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Gniezno
Gniezno
([ˈɡɲeznɔ] ( listen); German: Gnesen) is a city in central-western Poland, about 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of Poznań, with about 70,000 inhabitants. One of the Piast dynasty's chief cities, it was mentioned in 10th-century sources, possibly including the Dagome Iudex, as the capital of Piast Poland. The Roman Catholic archbishop of Gniezno
Gniezno
is the primate of Poland, making it the country's ecclesiastical capital. It has belonged since 1999 to the Greater Poland
Poland
Voivodeship, and is the administrative seat of Gniezno County (powiat).

Contents

1 History

1.1 Legend of Lech, Czech and Rus 1.2 Cradle of the Polish state 1.3 Congress of Gniezno 1.4 Royal coronation site 1.5 Regional site of Greater Poland 1.6 Prussia 1.7 World War II

2 Archbishops of Gniezno 3 Royal coronations in Gniezno
Gniezno
cathedral 4 People from Gniezno 5 Education 6 Arts and culture 7 Twin towns — sister cities 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] There are archaeological traces of human settlement since the late Paleolithic. Early Slavonic settlements on Lech Hill and Maiden Hill are dated to the 8th century.[1] At the beginning of the 10th century this was the site of several places sacred to the Slavic religion. The ducal stronghold was founded just before AD 940 on Lech Hill, and surrounded by some fortified suburbs and open settlements. Legend of Lech, Czech and Rus[edit] According to the Polish version of a legend, "Three brothers, Lech, Czech and Rus, were exploring the wilderness to find a place to settle. Suddenly they saw a hill with an old oak and an eagle on top. Lech said, 'This white eagle I will adopt as an emblem of my people, and around this oak I will build my stronghold, and because of the eagle nest [gniazdo in Polish][1] I will call it Gniezdno [modern: Gniezno].' The other brothers went further on to find a place for their people. Czech went to the South" (to found the Czech Lands) "and Rus went to the East" (to create the Rus' (region)).[citation needed] Cradle of the Polish state[edit] Around AD 940 Gniezno, being an important pagan cult center, became one of the main fortresses of the early Piast rulers, along with aforementioned fortresses at Giecz, Kruszwica, Poznań, Kalisz, Łęczyca, Ostrów Lednicki, Płock, Włocławek, and others. Acheological excavations on Lech Hill in 2010 discovered an 11th-century tomb by the foundations of St. George's church, near the remains of a pagan burial mound discovered earlier on the hill[2]. Discoveries indicate that Lech Hill could have been the burial place of rulers even before the baptism of Mieszko I. After the adoption of Christianity by Mieszko I, his son Bolesław I Chrobry deposed the remains of Saint Adalbert in a church, newly built on the Hill, to underline Gniezno's importance as the religious centre and capital of his kingdom. Congress of Gniezno[edit] It is here that the Congress of Gniezno
Congress of Gniezno
took place in the year 1000 AD, during which Bolesław I the Brave, Duke of Poland, received Holy Roman Emperor Otto III.[3] The emperor and the Polish duke celebrated the foundation of the Polish ecclesiastical province (archbishopric) in Gniezno, along with newly established bishoprics in Kołobrzeg
Kołobrzeg
for Pomerania; Wrocław
Wrocław
for Silesia; Kraków
Kraków
for Lesser Poland
Poland
in addition to the bishopric in Poznań
Poznań
for western Greater Poland, which was established in 968. Royal coronation site[edit] The 10th-century Gniezno Cathedral
Gniezno Cathedral
witnessed the royal coronations of Bolesław I in 1024 and his son Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
in 1025.[1] The cities of Gniezno
Gniezno
and nearby Poznań
Poznań
were captured, plundered and destroyed in 1038 by the Bohemian duke Bretislav I, which pushed the next Polish rulers to move the Polish capital to Kraków.[1] The archepiscopal cathedral was reconstructed by the next ruler, Bolesław II the Generous, who was crowned king here in 1076. In the next centuries Gniezno
Gniezno
evolved as a regional seat of the eastern part of Greater Poland, and in 1238 municipal autonomy was granted by the duke Władysław Odonic. Gniezno
Gniezno
was again the coronation site in 1295 and 1300. Regional site of Greater Poland[edit] The city was destroyed again by the Teutonic Knights' invasion in 1331, and after an administrative reform became a county within the Kalisz
Kalisz
Voivodeship (since the 14th century till 1768). Gniezno
Gniezno
was hit by heavy fires in 1515, 1613, was destroyed during the Swedish invasion wars of the 17th–18th centuries and by a plague in 1708–1710. All this caused depopulation and economic decline, but the city was soon revived during the 18th century to become the Gniezno Voivodeship
Gniezno Voivodeship
in 1768. Prussia[edit] Gniezno
Gniezno
was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
in the 1793 Second Partition of Poland
Poland
and became part of the province of South Prussia. During the Kościuszko Uprising, the Polish army under General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski liberated[4] the town on 22 August 1794 and defeated a Prussian Army
Prussian Army
north of Gniezno
Gniezno
near Łabiszyn
Łabiszyn
on 29 September 1794. But because of Kościuszko's defeat at the Battle of Maciejowice
Battle of Maciejowice
he gave up his plan to winter in Bydgoszcz
Bydgoszcz
and moved through Toruń
Toruń
and retreated to central Poland. Thus, the Prussians retook it on 7 December 1794. During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
there was an uprising against Prussian rule. The French appeared in Gniezno
Gniezno
in November 1806, and following General Jan Henryk Dabrowski's order issued to all towns and cities and country property owners to provide recruits for the organizing Polish forces, Gniezno
Gniezno
initially provided 60 recruits who participated in the battles of 1806–07.[5] Consequently, the town was included within the Duchy of Warsaw, but upon the defeat of Napoleon in Russia
Russia
in 1812 it was occupied by the Russian army and was returned to Prussia in the 1815 Congress of Vienna. Gniezno
Gniezno
was subsequently governed within Kreis Gnesen of the Grand Duchy of Posen and the later Province of Posen. Following the Greater Poland
Poland
Uprising (1918–1919) and the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
Gniezno
Gniezno
became part of the Second Polish Republic. Its citizen-soldiers joined the Polish army fighting the Bolsheviks during the Polish–Soviet War.[6] World War II[edit] Gniezno
Gniezno
was occupied by German troops on 11 September 1939 and annexed into Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
on 26 October 1939 after the invasion of Poland
Poland
and made part of Reichsgau Wartheland. The town was liberated by the Red Army on 21 January 1945 and restored to Poland. Archbishops of Gniezno[edit] Main article: Archbishop
Archbishop
of Gniezno Gniezno's Roman Catholic archbishop is traditionally the Primate of Poland
Poland
(Prymas Polski). After the partitions of Poland
Poland
the see was often combined with others, first with Poznań
Poznań
and then with Warsaw. In 1992 Pope
Pope
John Paul II reorganized the Polish hierarchy and the city once again had a separate bishop. Cardinal Józef Glemp, who had been archbishop of Gniezno
Gniezno
and Warsaw
Warsaw
and retained Warsaw, was designated to remain Primate until his retirement, but afterward the Archbishop
Archbishop
of Gniezno, at present Józef Kowalczyk, would again be Primate of Poland. Royal coronations in Gniezno
Gniezno
cathedral[edit]

