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Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus

Distribution in Southeast Asia

Gibbons are apes in the family Hylobatidae. The family historically contained one genus, but now is split into four genera and 18 species. Gibbons occur in tropical and subtropical rainforests from eastern Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and northeast India
India
to southern China
China
and Indonesia (including the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Java). Also called the smaller apes or lesser apes,[3] gibbons differ from great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, and not making nests. In certain anatomical details, they superficially more closely resemble monkeys than great apes do, but like all apes, gibbons are tailless. Unlike most of the great apes, gibbons frequently form long-term pair bonds. Their primary mode of locomotion, brachiation, involves swinging from branch to branch for distances up to 15 m (50 ft), at speeds as high as 55 km/h (34 mph). They can also make leaps up to 8 m (26 ft), and walk bipedally with their arms raised for balance. They are the fastest and most agile of all tree-dwelling, nonflying mammals.[4] Depending on species and sex, gibbons' fur coloration varies from dark to light brown shades, and any shade between black and white, though a completely "white" gibbon is rare. Gibbon
Gibbon
species include the siamang, the white-handed or lar gibbon, and the hoolock gibbons.

Contents

1 Evolutionary history

1.1 Taxonomy 1.2 Hybrids

2 Physical description 3 Behavior 4 Diet 5 Conservation status 6 In traditional Chinese culture 7 References 8 External links

Evolutionary history[edit] Whole genome molecular dating analyses indicate that the gibbon lineage diverged from that of great apes around 16.8 million years ago (Mya) (95% confidence interval: 15.9 – 17.6 Mya; given a divergence of 29 Mya from monkeys).[5] Adaptive divergence associated with chromosomal rearrangements led to rapid radiation of the four genera 5-7 Mya. Each genus comprises a distinct, well-delineated lineage, but the sequence and timing of divergences among these genera has been hard to resolve, even with whole genome data, due to radiative speciations and extensive incomplete lineage sorting.[5][6] A recent coalescent-based species tree analysis of genome-scale datasets suggests a phylogeny for the four genera ordered as (Hylobates, (Nomascus, (Hoolock, Symphalangus))).[7] At the species level, estimates from mitochondrial DNA genome analyses suggest that Hylobates
Hylobates
pileatus diverged from H. lar and H. agilis around 3.9 Mya, and H. lar and H. agilis separated around 3.3 Mya.[6] Whole genome analysis suggests divergence of Hylobates
Hylobates
pileatus from Hylobates moloch 1.5-3.0 Mya.[5] The extinct Bunopithecus sericus is a gibbon or gibbon-like ape which, until recently, was thought to be closely related to the hoolock gibbons.[2] Taxonomy[edit]

Hominoid family tree

Agile gibbon, Hylobates
Hylobates
agilis

Siamang, Symphalangus
Symphalangus
syndactylus

Northern white-cheeked gibbon, Nomascus
Nomascus
leucogenys

Lar gibbon
Lar gibbon
( Hylobates
Hylobates
lar)

The family is divided into four genera based on their diploid chromosome number: Hylobates
Hylobates
(44), Hoolock
Hoolock
(38), Nomascus
Nomascus
(52), and Symphalangus
Symphalangus
(50).[2][8]

Family Hylobatidae: gibbons[1][8][9]

Genus
Genus
Hoolock

Western hoolock gibbon, H. hoolock Eastern hoolock gibbon, H. leuconedys Skywalker hoolock gibbon, H. tianxing[10]

Genus
Genus
Hylobates: dwarf gibbons

Lar gibbon
Lar gibbon
or white-handed gibbon, H. lar

Malaysian lar gibbon, H. l. lar Carpenter's lar gibbon, H. l. carpenteri Central lar gibbon, H. l. entelloides Sumatran lar gibbon, H. l. vestitus Yunnan lar gibbon, H. l. yunnanensis

Bornean white-bearded gibbon, H. albibarbis Agile gibbon
Agile gibbon
or black-handed gibbon, H. agilis Müller's Bornean gibbon, H. muelleri

Müller's grey gibbon, H. m. muelleri Abbott's grey gibbon, H. m. abbotti Northern grey gibbon, H. m. funereus

Silvery gibbon, H. moloch

Western silvery gibbon or western Javan gibbon, H. m. moloch Eastern silvery gibbon or central Javan gibbon, H. m. pongoalsoni

Pileated gibbon
Pileated gibbon
or capped gibbon, H. pileatus Kloss's gibbon, Mentawai gibbon or bilou, H. klossii

