2007). Medieval Russia, 980-1584. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85916-5. Spuler, Bertold (1943). Die Goldene Horde, die Mongolen in Russland, 1223-1502 (in German). O. Harrassowitz. Further reading Boris Grekov and Alexander Yakubovski, The Golden Horde
Golden Horde
and its Downfall George Vernadsky, The Mongols
Mongols
and Russia The Golden Horde, FTDNA External links

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