Golden Horde (Mongolian: Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Russian:
Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Tatar: Алтын
Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a
Mongol and later Turkicized
khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the
northwestern sector of the
Mongol Empire. With the
fragmentation of the
Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally
separate khanate. It is also known as the Kipchak
Khanate or as the
Ulus of Jochi.
After the death of
Batu Khan (the founder of the Golden Horde) in
1255, his dynasty flourished for a full century, until 1359, though
the intrigues of Nogai did instigate a partial civil war in the late
1290s. The Horde's military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg
(1312–1341), who adopted Islam. The territory of the
Golden Horde at
its peak included most of
Eastern Europe from the
Urals to the Danube
River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden
Horde's lands bordered on the Black Sea, the
Caucasus Mountains, and
the territories of the
Mongol dynasty known as the
The khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning
in 1359, before it briefly reunited (1381–1395) under Tokhtamysh.
However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the
Timurid Empire, the
Golden Horde broke into smaller
which declined steadily in power. At the start of the 15th century,
the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466, it was being referred to
simply as the "Great Horde". Within its territories there emerged
numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal
struggles allowed the northern vassal state of
Muscovy to rid itself
of the "
Tatar Yoke" at the
Great stand on the Ugra river
Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The
Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the
Golden Horde, survived until 1783 and 1847 respectively.
Mongol origins (1225–1241)
3 Golden Age
3.1 Early rulers under the Great Khans (1241–1259)
3.2 Civil war of the
3.3 Dual khanship (1281–1299)
3.4 General peace (1299–1312)
3.5 Political evolution (1312–1359)
4.1 Great troubles (1359–1381)
4.2 A brief reunion (1381–1419)
4.3 Disintegration (1420–1480)
4.4 Fall (1480–1582)
5 Geography and society
5.1 Internal organization
5.2 Vassals and allies
5.3 A change in trade routes
5.4.1 Vassal territories
8 See also
9 Reference and notes
11 Further reading
12 External links
Further information: Wings of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde is said to have been inspired by the golden
color of the tents the
Mongols lived in during wartime, or an actual
golden tent used by
Batu Khan or by Uzbek Khan, or to have
been bestowed by the Slavic tributaries to describe the great wealth
of the khan. But the Mongolic word for the color yellow (Sarı/Saru)
also meant "center" or "central" in Old Turkic and Mongolic languages,
and "horde" probably comes from the Mongolic word ordu, meaning
palace, camp or headquarters, so "Golden Horde" may simply have come
from a Mongolic term for "central camp". In any event, it
was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin
explicitly using the term "Golden Horde" (Russian: Золотая
Орда) to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol
Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian
chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu (Russian:
Улуса Батыя), centered on Sarai. In
contemporary Persian, Armenian and Muslim writings, and in the records
of the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries such as the Yuanshi
and the Jami' al-tawarikh, the khanate was called the "Ulus of Jochi"
("realm of Jochi" in Mongolian), "Dasht-i-Qifchaq" (Qipchaq Steppe) or
Khanate of the Qipchaq" and "Comania"
The eastern or left wing (or "left hand" in official
Mongolian-sponsored Persian sources) was referred to as the Blue Horde
in Russian chronicles and as the
White Horde in Timurid sources (e.g.
Zafar-Nameh). Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid
sources' nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde. But
Ötemish Hajji (fl. 1550), a historian of Khwarezm, called the
left wing the Blue Horde, and since he was familiar with the oral
traditions of the khanate empire, it seems likely that the Russian
chroniclers were correct, and that the khanate itself called its left
wing the Blue Horde. The khanate apparently used the term
White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batu's
home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations
Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and
White Horde have not been encountered in
the sources of the
Mongol origins (1225–1241)
Mongol invasion of
Mongol invasion of
Kievan Rus', and
At his death in 1227,
Genghis Khan divided the
Mongol Empire amongst
his four sons as appanages, but the
Empire remained united under the
Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before
Genghis. The westernmost lands occupied by the Mongols, which
included what is today southern
Russia and Kazakhstan, were given to
Jochi's eldest sons, Batu Khan, who eventually became the ruler of the
Blue Horde, and Orda Khan, who became the leader of the White
Horde. In 1235, Batu with the great general
Subedei began an invasion westwards, first conquering the
then moving on to
Volga Bulgaria in 1236. From there he conquered some
of the southern steppes of present-day
Ukraine in 1237, forcing many
of the local
Cumans to retreat westward. The military campaign against
Cumans had started under
1216–1218 when the
Merkits took shelter among them. By 1239 a large
Cumans were driven out of the
Crimea peninsula, and it
became one of the appanages of the
Mongol Empire. The
remnants of the Crimean
Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, and
they would, in time, mix with other groups in the
Greeks, Goths, and Mongols) to form the Crimean
Moving north, Batu began the
Mongol invasion of Rus'
Mongol invasion of Rus' and for three
years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus', whilst his
cousins Möngke, Kadan, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania.
Golden Horde victory in the Battle of Mohi
Using the migration of the
Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols
continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the
battles of Legnica and Mohi. In 1241, however,
Ögedei Khan died in
the Mongolian homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of
take part in disputing the succession. The
Mongol armies would never
again travel so far west. In 1242, after retreating through Hungary,
destroying Pest in the process, and subjugating Bulgaria,
Batu established his capital at Sarai, commanding the lower stretch of
Volga River, on the site of the
Khazar capital of Atil. Shortly
before that, the younger brother of Batu and Orda, Shiban, was given
his own enormous ulus east of the
Ural Mountains along the Ob and
Mongolian language was undoubtedly in general use at the
court of Batu, few
Mongol texts written in the territory of the Golden
Horde have survived, perhaps because of the prevalent general
illiteracy. According to Grigor'ev, yarliq, or decrees of the Khans,
were written in Mongol, then translated into the Cuman language. The
existence of Arabic-
Mongol and Persian-
Mongol dictionaries dating from
the middle of the 14th century and prepared for the use of the
Mamluk Sultanate suggests that there was a practical need for
such works in the chancelleries handling correspondence with the
Golden Horde. It is thus reasonable to conclude that letters received
by the Mamluks – if not also written by them – must have been in
See also: Timeline of the Golden Horde
Early rulers under the Great Khans (1241–1259)
When the Great
Töregene invited Batu to elect the next Emperor
Mongol Empire in 1242, he declined to attend a kurultai, thus
delaying the succession for several years. Although Batu stated he was
suffering from old age and illness and politely refused the
invitation, it seems that he did not support the election of Güyük
Khan because Güyük and Büri, grandson of Chagatai Khan, had
quarreled violently with Batu at a victory banquet during the Mongol
occupation of Eastern Europe. Finally, he sent his brothers to the
kurultai, and the new Emperor of the
Mongols was elected in 1246. All
the senior Rus' princes, including Yaroslav II of Vladimir, Danylo of
Halych, and Sviatoslav Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, acknowledged Batu's
supremacy. However, the
Mongol court exterminated some anti-Mongol
princes, such as Michael of Chernigov, who had killed a
Batu Khan establishes the Golden Horde.