Genus
Genus
Symphalangus

Siamang, S. syndactylus

Genus
Genus
Nomascus: crested gibbons

Northern buffed-cheeked gibbon, N. annamensis Concolor or black crested gibbon, N. concolor

N. c. concolor N. c. lu N. c. jingdongensis N. c. furvogaster

Eastern black crested gibbon
Eastern black crested gibbon
or Cao Vit black crested gibbon, N. nasutus Hainan black crested gibbon, N. hainanus Northern white-cheeked gibbon, N. leucogenys Southern white-cheeked gibbon, N. siki Yellow-cheeked gibbon, N. gabriellae

Hybrids[edit] Many gibbons are hard to identify based on fur coloration, so are identified either by song or genetics.[11] These morphological ambiguities have led to hybrids in zoos. Zoos often receive gibbons of unknown origin, so they rely on morphological variation or labels that are impossible to verify to assign species and subspecies names, so separate species of gibbons commonly are misidentified and housed together. Interspecific hybrids, hybrids within a genus, are also suspected to occur in wild gibbons where their ranges overlap.[12] However, no records exist of fertile hybrids between different gibbon genera, either in the wild or in captivity.[5] Physical description[edit] One unique aspect of a gibbon's anatomy is the wrist, which functions something like a ball and socket joint, allowing for biaxial movement. This greatly reduces the amount of energy needed in the upper arm and torso, while also reducing stress on the shoulder joint. Gibbons also have long hands and feet, with a deep cleft between the first and second digits of their hands. Their fur is usually black, gray, or brownish, often with white markings on hands, feet, and face. Some species have an enlarged throat sac, which inflates and serves as a resonating chamber when the animals call. This structure can become quite large in some species, sometimes equaling the size of the animal's head. Their voices are much more powerful than that of any human singer, although they are at best half a man's height.[13] Gibbon
Gibbon
skulls and teeth resemble those of the great apes, and their noses are similar to those of all catarrhine primates. The dental formula is 2.1.2.32.1.2.3 [14] The siamang, which is the largest of the 17 species, is distinguished by having two fingers on each foot stuck together, hence the generic and species names Symphalangus
Symphalangus
and syndactylus.[15] Behavior[edit]

Genus
Genus
Hoolock

Like all primates, gibbons are social animals. They are strongly territorial, and defend their boundaries with vigorous visual and vocal displays. The vocal element, which can often be heard for distances up to 1 km (0.6 mi), consists of a duet between a mated pair, with their young sometimes joining in. In most species, males and some females sing solos to attract mates, as well as advertise their territories.[16] The song can be used to identify not only which species of gibbon is singing, but also the area from which it comes.[17] Gibbons often retain the same mate for life, although they do not always remain sexually monogamous. In addition to extra-pair copulations, pair-bonded gibbons occasionally "divorce."[18][19] Gibbons are among nature's best brachiators. Their ball-and-socket wrist joints allow them unmatched speed and accuracy when swinging through trees. Nonetheless, their mode of transportation can lead to hazards when a branch breaks or a hand slips, and researchers estimate that the majority of gibbons suffer bone fractures one or more times during their lifetimes.[20] They are the fastest and most agile of all tree-dwelling, nonflying mammals.[20]

Diet[edit] Gibbons' diets are about 60% fruit-based,[21] but they also consume twigs, leaves, insects, flowers, and occasionally bird eggs. Conservation status[edit] Most species are endangered, primarily due to degradation or loss of their forest habitats.[22] On the island of Phuket
Phuket
in Thailand, a volunteer-based Gibbon
Gibbon
Rehabilitation Center rescues gibbons that were kept in captivity, and are being released back into the wild.[23] The IUCN Species Survival Commission Primate
Primate
Specialist Group announced 2015 to be the Year of the Gibbon[24] and initiated events to be held around the world in zoos to promote awareness of the status of gibbons.[25] In traditional Chinese culture[edit] Further information: Monkeys in Chinese culture

Two gibbons in an oak tree by the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
painter Yì Yuánjí