Panorama of Gniezno. 19th century

25 December 1024 – Bolesław I the Brave 25 December 1025 – Mieszko II Lambert
Mieszko II Lambert
and his wife Richensa of Lotharingia 25 December 1076 – Bolesław the Generous and his wife Wyszesława of Kiev 26 June 1295 – Przemysł II
Przemysł II
and his wife Margaret of Brandenburg August 1300 – Wenceslaus II of Bohemia

Historical population

Year Number of inhabitants

1912 25 339

1980 62 400

1990 70 400

1995 71 000

People from Gniezno[edit]

Gniezno
Gniezno
Cathedral

Regional court

Hermann Senator
Hermann Senator
(1834–1911), German physician Jacob Caro (1836–1904), German historian Ludwik Ćwikliński
Ludwik Ćwikliński
(1853–1942), Polish classical philologist Günther Pancke
Günther Pancke
(1889–1973), German SS – General Heinz Reinefarth
Heinz Reinefarth
(1903–1979), German SS – General Alfons Flinik (1926–2003), Polish field hockey player Paweł Arndt
Paweł Arndt
(born 1954), Polish politician Arkadiusz Radomski (born 1977), Polish footballer Łukasz Cieślewicz
Łukasz Cieślewicz
(born 1987), Polish footballer Zo Nowak (born 1991), Polish Victoria's Secret
Victoria's Secret
model Kacper Gomólski
Kacper Gomólski
(born 1993), Polish speedway rider

Education[edit]

Collegium Europaeum Gnesnense (part of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań) The Gniezno
Gniezno
School of Humanism and Management - Millennium (Gnieźnieńska Wyższa Szkoła Humanistyczno-Menedżerska Millennium) The Archbishop's Ecclesiastical Seminary (Prymasowskie Wyższe Seminarium Duchowne) The State Vocational College in Gniezno
Gniezno
(Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa)

Arts and culture[edit]

Aleksander Fredro Theatre in Gniezno

Aleksander Fredro Theatre (Teatr im. A. Fredry) Museum of the Polish State Origins (Muzeum Początków Państwa Polskiego) Museum of Archdiocese (Muzeum Archidiecezji Gnieźnieńskiej)

Twin towns — sister cities[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Gniezno
Gniezno
is twinned with:[7]