After a short time, Güyük called Batu to pay him homage several
times. Batu sent Andrey and
Alexander Nevsky to
Karakorum in Mongolia
in 1247 after their father's death. Güyük appointed Andrey Grand
Vladimir-Suzdal and Alexander prince of Kiev. In
1248, he demanded Batu come eastward to meet him, a move that some
contemporaries regarded as a pretext for Batu's arrest. In compliance
with the order, Batu approached, bringing a large army. When Güyük
moved westwards, Tolui's widow and a sister of Batu's stepmother
Sorghaghtani warned Batu that the Jochids might be his target.
Güyük died on the way, in what is now Xinjiang, at about the age of
forty-two. Although some modern historians believe that he died of
natural causes because of deteriorating health, he may
have succumbed to the combined effects of alcoholism and gout, or he
may have been poisoned.
William of Rubruck
William of Rubruck and a Muslim chronicler
state that Batu killed the imperial envoy, and one of his brothers
murdered the Great Khan Güyük, but these claims are not completely
corroborated by other major sources. Güyük's widow Oghul Qaimish
took over as regent, but she would be unable to keep the succession
within her branch of the family.
14th-century Chinese drawing of young Batu Khan
With the assistance of the Golden Horde,
Möngke succeeded as Great
Khan in 1251. Utilizing the discovery of a plot designed to remove
Möngke as the new Great Khan began a purge of his opponents.
Estimates of the deaths of aristocrats, officials, and Mongol
commanders range from 77 to 300. Batu became the most influential
person as his friendship with
Möngke ensured the unity of the empire.
Batu, Möngke, and other princely lines shared rule over the area from
Afghanistan to Turkey.
Batu allowed Möngke's census takers to operate freely in his realm,
though his prestige as kingmaker and elder
Borjigin was at its height.
Möngke conducted a census of the
including Iran, Afghanistan, Georgia, Armenia, Russia, Central Asia,
and North China. While the census in China was completed in 1252,
Novgorod in the far northwest was not counted until winter 1258–59.
There was an uprising in
Novgorod against the
Mongol census, but
Alexander Nevsky forced the city to submit to the census and taxation.
The Grand Prince Andrey II gave umbrage to the Mongols. Batu sent a
punitive expedition under Nevruy. On their approach, Andrey fled to
Pskov, and thence to Sweden. The
Mongols overran Vladimir and harshly
punished the principality. The
Livonian Knights stopped their advance
Novgorod and Pskov. Thanks to his friendship with Sartaq, Alexander
was installed as the Grand Prince of Vladimir (i.e., the supreme
Russian ruler) by Batu in 1252. In 1256 Andrey traveled to Sarai to
ask pardon for his former infidelity and was shown mercy.
Jochi Mausoleum, Karagandy Region
Möngke ordered the Jochid and Chagatayid families to join Hulagu's
expedition to Iran. Berke's persuasion might have forced his brother
Batu to postpone Hulagu's operation, little suspecting that it would
result in eliminating the Jochid predominance there for several years.
During the reign of Batu or his first two successors, the Golden Horde
dispatched a large Jochid delegation to participate in Hulagu's
expedition in the Middle East in 1256/57.
After Batu died in 1256, his son
Sartaq was appointed by Möngke. As
soon as he returned from the court of the Great Khan in Mongolia,
Sartaq died. After a brief reign of an infant
Ulaghchi under the
regency of Boragchin Khatun, Batu's younger brother
enthroned as khan of the Jochids in 1257.
In 1257, Danylo repelled
Mongol assaults led by the prince Kuremsa on
Ponyzia and Volhynia and dispatched an expedition with the aim of
taking Kiev. Despite initial successes, in 1259 a
Mongol force under
Boroldai entered Galicia and Volhynia and offered an ultimatum: Danylo
was to destroy his fortifications or
Boroldai would assault the towns.
Danylo complied and pulled down the city walls. In 1259
savage attacks on
Lithuania and Poland, and demanded the submission of
Béla IV, the Hungarian monarch, and the French King
Louis IX in 1259
and 1260. His assault on
Prussia in 1259/60 inflicted
heavy losses on the Teutonic Order. The
probably tributary in the 1260s, when reports reached the
they were in league with the Mongols.
Civil war of the
See also: Berke–
Hulagu war, Toluid Civil War, and Division of the
Mongol invasion of Rus'
Kalka River (1223)
Voronezh River (1237)
Sit River (1238)
Batu's raid in Ruthenia (1240)
Mongol invasions of Poland1st invasion (1240–41)
2nd invasion (1259–60)
3rd invasion (1287–88)
Mongol invasion of Hungary1st invasion (1241–42)
2nd invasion (1285–86)
Möngke Khan died in 1259, the
Toluid Civil War
Toluid Civil War broke out
Kublai Khan and Ariq Böke. While
Hulagu supported Kublai,
Berke threw his allegiance to Ariq Böke. He also minted
coins in Ariq Böke's name. However,
neutral militarily, and after the defeat of Ariq Böke, freely acceded
to Kublai's enthronement. However, some elites of the
White Horde joined Ariq Böke's resistance.
One of the Jochid princes who joined Hulagu's army was accused of
witchcraft and sorcery against Hulagu. After receiving permission from
Hulagu executed him. After that two more Jochid princes died
suspiciously. According to some Muslim sources,
Hulagu refused to
share his war booty with
Berke in accordance with Genghis Khan's wish.
Berke was a devoted Muslim who had had a close relationship with the
Caliph Al-Musta'sim, who had been killed by
Hulagu in 1258.
The Jochids believed that Hulagu's state eliminated their presence in
the Transcaucasus. Those events increased the anger of
Berke and the war between the
Golden Horde and the
broke out in 1262.
In 1262 a rebellion erupted in Suzdal, killing
Mongol darughachis and
Berke planned a severe punitive expedition. But after
Alexander Nevsky begged
Berke not to punish the Russian people and the
Vladimir-Suzdal cities agreed to pay a large indemnity, Berke
The increasing tension between
Hulagu was a warning to the
Golden Horde contingents in Hulagu's army that they had better escape.
One section reached the Kipchak Steppe, another traversed Khorasan and
a third body took refuge in
Syria where they were well
Hulagu harshly punished the
rest of the
Golden Horde army in Iran.
Berke sought a joint attack
Baybars and forged an alliance with the Mamluks against Hulagu.
Golden Horde dispatched Nogai to invade the
Ilkhanate but Hulagu
forced him back in 1262. The Ilkhanids then crossed the Terek River,
capturing an empty Jochid encampment, only to be routed in a surprise
attack by Nogai's forces. Many of them were drowned as the ice broke
on the frozen Terek River.
Golden Horde army defeats the
Ilkhanate at the battle of Terek
in 1262. Many of Hulagu's men drowned in the
Terek River while
When the former Seljuk
Kaykaus II was arrested in the Byzantine
Empire, his younger brother
Kayqubad II appealed to Berke. An Egyptian
envoy was also detained there. With the assistance of the Kingdom of
Bulgaria (Berke's vassal), Nogai invaded the
Empire in 1264. He forced
Michael VIII Palaiologos
Michael VIII Palaiologos to release Kaykaus, pay tribute to the Horde,
and marry one of his daughters, Euphrosyne Palaiologina, to Nogai.
Berke gave Kaykaus
Crimea as an appanage and had him marry a Mongol
Ariq Böke had earlier placed Chagatai's grandson
Alghu as Chagatayid
Khan, ruling Central Asia. He took control of
Samarkand and Bukhara.