The sinologist Robert van Gulik
Robert van Gulik
concluded gibbons were widespread in central and southern China
China
until at least the Song dynasty, and furthermore, based on an analysis of references to primates in Chinese poetry and other literature and their portrayal in Chinese paintings, the Chinese word yuán (猿) referred specifically to gibbons until they were extirpated throughout most of the country due to habitat destruction (circa 14th century). In modern usage, however, yuán is a generic word for ape. Early Chinese writers viewed the "noble" gibbons, gracefully moving high in the treetops, as the "gentlemen" (jūnzǐ, 君子) of the forests, in contrast to the greedy macaques, attracted by human food. The Taoists ascribed occult properties to gibbons, believing them to be able to live for several hundred years and to turn into humans.[26] Gibbon
Gibbon
figurines as old as from the fourth to third centuries BCE (the Zhou dynasty) have been found in China. Later on, gibbons became a popular object for Chinese painters, especially during the Song dynasty and early Yuan dynasty, when Yì Yuánjí and Mùqī Fǎcháng excelled in painting these apes. From Chinese cultural influence, the Zen
Zen
motif of the "gibbon grasping at the reflection of the moon in the water" became popular in Japanese art, as well, though gibbons have never occurred naturally in Japan.[27] References[edit]

^ a b Groves, C.P. (2005). Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 178–181. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. OCLC 62265494.  ^ a b c Mootnick, A.; Groves, C. P. (2005). "A new generic name for the hoolock gibbon (Hylobatidae)". International Journal of Primatology. 26 (4): 971–976. doi:10.1007/s10764-005-5332-4.  ^ " Gibbon
Gibbon
Conservation Center Working to Save South Asia's Hoolock Gibbons & Other "Small Apes"". National Geographic =. Retrieved 14 February 2016.  ^ "Gibbon". a-z animals. Retrieved 26 March 2015.  ^ a b c d Carbone, Lucia; et al. (2014). " Gibbon
Gibbon
genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes". Nature. 513 (11 Sept 2014): 195–201. doi:10.1038/nature13679. PMC 4249732 . PMID 25209798.  ^ a b Matsudaira K, Ishida T (2010) Phylogenetic relationships and divergence dates of the whole mitochondrial genome sequences among three gibbon genera. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. ^ Shi, Cheng-Min; Yang, Ziheng (January 2018). "Coalescent-Based Analyses of Genomic Sequence Data Provide a Robust Resolution of Phylogenetic Relationships among Major Groups of Gibbons". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 35 (1): 159–179. doi:10.1093/molbev/msx277.  ^ a b Geissmann, Thomas (December 1995). " Gibbon
Gibbon
systematics and species identification" (PDF). International Zoo News. 42: 467–501. Retrieved 2008-08-15.  ^ Geissmann, Thomas. " Gibbon
Gibbon
Systematics and Species Identification" (web version). Ch.3: "Adopting a Systematic Framework" Retrieved: 2011-04-05. ^ Brown, Georgia (11 January 2017). "New species of gibbon discovered in China". The Guardian.  ^ Tenaza, R. (1984). "Songs of hybrid gibbons ( Hylobates
Hylobates
lar × H. muelleri)". American Journal of Primatology. 8 (3): 249–253. doi:10.1002/ajp.1350080307.  ^ Sugawara, K. (1979). "Sociological study of a wild group of hybrid baboons between Papio anubis and P. hamadryas in the Awash Valley, Ethiopia". Primates. 20 (1): 21–56. doi:10.1007/BF02373827.  ^ Lull, Richard Swann (1921). "Seventy Seven". Organic Evolution. Newyork: The Macmillan Company. pp. 641–677.  ^ Myers, P. 2000. Family Hylobatidae, Animal
Animal
Diversity Web. Accessed April 05, 2011-04-05. ^ Geissmann, T. (2011). "Typical Characteristics". Gibbon
Gibbon
Research Lab. Retrieved 17 August 2011.  ^ Clarke E, Reichard UH, Zuberbühler K (2006). Emery N, ed. "The Syntax and Meaning of Wild Gibbon
Gibbon
Songs". PLoS ONE. 1 (1): e73. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000073. PMC 1762393 . PMID 17183705.  ^ Glover, Hilary. Recognizing gibbons from their regional accents, BioMed Central, EurekAlert.org, 6 February 2011. ^ Reichard, U (1995). "Extra-pair copulations in a monogamous gibbon ( Hylobates
Hylobates
lar)". Ethology. 100 (2): 99–112. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0310.1995.tb00319.x.  ^ Briggs, Mike; Briggs, Peggy (2005). The Encyclopedia of World Wildlife. Parragon. p. 146. ISBN 1405456809.  ^ a b Attenborough, David. Life of Mammals, "Episode 8: Life in the Trees", BBC Warner, 2003. ^ Gibbon
Gibbon
- Monkey
Monkey
Worlds Retrieved Feb-12-2015 ^ A-Z Animals: GIbbon Retrieved Feb-12-2015 ^ [1] ^ Mittermeier, Russell. "Letter of Endorsement - Year of the Gibbon" (PDF). IUCN SSC PSG Section on Small Apes. IUCN SSC Primate
Primate
Specialist Group. Retrieved 30 July 2015.  ^ "Year of the Gibbon
Gibbon
- Events". IUCN SSC PSG Section on Small Apes. IUCN SSC PSG Section on Small Apes. Retrieved 30 July 2015.  ^ van Gulik, Robert. "The gibbon in China. An essay in Chinese animal lore." E. J. Brill, Leiden, Holland. (1967). Brief summary ^ Geissmann, Thomas. " Gibbon
Gibbon
paintings in China, Japan, and Korea: Historical distribution, production rate and context" Archived 2008-12-17 at the Wayback Machine., Gibbon
Gibbon
Journal, No. 4, May 2008. (includes color reproductions of a large number of gibbon paintings by many artists)