Anagni, Italy Esztergom, Hungary Falkenberg, Sweden Saint-Malo, France Sergiyev Posad, Russia Speyer, Germany Radviliškis, Lithuania Uman, Ukraine Veendam, Netherlands[8]

Gallery[edit]

View of Old Gniezno
Gniezno
from Jelonek Lake 

Gniezno
Gniezno
Cathedral 

Bernard Maciejowski 

Codex Aureus Gnesnensis 

Gniezno
Gniezno
Doors 

Saint George's Church in Gniezno 

See also[edit]

Gniezno
Gniezno
Cathedral History of Poland Adalbert of Prague Royal coronations in Gniezno
Gniezno
cathedral Gniezno
Gniezno
Doors Archdiocese of Gniezno

References[edit]

^ a b c d Neil Wilson; Tom Parkinson; Richard Watkins (2005). "Poland". Poland
Poland
(Google Books). Lonely Planet. p. 339. ISBN 1-74059-522-X. Retrieved 26 December 2010.  (in English) ^ Szymański, Freelance Design - Marcin. "Tajemnice Wzgórza Lecha Gniezno
Gniezno
- Moje Gniezno
Gniezno
- Portal
Portal
Informacyjny Gniezna". moje-gniezno.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 2018-03-13.  ^ Günther Stöckl: Die Geschichte der Slavenmission. In: Die Kirche in ihrer Geschichte – Ein Handbuch (edited by Bernd Moeller). 2nd edition, vol. 2, Göttingen 1976, ISBN 3-525-52318-1, p. 91 (in German, limited online preview) ^ 25.9 wyzwolono Gniezno
Gniezno
(on 25th 9 Gniezno
Gniezno
was liberated) (in English) Marian B. Michalik; Eugeniusz Duraczyński (1994). Kronika powstań polskich 1794–1944. "Kronika"-Marian B. Michalik. p. 44. ISBN 83-86079-02-9.  ^ (in English) Marian B. Michalik; Eugeniusz Duraczyński (1891). Roczniki. Poznańskie Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Nauk ( Poznań
Poznań
Society of Friends of Science). p. 44. ISBN 83-86079-02-9.  ^ (in English) Marian Woźniak (1998). Encyklopedia konspiracji wielkopolskiej: 1939–1945 (Encyclopedia of conspiracy in Greater Poland: 1939–1945). Instytut Zachodni. ISBN 83-85003-97-5.  multiple pages (individual biographies) e.g. p. 275 ^ "International collaboration". gmiezno.eu. Gniezno. Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ "Zustersteden". Veendam. Retrieved 3 May 2014. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gniezno.

Wikisource has several original texts related to: Gniezno

Gniezno
Gniezno
travel guide from Wikivoyage Gniezno
Gniezno
homepage (English and German version also available), The official site of the Gniezno
Gniezno
City's Administration, from which much of the above was taken and adapted. Gniezno
Gniezno
Poviat The official site of the Gniezno
Gniezno
County, (English, German, Spanish, French, Italian and Russian version also available)

Coordinates: 52°33′N 17°36′E / 52.550°N 17.600°E / 52.550; 17.600

v t e

Historical capitals of Poland

Gniezno
Gniezno
(10th century–1038) Poznań
Poznań
(10th century–1038) Kraków
Kraków
(1038-1079) Płock
Płock
(1079-1138) Kraków
Kraków
(1138-1290) Poznań
Poznań
(1290-1296) Kraków
Kraków
(1296-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(1596-1795) Warsaw
Warsaw
(since 1918)

Capitals of the Duchy of Warsaw

Warsaw
Warsaw
(1807-1815)

De facto capitals

Łowicz
Łowicz
(1572-1573) Lublin
Lublin
(1944-1945) Łódź
Łódź
(1945-1947)

v t e

Gminas of Gniezno
Gniezno
County

Seat

Gniezno
Gniezno
(urban gmina)

Urban-rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Czerniejewo Gmina
Gmina
Kłecko Gmina
Gmina
Trzemeszno Gmina
Gmina
Witkowo

Rural gminas

Gmina
Gmina
Gniezno Gmina
Gmina
Kiszkowo Gmina
Gmina
Łubowo Gmina
Gmina
Mieleszyn Gmina
Gmina
Niechanowo

v t e

Gmina
Gmina
Gniezno

Seat (not part of the gmina)

Gniezno

Villages

Braciszewo Dalki Dębówiec Ganina Goślinowo Jankowo Dolne Kalina Krzyszczewo Łabiszynek Lubochnia Lulkowo Mączniki Mnichowo Modliszewko Modliszewo Napoleonowo Obora Obórka Osiniec Piekary Pyszczyn Pyszczynek Skiereszewo Strzyżewo Kościelne Strzyżewo Paczkowe Strzyżewo Smykowe Szczytniki Duchowne Wełnica Wierzbiczany Wola Skorzęcka Zdziechowa

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234160645 GND: 4093630-2 BNF: cb1195

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