When the Muslim elites and the Jochid retainers in
their loyalty to Berke,
Alghu smashed the
Golden Horde appanages in
Hulagu attack the Golden Horde; he accused
Berke of purging his family in 1252. In Bukhara, he and Hulagu
slaughtered all the retainers of the
Golden Horde and reduced their
families into slavery, sparing only the Great Khan Kublai's
Berke gave his allegiance to Kublai, Alghu
declared war on Berke, seizing
Otrar and Khorazm. While the left bank
Khorazm would eventually be retaken,
Berke had lost control over
Transoxiana. In 1264
Berke marched past
Tiflis to fight against
Hulagu's successor Abagha, but he died en route.
Batu's grandson Mengu-
Timur was nominated by Kublai and succeeded his
uncle Berke. However, Mengu-
Timur secretly supported the
Kaidu against Kublai and the Ilkhanate. After the
defeat of Baraq (Chagatai Khan), a peace treaty was made among
Kaidu and him in c. 1267. One-third of
Kaidu and Mengu-
Timur according to this peace
treaty. In 1268, when a group of princes operating in
Central Asia on Kublai's behalf mutinied and arrested two sons of the
Qaghan (Great Khan), they sent them to Mengu-Timur. One of them,
Nomoghan, favorite of Kublai, was located in the Crimea.
Timur might have struggled with Hulagu's successor
Abagha for a
brief period of time, but the Great Khan Kublai forced them to sign a
peace treaty. He was allowed to take his share in Persia.
Independently from the Khan, Nogai expressed his desire to ally with
Baybars in 1271. Despite the fact that he was proposing a joint attack
Iran with the Mamluks of Egypt, Mengu-
Timur congratulated Abagha
when Baraq was defeated by the Ilkhan in 1270.
In 1267, Mengu-
Timur issued a diploma – jarliq – to exempt Rus'
clergy from any taxation and gave to the Genoese and
rights to hold
Caffa and Azov. Some of Mengu-Timur's relatives
converted to Christianity at the same time and settled among the Rus'
people. Even though Nogai invaded the Orthodox Christian Byzantine
Empire in 1271, the Khan sent his envoys to maintain friendly
relationship with Michael VIII Palaiologos. He ordered the Grand
prince of Rus to allow German merchants free travel through his lands.
This gramota says:
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Mengu-Timur's word to Prince Yaroslav: give the German merchants way
into your lands. From Prince Yaroslav to the people of Riga, to the
great and the young, and to all: your way is clear through my lands;
and who comes to fight, with them I do as I know; but for the merchant
the way is clear.
This decree also allowed Novgorod's merchants to travel throughout the
Suzdal lands without restraint. Mengu
Timur honored his
vow: when the
Danes and the
Livonian Knights attacked Novgorod
Republic in 1269, the Khan's great basqaq (darughachi), Amraghan, and
Mongols assisted the Russian army assembled by the Grand duke
Germans and the
Danes were so cowed that they sent gifts
Mongols and abandoned the region of Narva. The
Mongol Khan's authority extended to all Russian principalities, and in
1274–75 the census took place in all Rus' cities, including Smolensk
Dual khanship (1281–1299)
Tode Mongke Khan of the Golden Horde
Timur was succeeded in 1281 by his brother Töde Möngke, who
was a Muslim. He made peace with Kublai, returned his sons to him, and
acknowledged his supremacy. Nogai and Köchü,
Khan of the
White Horde and son of Orda Khan, also made peace with the
Yuan dynasty and the Ilkhanate. According to
Mamluk historians, Töde
Möngke sent the Mamluks a letter proposing to fight against their
common enemy, the unbelieving Ilkhanate. This indicates that he might
have had an interest in
Azerbaijan and Georgia, which were both ruled
by the Ilkhans.
In the 1270s Nogai savagely raided Bulgaria and
Lithuania. He blockaded
Michael Asen II inside Drăstăr
in 1279, executed the rebel emperor
Ivailo in 1280, and forced George
Terter I to seek refuge in the
Byzantine Empire in 1292. In 1284
Saqchi came under the
Mongol rule during the major invasion of
Bulgaria, and coins were struck in the Khan's name.
Smilets became emperor of
Bulgaria according to the wishes of Nogai
Khan, who helped his allies the Byzantines. Accordingly, the reign of
Smilets has been considered the height of
Mongol overlordship in
Bulgaria. When he was expelled by a local boyar c. 1295, the Mongols
launched another invasion to protect their protege. Nogai compelled
Stefan Milutin to accept
Mongol supremacy and received
his son, Stefan Dečanski, as hostage in 1287. Under his rule, the
Vlachs, Slavs, Alans, and Turco-
Mongols lived in modern-day Moldavia.
After their failed but devastating invasion of Hungary in 1285, Nogai,
Talabuga, and other noyans overthrew Töde
Möngke because he was not
an active Khan surrounded by clerics and sheikhs.
Talabuga was elected
as Khan, and Töde
Möngke was left to live in peace. In addition to
his attack on Poland in 1287, Talabuga's army made unsuccessful
attempts to invade the
Ilkhanate in 1288 and 1290.
Regions in the lower
Volga inhabited by the descendants of Nogai
At the same time, the influence of Nogai greatly increased in the
Golden Horde. Backed by him, some Rus' princes, such as Dmitry of
Pereslavl, refused to come to the court of the Khan in Sarai, while
Andrey of Gorodets
Andrey of Gorodets sought assistance from Töde
Möngke. Nogai vowed to support Dmitry in his struggle for the grand
ducal throne. On hearing about this, Andrey renounced his claims to
Novgorod and returned to Gorodets. In 1285 Andrey again
Mongol army under the
Borjigin prince to Russia, but Dmitry
expelled them. Under Nogai, the western part of the Horde and its
vassals became de facto independent. During the punitive expedition
against the Circassians, the Khan's suspicion of Nogai increased.
Talabuga challenged Nogai, who organized a coup and replaced him with
Toqta in 1291.
Mikhail Yaroslavich was summoned to appear before Nogai
in Sarai, and
Daniel of Moscow
Daniel of Moscow declined to come. In 1293
Toqta sent a
punitive expedition led by his brother, Tudaun (Dyeden in Russian
Belarus to punish those stubborn subjects.
The latter sacked fourteen major cities, finally forcing Dmitry to
The Jochid vassal princes of
Galicia-Volhynia contributed troops for
invasions of Europe by
Nogai Khan and Talabuga.
Nogai's daughter married a son of Kublai's niece, Kelmish, who was
wife of a
Qongirat general of the Golden Horde. Nogai was angry with
Kelmish's family because her
Buddhist son despised his Muslim
daughter. For this reason, he demanded
Toqta send Kelmish's husband to
him. Nogai's independent actions related to Rus' princes and foreign
merchants had already annoyed the Khan. The Khan thus refused and
declared war on Nogai.
Toqta was defeated in their first battle. When
the legitimate Khan
Toqta tried a second time, Nogai was killed in
battle in 1299 at the Kagamlik, near the Dnieper.
Toqta had his son
stationed in Saqchi and along the
Danube as far as the Iron
Gate. Nogai's son Chaka, who had briefly made himself
Emperor of Bulgaria, was murdered by
Theodore Svetoslav on the orders
Timur died, rulers of the
Golden Horde withdrew their
support from Kaidu, the head of the House of Ögedei.