Mammals portal

External links[edit]

Find more aboutGibbonat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons Textbooks from Wikibooks Taxonomy from Wikispecies

IUCN SSC PSG Section on Small Apes Gibbon
Gibbon
Conservation Center Gibbon
Gibbon
Network and Research Lab Gibbon
Gibbon
Conservation Alliance Gibbon
Gibbon
Rehabilitation Project View the nomLeu3 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser.

v t e

Extant primate families

Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Infraclass Eutheria Superorder Euarchontoglires

Strepsirrhini

Lorisoidea

Lorisidae Galagidae

Lemuroidea

Daubentoniidae

Cheirogaleidae Lemuridae Lepilemuridae Indriidae

Haplorhini

Tarsiidae

Simian

Platyrrhini

Cebidae Callitrichidae Aotidae Pitheciidae Atelidae

Catharrhini

Cercopithecidae

Hominoidea

Hylobatidae Hominidae

v t e

Extant species of family Hylobatidae (Gibbons)

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Suborder: Haplorrhini

Hylobates

Lar gibbon
Lar gibbon
(H. lar) Agile gibbon
Agile gibbon
(H. agilis) Bornean white-bearded gibbon
Bornean white-bearded gibbon
(H. albibarbis) Müller's Bornean gibbon
Müller's Bornean gibbon
(H. muelleri) Silvery gibbon
Silvery gibbon
(H. moloch) Pileated gibbon
Pileated gibbon
(H. pileatus) Kloss's gibbon
Kloss's gibbon
(H. klossii)

Hoolock

Western hoolock gibbon
Western hoolock gibbon
(H. hoolock) Eastern hoolock gibbon
Eastern hoolock gibbon
(H. leuconedys) Skywalker hoolock gibbon (H. tianxing)

Symphalangus

Siamang
Siamang
(S. syndactylus)

Nomascus

Northern buffed-cheeked gibbon (N. annamensis) Black crested gibbon
Black crested gibbon
(N. concolor) Eastern black brested gibbon (N. nasutus) Northern white-cheeked gibbon
Northern white-cheeked gibbon
(N. leucogenys) Yellow-cheeked gibbon
Yellow-cheeked gibbon
(N. gabriellae) Southern white-cheeked gibbon
Southern white-cheeked gibbon
(N. siki)

Category

v t e

Ape-related articles

Extant ape species

Human
Human
(Homo sapiens) Chimpanzee
Chimpanzee
(Pan spp.) Bonobo
Bonobo
(Pan paniscus) Common chimpanzee
Common chimpanzee
(Pan troglodytes) Gorilla
Gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
spp.) Western gorilla
Western gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
gorilla) Eastern gorilla
Eastern gorilla
( Gorilla
Gorilla
beringei) Orangutan
Orangutan
(Pongo spp.) Bornean orangutan
Bornean orangutan
(Pongo abelii) Sumatran orangutan
Sumatran orangutan
(Pongo pygmaeus) Tapanuli orangutan
Tapanuli orangutan
(Pongo tapanuliensis) Gibbon
Gibbon
(family: Hylobatidae)

Study of apes

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genome project Human
Human
genome project Neanderthal genome project Willie Smits Lone Drøscher Nielsen Ian Redmond Elgin Center Iowa Primate
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Personhood Research ban Kinshasa Declaration Great Ape
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See also

List of individual apes
List of individual apes
(non-human) Apes in space (non-human) Bigfoot Bushmeat Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor List of fictional primates (non-human) Great apes Human
Human
evolution Monkey
Monkey
Day Mythic humanoids Yeren Yeti

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q185939 ADW: Hylobatidae EoL: 1652 EPPO: 1HYLBF Fossilworks: 40889 GBIF: 5484 ITIS: 572775 MSW: 12100752 NCBI: 9577

Authority control

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