Kaidu tried to
restore his influence in the
Golden Horde by sponsoring his own
candidate Kobeleg against Bayan (r. 1299–1304), Khan of the White
Horde. After taking military support from Toqta, Bayan
asked help from the
Yuan dynasty and the
Ilkhanate to organize a
unified attack on the
Chagatai Khanate under the leadership of Kaidu
and his number two Duwa. However, the Yuan court was unable to send
quick military support.
General peace (1299–1312)
The division of the
Mongol Empire, c. 1300, with the
Golden Horde in
From 1300 to 1303 a severe drought occurred in the areas surrounding
the Black Sea.
Toqta allowed the remnants of Nogai's followers to live
in his lands. He demanded that the Ilkhan
Ghazan and his successor
Azerbaijan back but was refused. Then he sought
Egypt against the Ilkhanate.
Toqta made his man ruler
in Ghazna, but he was expelled by its people.
Toqta dispatched a peace
mission to the Ilkhan
Gaykhatu in 1294, and peace was maintained
mostly uninterrupted until 1318.
In 1304 ambassadors from the
Mongol rulers of
Central Asia and the
Yuan announced to
Toqta their general peace proposal. Toqta
immediately accepted the supremacy of Yuan emperor Temür Öljeytü,
and all yams (postal relays) and commercial networks across the Mongol
Toqta introduced the general peace among the Mongol
khanates to Rus' princes at the assembly in Pereyaslavl.
The Yuan influence seemed to have increased in the
Golden Horde as
some of Toqta's coins carried
'Phags-pa script in addition to
Mongolian script and Persian characters.
Bulgarian Empire was still tributary to the
The Khan arrested the Italian residents of Sarai and besieged
1307. The cause was apparently Toqta's displeasure at the Genoese
slave trade of his subjects, who were mostly sold as soldiers to
Egypt. The Genoese resisted for a year, but in 1308 they
set fire to their city and abandoned it. Relations between the
Italians and the
Golden Horde remained tense until Toqta's death.
The Khan was married to Mary, illegitimate daughter of the Byzantine
Emperor, securing the Byzantine-
Mongol alliance after the defeat of
Nogai. A report reached Western Europe that
highly favourable to the Christians. According to Muslim
Toqta remained an idol-worshiper (
Tengerism) and showed favour to religious men of all faiths, though he
During the late reign of Toqta, tensions between princes of
Moscow became violent.
Toqta might have considered eliminating the
special status of the Grand principality of Vladimir, placing all the
Rus' princes on the same level.
Toqta decided to personally visit
northern Russia, but he died while crossing the
Political evolution (1312–1359)
After Uzbeg (Öz-Beg) assumed the throne in 1313, he adopted
the state religion. He proscribed
Shamanism among the
Mongols in Russia, thus reversing the spread of the Yuan culture. By
1315, Uzbeg had successfully Islamicized the Horde, killing Jochid
Buddhist lamas who opposed his religious policy and
succession of the throne.
Uzbeg Khan continued the alliance with the
Mamluks begun by
Berke and his predecessors. He kept a friendly
relationship with the
Sultan and his shadow
Caliph in Cairo.
After a long delay and much discussion, he married a princess of the
blood to Al-Nasir Muhammad,
Sultan of Egypt.
Dmitri avenging the death of his father in the ordo (palace) of
Uzbeg Khan, killing Yury.
The policy of
Mongol rulers regarding the Rus' was to constantly
switch alliances in an attempt to keep
Eastern Europe weak
and divided. With the assistance of Sarai, the Grand duke Mikhail
Yaroslavich won the battle against the party in
Novgorod in 1316.
While Mikhail was asserting his authority, his rival Yury of Moscow
ingratiated himself into the favor of Uzbeg so that he appointed him
chief of the Rus' princes and gave him his sister, Konchak, in
marriage. After spending three years at Uzbeg's court, Yury returned
with an army of
Mongols and Mordvins. After he ravaged the villages of
Tver, Yury was defeated by Mikhail in December 1318, and his new wife
Mongol general, Kawgady, were captured. While she stayed in
Tver, Konchak, who converted to Christianity and adopted the name
Agatha, died. Mikhail's rivals suggested to
Uzbeg Khan that he had
poisoned the Khan's sister and revolted against his rule. Mikhail was
summoned to Sarai and executed on November 22,
1318. In 1322, Mikhail's son, Dmitry, seeking
revenge for his father's murder, went to Sarai and persuaded the Khan
that Yury had appropriated a large portion of the tribute due to the
Horde. Yury was summoned to the Horde for a trial, but he was killed
by Dmitry before any formal investigation. Eight months later, Dmitry
was also executed by the Horde for his crime.
At first Uzbeg did not want to empower Moscow. In 1327, the Baskaki
Shevkal, cousin of Uzbeg, arrived in
Tver from the Horde, with a large
retinue. They took up residence at Aleksander's palace. Rumors spread
that Shevkal wanted to occupy the throne for himself and introduce
Islam to the city. When, on 15 August 1327, the
Mongols tried to take
a horse from a deacon named Dyudko, he cried for help and a mob of
furious people fell on the
Tatars and killed them all. Shevkal and his
remaining guards were burnt alive. Thus
Uzbeg Khan began backing
Moscow as the leading Russian state. Ivan I Kalita was granted the
title of grand prince and given the right to collect taxes from other
Russian potentates. The Khan also sent Ivan at the head of an army of
50,000 soldiers to punish Tver. Aleksander was shown mercy in 1335,
Moscow requested that he and his son Feoder be quartered
in Sarai by orders of the Khan on October 29, 1339.
Territories of the
Golden Horde under Öz Beg Khan.
Uzbeg, whose total army exceeded 300,000, repeatedly raided Thrace,
partly in service of Bulgaria's war against Byzantium and Serbia
beginning in 1319. The
Byzantine Empire under Andronikos II
Andronikos III Palaiologos
Andronikos III Palaiologos was raided by the Golden
Horde between 1320 and 1341, until the Byzantine port of Vicina
Macaria was occupied. Some sources report that Uzbeg also married
Andronikos III's illegitimate daughter, who had taken the name
Bayalun, and who later, after relations between the Horde and the
Byzantines deteriorated, fled back to the Byzantine Empire, apparently
fearing her forced conversion to Islam. His
armies pillaged Thrace for forty days in 1324 and for fifteen days in
1337, taking 300,000 captives. However, his attempt to reassert Mongol
control over Serbia in 1330 was unsuccessful. Backed by
Basarab I of Wallachia
Basarab I of Wallachia declared an independent state from the
Hungarian crown in 1330.
Uzbeg allowed the Genoese to settle in
Crimea after his accession, but
Mongols sacked their outpost
Sudak in 1322 when the Christians
defied the Muslims in the city. The Genoese merchants in
the other towns were not molested.
Pope John XXII
Pope John XXII requested Uzbeg to
restore Roman Catholic churches destroyed in the region. Thus, the
Khan signed a new trade treaty with the Genoese in 1339 and allowed
them to rebuild the walls of Kaffa. In 1332 he had allowed the
Venetians to establish a colony at Tanais on the Don. A decree, issued
probably by Mengu-Timur, allowing the
Franciscans to proselytize, was
renewed by Uzbeg in 1314.
Golden Horde invaded the
Ilkhanate under Abu Sa'id in 1318, 1324,
and 1335. Uzbeg's ally Al-Nasir refused to attack Abu Sa'id because
the Ilkhan and the
Sultan signed a peace treaty in 1323. In
1326 Uzbeg reopened friendly relations with the
Empire of the Great
Khan and began to send tributes thereafter. From 1339 he
received annually 24,000 ding in Yuan paper currency from the Jochid
appanages in China. When the
Ilkhanate collapsed after Abu
Sa'id's death, its senior-beys approached Uzbeg in their desperation
to find a leader, but the latter declined after consulting with his
senior emir, Qutluq Timür.
In 1323 Grand Duke
Lithuania gained control of
installed his brother Fedor as prince, but the principality's tribute
to the Khan continued. On a campaign a few years later, the
Lithuanians under Fedor included the Khan's basqaq in their
Under Uzbeg and his successor
Janibeg (1342–1357), Islam, which
among some of the Turks in Eurasia had deep roots going back into
Mongol times, gained general acceptance, though its adherents
remained tolerant of other beliefs. In order to successfully expand
Mongols built a mosque and other "elaborate places"
requiring baths — an important element of Muslim culture. Sarai
attracted merchants from other countries. The slave trade flourished
due to strengthening ties with the
Mamluk Sultanate. Growth of wealth
and increasing demand for products typically produce population
growth, and so it was with Sarai. Housing in the region increased,
which transformed the capital into the center of a large Muslim
Janibeg sponsored joint Mongol-Rus' military expeditions against
Lithuania and Poland. In 1344 his army marched against Poland with
auxiliaries from Galicia–Volhynia, as Volhynia was part of
Lithuania. In 1349, however, Galicia–Volhynia was occupied by a
Polish-Hungarian force, and the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia was
finally conquered and incorporated into Poland. This act put an end to
the relationship of vassalage between the Galicia–Volhynia Rus' and
the Golden Horde.
Black Death of the 1340s was a major factor contributing to the
economic downfall of the Golden Horde.
Janibeg abandoned his father's
Balkan ambitions and backed
Lithuania and Poland. He
also asserted Jochid dominance over the
Chagatai Khanate and conquered
Tabriz, ending Chobanid rule there in 1356. After accepting the
surrender of the Jalayirids,
Janibeg boasted that three uluses of the
Mongol Empire were under his control. The Polish King, Casimir III the
Great, submitted to the Horde and undertook to pay tribute in order to
avoid more conflicts.[full citation needed] The
Mongol princes were sent by
Janibeg to assist
Poland.[verification needed] Following the
subsequent assassination of Janibeg, the
Golden Horde quickly lost
Azerbaijan to the
Shaikh Uvais in 1357.
Great troubles (1359–1381)
Battle of Kulikovo
Battle of Kulikovo in 1380
Following the assassination of
Berdibek by his brother in 1359, the
Khanate sank into prolonged internecine war, in which sometimes as
many as four Khans vied for recognition by the emirs and for
possession of major cities like Sarai, Qirim, and Azaq. After the
overthrow of their nominal suzerain, Yuan Emperor Toghan
Golden Horde lost touch with
White Horde descendants of Orda and Tuqa-Timur
carried on generally free from trouble until the late 1370s. Urus Khan
White Horde took Sarai and reunited most of the Horde from
Khorazm to Desht-i-Kipchak in 1375.
By the 1380s, Shaybanids, Muscovites, and Qashan attempted to break
free of the Khan's power. The Grand Duchy of
Lithuania profited from
this situation and pushed deeper into
Golden Horde territory than in
any previous expedition, and the Grand Duke
Algirdas defeated forces
of Murad Khan at the battle of Blue Waters c.1362.
In western Pontic steppe, Mamai, a
Tatar general who was a king-maker,
attempted to reassert
Tatar authority over Russia. His army was
defeated by the
Dmitri Donskoy at the Battle of Kulikovo
in 1380, Donskoy's second consecutive victory over the Tatars. While
preparing another invasion of Moscow,
Mamai faced a greater challenge
from the east. In 1379, Tokhtamysh, a kinsman of Urus Khan, won
leadership of the
White Horde with the assistance of Tamerlane. He
Mamai and annexed the territory of the Blue Horde,
briefly reestablishing the
Golden Horde as a dominant regional power
A brief reunion (1381–1419)
See also: Tokhtamysh–
Tokhtamysh besieges Moscow.
After Mamai's defeat,
Tokhtamysh restored the dominance of the Golden
Russia by attacking
Russian lands in 1382. He besieged
Moscow on August 23, but Muscovites beat off his attack, using
firearms for the first time in Russian history. On August
26, two sons of Tokhtamysh's supporter Dmitry of Suzdal, Dukes Vasily
Suzdal and Semyon of Nizhny Novgorod, who were present in
Tokhtamysh's forces, persuaded the Muscovites to open the city gates,
promising that their forces would not harm the city. This
allowed Tokhtamysh's troops to burst in and destroy Moscow, killing
Tokhtamysh also crushed the Lithuanian army
Poltava in the next year. Władysław II Jagiełło,
Grand Duke of
Lithuania and King of Poland, accepted his supremacy and
agreed to pay tribute in turn for a grant of Rus'
territory. For another century,
Russia was forced back
Elated by his success,
Tokhtamysh invaded Azerbaijan, Khwarezm, and
Transoxiana, parts of Timur's empire, and
Timur declared war against
him. In 1395-1396,
Timur annihilated Tokhtamysh's army, destroyed his
capital, looted the Crimean trade centers, and deported the most
skillful craftsmen to his own capital in Samarkand.
Tokhtamysh fled, Urus Khan's grandson, Temür Qutlugh, was chosen
Khan in Sarai, and Koirijak was appointed sovereign of the White Horde
by Timur. Temür Qutlugh's chief emir
Edigu was the real
rulers of the Golden Horde.
Timur and his forces advance against the Golden Horde, Khan
Tokhtamysh escaped to the Grand Duchy of
Lithuania and asked Vytautas
for assistance in regaining his power over the Horde. In exchange for
such assistance, he offered his suzerainty over the Rus' lands. Edigu
Vytautas at the
Battle of the Vorskla River
Battle of the Vorskla River in
1399. The trade routes never recovered from Timur's destruction, and
Tokhtamysh died in obscurity in 1405. His son Jalal al-Din fled to
Lithuania. While in Lithuania, he fought in the Battle of Grunwald
against the Teutonic Order.
Edigu forced the Grand Prince of
Moscow to accept the Khan's supremacy
in 1408. Seeing
Tatar commoners selling their children into slavery as
damaging to both the manpower and the prestige of the Golden Horde's
Edigu and his puppet Khan prohibited the slave trade at a
kurultai. Despite some rebellions of
Genghisid princes, he kept the
Horde united until 1410 when he was expelled to Central Asia.
While he was absent, Jalal al-Din returned from
Lithuania and briefly
took the throne.
Edigu returned to the Horde and set up his ordo in
Crimea, challenging the sons of
Tokhtamysh before his murder in 1419.
Olug Moxammat became Khan of the Golden Horde. However,
his authority was limited to the lower banks of the
Tokhtamysh's other son Kepek reigned. Together with the Khan claimant
Dawlat Berdi, they were beaten by Baraq of the Uzbeks in 1421. The
latter was assassinated in 1427 and
Olug Moxammat reenthroned. The
Svitrigaila supported Olugh Moxammat's rival Sayid
Ahmad I, who in 1433 gained the
Golden Horde throne. Vasili II of
Russia also supported Sayid Ahmad in order to weaken Olugh Moxammat
who established the
Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan and made
Moscow a tributary.
Švitrigaila during the Lithuanian Civil War
The Horde (Great Horde) broke up into separate Khanates:
Khanate (1468, later
Khanate of Sibir)
Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan (1438) –
Qasim Khanate (1452)
Nogai Horde (1440s)
Kazakh Khanate (1456)
Khanate of Astrakhan (1466)
In the summer of 1470 (other sources give 1469), the last prominent
Khan, Ahmed, organized an attack against Moldavia, the Kingdom of
Poland, and Lithuania. By August 20, the Moldavian forces under
Stephen the Great
Stephen the Great defeated the
Tatars at the battle of Lipnic.
In 1474 and 1476, Ahmed insisted that Ivan III should recognize
Russia's vassal dependence on the Horde. However, the correlation of
forces was not in the Horde's favor. In 1480, Ahmed organized another
military campaign against Moscow, which would result in the Horde's
Russia finally freed itself from the Horde, thus ending over
250 years of Tatar-
Mongol control. On 6 January 1481, the Khan was
killed by Ibak Khan, the prince of Tyumen, and
Nogays at the mouth of
the Donets River.
See also: Great Horde
The Great stand on the Ugra river, 1480
The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of
possessed much of the
Ukraine at the time) were attacked in
1487–1491 by the remnant of the Golden Horde. They reached as far as
Lublin in eastern Poland before being decisively beaten at
Crimean Khanate became a vassal state of the
Ottoman Empire in
1475 and subjugated what remained of the Great Horde, sacking Sarai in
1502. After seeking refuge in Lithuania, Sheikh Ahmed, last Khan of
the Horde, died in prison in
Kaunas some time after 1504. According to
other sources, he was released from the Lithuanian prison in
A unified Rus conquered the
Khanate of Kazan
Khanate of Kazan in 1552, the
Astrakhan in 1556, and the
Khanate of Sibir
Khanate of Sibir in 1582. The Crimean
Tatars wreaked havoc in southern Russia,
Ukraine and even Poland in
the course of the 16th and early 17th centuries (see Crimean–Nogai
raids into East Slavic lands), but they were not able to defeat Russia
or take Moscow. Under Ottoman protection, the
Khanate of Crimea
continued its precarious existence until Catherine the Great annexed
it on April 8, 1783. It was by far the longest-lived of the successor
states to the Golden Horde.
Geography and society
Genghis Khan assigned four
Mongol mingghans: the Sanchi'ud (or
Salji'ud), Keniges, Uushin, and Je'ured clans to Jochi. By
the beginning of the 14th century, noyans from the Sanchi'ud,
Ongud (Arghun), Keniges, Jajirad, Besud, Oirat, and Je'ured
clans held importants positions at the court or elsewehere. There
existed four mingghans (4,000) of the
Jalayir in the left wing of the
Jochi (Golden Horde).
The population of the
Golden Horde was largely a mixture of Turks and
Mongols who adopted
Islam later, as well as smaller numbers of
Finno-Ugrians, Sarmato-Scythians, Slavs, and people from the Caucasus,
among others (whether Muslim or not). Most of the Horde's
population was Turkic: Kipchaks, Cumans,
Volga Bulgars, Khwarezmians,
and others. The Horde was gradually Turkified and lost its Mongol
identity, while the descendants of Batu's original
constituted the upper class. They were commonly named the
Tatars by the Russians and Europeans. Russians preserved this common
name for this group down to the 20th century. Whereas most members of
this group identified themselves by their ethnic or tribal names, most
also considered themselves to be Muslims. Most of the population, both
agricultural and nomadic, adopted the Kypchak language, which
developed into the regional languages of Kypchak groups after the
The descendants of Batu ruled the
Golden Horde from Sarai Batu and
later Sarai Berke, controlling an area ranging from the
Carpathian mountains to the mouth of the
Danube River. The
descendants of Orda ruled the area from the
Ural River to Lake
Balkhash. Censuses recorded Chinese living quarters in the Tatar
parts of Novgorod,
Tver and Moscow.
Tilework fragments of a palace in Sarai.
The Golden Horde's elites were descended from four
Qiyat, Manghut, Sicivut and Qonqirat. Their supreme ruler was the
Khan, chosen by the kurultai among Batu Khan's descendants. The prime
minister, also ethnically Mongol, was known as "prince of princes", or
beklare-bek. The ministers were called viziers. Local governors, or
basqaqs, were responsible for levying taxes and dealing with popular
discontent. Civil and military administration, as a rule, were not
The Horde developed as a sedentary rather than nomadic culture, with
Sarai evolving into a large, prosperous metropolis. In the early 14th
century, the capital was moved considerably upstream to Sarai Berqe,
which became one of the largest cities of the medieval world, with
600,000 inhabitants. Sarai was described by the famous
Ibn Battuta as "one of the most beautiful cities ... full of
people, with the beautiful bazaars and wide streets", and having 13
congregational mosques along with "plenty of lesser
mosques". Another contemporary source describes it as "a
grand city accommodating markets, baths and religious
institutions". An astrolabe was discovered during
excavations at the site and the city was home to many poets, most of
whom are known to us only by name.
Despite Russian efforts at proselytizing in Sarai, the
to their traditional animist or shamanist beliefs until Uzbeg Khan
Islam as a state religion. Several rulers of
Kievan Rus' –
Mikhail of Chernigov
Mikhail of Chernigov and Mikhail of
Tver among them
– were reportedly assassinated in Sarai, but the Khans were
generally tolerant and even released the Russian
Orthodox Church from
Vassals and allies
Alexander Nevsky and a
The Horde exacted tax payments from its subject peoples – Rus'
people, Armenians, Georgians, Circassians, Alans, Crimean Greeks,
Crimean Goths, and others (Bulgarians, Vlachs). The territories of
Christian subjects were regarded as peripheral areas of little
interest as long as they continued to pay taxes. These vassal states
were never fully incorporated into the Horde, and Russian rulers early
obtained the privilege of collecting the
Tatar tax themselves. To
maintain control over Rus' and Eastern Europe, the
carried out regular punitive raids on their tributaries. At its
Golden Horde controlled the areas from Central
Khorazm to the
Danube and Narva.
There is a point of view, much propagated by Lev Gumilev, that the
Horde and Russian polities entered into a defensive alliance against
Teutonic knights and pagan Lithuanians. Proponents point to the
fact that the
Mongol court was frequented by Russian princes, notably
Yaroslavl's Feodor the Black, who boasted his own ulus near Sarai, and
Novgorod's Alexander Nevsky, the sworn brother (or anda) of Batu's
Sartaq Khan. A
Mongol contingent supported the Novgorodians
Battle of the Ice
Battle of the Ice and Novgorodians paid taxes to the Horde.
Sarai carried on a brisk trade with the Genoese trade emporiums on the
coast of the
Black Sea – Soldaia, Caffa, and Azak.
the Khans' long-standing trade partner and ally in the Mediterranean.
Berke, the Khan of Kipchak had drawn up an alliance with the Mamluk
Baibars against the
Ilkhanate in 1261.
A change in trade routes
According to Baumer  the natural trade route was down the
Volga to Serai where it intersected the east-west route north of the
Caspian, and then down the west side of the Caspian to
Azerbaijan where it met the larger east-west route south of
the Caspian. Around 1262
Berke broke with the Il-Khan
This led to several wars on the west side of the Caspian which the
Horde usually lost. The interruption of trade and conflict with Persia
led the Horde to build trading towns along the northern route. They
also allied with the Mamluks of
Egypt who were the Il-Khan's enemies.
Trade between the Horde and
Egypt was carried by the Genoese based in
Crimea. An important part of this trade was slaves for the Mamluk
army. Trade was weakened by a quarrel with the Genoese in 1307 and a
Mumluk-Persian peace in 1323. Circa 1336 the
Ilkhanate began to
disintegrate which shifted trade north. Around 1340 the route north of
the Caspian was described by Pegolotti. In 1347 a Horde siege of the
Genoese Crimean port of Kaffa led to the spread of the black death to
Europe. In 1395-96
Tamerlane laid waste to the Horde's trading towns.
Since they had no agricultural hinterland many of the towns vanished
and trade shifted south.
See also: Wings of the Golden Horde
Mongols favored decimal organization, which was inherited from
Genghis Khan. It is said that there were a total of ten political
divisions within the Golden Horde. The
Golden Horde majorly was
Blue Horde (Kok Horde) and
White Horde (Ak Horde). Blue
Horde consisted of Pontic-Caspian steppe, Khazaria,
White Horde encompassed the lands of the princes of the left
hand: Taibugin Yurt, Ulus Shiban, Ulus Tok-timur, Ulus Ezhen Horde.
Venetian port cities in
Crimea (center at Qırım). After the Mongol
conquest in 1238, the port cities in
Crimea paid the Jochids custom
duties, and the revenues were divided among all Chingisid princes of
Mongol Empire in accordance with the appanage system.,
the banks of Azov,
the country of Circassians,
Tulabuga's silver dirham
Berdi Beg of the
Golden Horde 762 Hijri (1359 AD).
Golden Horde raid at Rayzan
Golden Horde raid at Kyev
Golden Horde raid at Kozelsk
Golden Horde raid Vladimir
Golden Horde raid Suzdal
Tatar warriors besiege their opponents.
Mongols chase Hungarian king from Mohi, detail from Chronicon Pictum.
Mongol army captures a Rus' city
Mongol invasion of Hungary in 1285
Edigu's invasion of Rus.
The sack of
Batu Khan in 1238, miniature from 16th-century
The battle of Liegnitz, 1241. From a medieval manuscript of the Hedwig
Mongols of the
Golden Horde outside Vladimir presumably
demanding submission before sacking the city
Paiza of Abdullah Khan (r. 1361–70) with Mongolian script
A Rus' prince being punished by the Golden Horde
History of the Mongols
Timeline · History · Rulers ·
Culture · Language · Proto-Mongols
Mongol khanates IX-X
Khanate IX – XII
Mongol Empire 1206-1368
Yuan dynasty 1271-1368
Khitan Sultanate 1220s-1306
Chagatai Khanate 1225-1340s
Golden Horde 1240-1502
Jalairid Sultanate 1335-1432
Yuan dynasty 1368-1691
Timurid Empire 1370–1507
Kara Del 1383-1513
Four Oirat 1399-1634
Arghun dynasty 1479-1599
Mughal Empire 1526–1857
Bogd Khaganate 1911-1924
Mongolian People's Republic
Mongolian People's Republic 1924–1992
Part of a series on the
History of Russia
Early Slavs/Rus' pre-9th century Old Great
Bulgaria 632–668 Khazar
Rus' Khaganate 9th century
Volga Bulgaria 9th–13th
Kievan Rus' 882–1240 Grand Duchy of Vladimir 1157–1331
Novgorod Republic 1136–1478
Golden Horde 1240s–1480 Grand Duchy of
Moscow 1283–1547 Tsardom of
Russia 1547–1721 Russian Empire
Russian Republic 1917 Russian SFSR 1917–1991 Soviet
Union 1922–1991 Russian Federation 1991–present
Part of a series on the
History of Central Asia
Scythia Dingling/Tiele Saka
Turkic Khaganate 552–745
Oghuz Yabgu State
Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Kara-Khanid
Qara Khitai 1124–1218
Mongol Empire 1206–1368
Golden Horde 1240s–1446
Russian Turkestan 1867–1918
Great game period
Central Asia XIX a.d.–
Mongol invasion of Rus'
Timeline of the Tataro-
Mongol Yoke in Russia
Division of the
History of the western steppe
List of Khans of the Golden Horde
List of medieval
Mongol tribes and clans
List of Turkic dynasties and countries
Reference and notes
^ a b c Kołodziejczyk (2011), p. 4.
^ Zahler, Diane (2013). The
Black Death (Revised Edition).
Twenty-First Century Books. p. 70.
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^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006).
"East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of
World-systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 12
Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns
of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies
Quarterly. 41 (3): 498. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053.
^ German A. Fedorov-Davydov The Monetary System of The Golden Horde*.
Translated by L. I. Smirnova (Holden). Retrieved: 14 July 2017.
^ Perrie, Maureen, ed. (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume
1, From Early Rus' to 1689. Cambridge University Press. p. 130.
^ a b "Golden Horde". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Also called
Khanate Russian designation for Juchi's Ulus, the western part
Mongol Empire, which flourished from the mid-13th century to
the end of the 14th century. The people of the
Golden Horde were
mainly a mixture of Turkic and Uralic peoples and
Scythians and, to a lesser extent, Mongols, with the latter generally
constituting the aristocracy. Distinguish the Kipchak
Khanate from the
earlier Cuman-Kipchak confederation in the same region that had
previously held sway, before its conquest by the Mongols.
^ Atwood (2004), p. 201.
^ Gleason, Abbott (2009). A Companion to Russian History. John Wiley
& Sons. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-4443-0842-6.
^ "рЕПЛХМ гНКНРЮЪ нПДЮ - НЬХАЙЮ РНКЛЮВЮ
16 ЯРНКЕРХЪ (мХК лЮЙЯХМЪ) / оПНГЮ.ПС -
МЮЖХНМЮКЭМШИ ЯЕПБЕП ЯНБПЕЛЕММНИ
ОПНГШ". Proza.ru. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
^ Ostrowski, Donald G. (Spring 2007). "Encyclopedia of
Mongol Empire, and: The
Mongols and the West, 1221–1410, and:
Daily Life in the
Mongol Empire, and: The Secret History of the
Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century
(review)". Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History.
Project MUSE. 8 (2): 431–441. doi:10.1353/kri.2007.0019.
^ May, T. (2001). "
Khanate of the
Golden Horde (Kipchak)". North
Georgia College and State University. Archived from the original on
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^ Spinei, Victor (2009). The Romanians and the Turkic Nomads North of
Danube Delta from the Tenth to the Mid-Thirteenth Century. BRILL.
p. 38. ISBN 978-90-04-17536-5.
^ Atwood (2004), p. 41.
^ Allsen (1985), pp. 5-40.
^ Edward L. Keenan,
Encyclopedia Americana article
^ Grekov, B. D.; Yakubovski, A. Y. (1998) . The
Golden Horde and
its Downfall (in Russian). Moscow: Bogorodskii Pechatnik.
^ "History of Crimean Khanate". Archived from the original on
2009-01-06.‹See Tfd›(in English)
^ a b Sinor, Denis (1999). "The
Mongols in the West". Journal of Asian
History. Harrassowitz Verlag. 33 (1): 1–44. JSTOR 41933117.
^ Martin (2007), p. 152.
^ Atwood (2004), p. 213.
^ Jackson (2014), pp. 123–124.
^ Annales Mellicenses. Continuatio Zwetlensis tertia, MGHS, IX, p.644
^ Jackson (2014), p. 202.
^ Kirakos, Istoriia p. 236
^ Mukhamadiev, A. G. Bulgaro-Tatarskiya monetnaia sistema, p. 50
^ Rashid al-Din-Jawal al Tawarikhi, (Boyle) p. 256
^ Jackson, Peter (1995). "The
Mongols and Europe". In Abulafia, David
(ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 5, C.1198-c.1300.
Cambridge University Press. p. 709. ISBN 978-0-521-36289-4.
^ Barthold, W. (2008) . Turkestan Down to the
ACLS Humanities E-Book. p. 446. ISBN 978-1-59740-450-1.
^ Howorth (1880).
^ Biran, Michal (2013). Qaidu and the Rise of the Independent Mongol
State In Central Asia. Taylor & Francis. p. 52.
^ Man, John (2012). Kublai Khan. Transworld. p. 229.
^ Saunders, J. J. (2001). The History of the
University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 130–132.
^ Amitai-Preiss, Reuven (2005).
Mongols and Mamluks: The
Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281. Cambridge University Press.
pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-521-52290-8.
^ Anton Cooper On the Edge of Empire: Novgorod's trade with the Golden
^ GVNP, p.13; Gramota#3
^ Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Zenkovsky, Betty Jean, eds. (1986). The
Nikonian Chronicle: From the year 1241 to the year 1381. Kingston
Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-940670-02-0.
^ Vernadsky, George; Karpovich, Michael (1943). A History of Russia:
Mongols and Russia, by George Vernadsky. Yale University Press.
^ Rashid al Din-II Successors (Boyle), p. 897
^ Allsen (1985), p. 21.
^ Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages,
500-1250. Cambridge University Press. p. 414.
^ Howorth (1880), p. 130.
^ Byzantino Tatarica, p.209
Baybars al Mansuri-Zubdat al-Fikra, p. 355
^ Spuler (1943), p. 78.
^ Barthold, V.V. Four Studies on Central Asia. Translated by Minorsky,
V.; Minorsky, T. Brill. p. 127.
^ Grousset, René (1970). The
Empire of the Steppes: A History of
Central Asia. Rutgers University Press. p. 335.
^ Boyle, J. A. (1968). "Dynastic and Political History of the
Il-Khans". In Boyle, J. A. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran.
Cambridge University Press. p. 374. ISBN 978-0-521-06936-6.
^ G. V. Vernadsky The
Mongols and Russia, p. 74
^ Badarch Nyamaa – The coins of
Mongol empire and clan tamgna of
khans (XIII–XIV) (Монеты монгольских ханов),
^ a b Jackson (2014), p. 204.
^ Spuler (1943), p. 84.
^ Vásáry, István (2005).
Cumans and Tatars: Oriental Military in
the Pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365. Cambridge University Press.
p. 91. ISBN 978-1-139-44408-8.
^ Ptolomy of Lucca Annales, p.237
^ DeWeese, Devin (2010). Islamization and Native Religion in the
Golden Horde: Baba TŸkles and Conversion to
Islam in Historical and
Epic Tradition. Penn State Press. p. 99.
^ Journal of Asiatic Studies, 4th ser. xvii., 115[full citation
^ Martin (2007), p. 175.
^ Fennell, John (1988). "Princely Executions in the Horde
1308–1339". Forschungen zur Osteuropaischen Geschichte. 38: 9–19.
^ Mihail-Dimitri Sturdza, Dictionnaire historique et Généalogique
des grandes familles de Grèce, d'Albanie et de Constantinople (Great
families of Greece, Albania and Constantinople: Historical and
genealogical dictionary) (1983), page 373
^ Saunders (2001).
^ Jireuek Bulgaria, pp. 293–295
^ Ibn Battuta-, 2, 414 415
^ Allsen, Thomas T. (2006). The Royal Hunt in Eurasian History.
University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 256.
^ Atwood (2004), "Golden Horde".
^ Rowell, S. C. (2014).
Lithuania Ascending. Cambridge University
Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-107-65876-9.
^ Zdan, Michael B. (June 1957). "The Dependence of Halych-Volyn' Rus'
on the Golden Horde". The Slavonic and East European Review. 35 (85):
521–522. JSTOR 4204855.
^ CICO-X, pp.189
^ Jackson (2014), p. 211.
^ Encyclopedia of
Russia and the Golden Horde, by Charles J. Halperin, page 28
^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) Dmitri Donskoi Epoch Archived 2005-03-12
at the Wayback Machine
^ ‹See Tfd›(in Russian) History of
Moscow settlements – Suchevo
Archived 2007-01-27 at the Wayback Machine
^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, Entry on
"Московское восстание 1382"
^ René Grousset, The
Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central
Asia, p. 407
^ ed. Johann Voigt, Codex diplomaticus Prussicus, 6 vols, VI, p. 47
^ Howorth (1880), p. 287.
^ (Lithuanian) Jonas Zinkus, et al., ed (1985–1988). "Ašmenos
mūšis". Tarybų Lietuvos enciklopedija. I. Vilnius, Lithuania:
Vyriausioji enciklopedijų redakcija. p. 115. LCC 86232954
^ "Russian Interaction with Foreign Lands". Strangelove.net. Archived
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^ Kołodziejczyk (2011), p. 66.
^ Blair, Sheila; Art, Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic (1995).
جامع التواريخ: Rashid Al-Din's Illustrated History of the
World. Nour Foundation. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-19-727627-3.
^ Halperin, Charles J. (1987).
Russia and the Golden Horde: The Mongol
Impact on Medieval Russian History. Indiana University Press.
p. 111. ISBN 978-0-253-20445-5.
^ Encyclopædia Britannica
^ Encyclopædia Britannica
^ a b c Ravil Bukharaev (2014).
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^ Ravil Bukharaev, David Matthews, eds. (2013). Historical Anthology
Tatar Verse. Routledge. p. 15.
ISBN 9781136814655.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
^ Mantran, Robert (Fossier, Robert, ed.) "A Turkish or Mongolian
Islam" in The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Middle Ages:
1250-1520, p. 298
^ Christoph Baumer, History of Central Asia, volume 3, pp 263-270,
2016. He seems to be following Virgil Ciociltan, The
Mongols and the
Black Sea Trade, 2012
^ Jackson, Peter (1978). The Dissolution of the
Harrassowitz. pp. 186–243.
^ A. P. Grigorev and O. B. Frolova, Geographicheskoy opisaniye Zolotoy
Ordi v encyclopedia al-Kashkandi-Tyurkologicheskyh sbornik, 2001, pp.
Allsen, Thomas T. (1985). "The Princes of the Left Hand: An
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George Vernadsky, The
Mongols and Russia
The Golden Horde, FTDNA
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