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Germania
Germania
Superior ("Upper Germania") was an imperial province of the Roman Empire. It comprised an area of today's western Switzerland, the French Jura and Alsace
Alsace
regions, and southwestern Germany. Important cities were Besançon
Besançon
(Vesontio), Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Argentoratum), Wiesbaden (Aquae Mattiacae), and Germania
Germania
Superior's capital, Mainz (Mogontiacum). It comprised the Middle Rhine, bordering on the Limes Germanicus, and on the Alpine province of Raetia
Raetia
to the south-east. Although it had been occupied militarily since the reign of Augustus, Germania
Germania
Superior (along with Germania
Germania
Inferior) was not made into an official province until c. 85 AD.[1]

Contents

1 Origin

1.1 Initial Roman involvement 1.2 Limit of the empire 1.3 Defensive strategy

2 End of the province 3 Governors of Germania
Germania
Superior 4 Civitates 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Origin[edit] Initial Roman involvement[edit] Main article: Lesser Germania Further information: Romanization (cultural) The terms, "Upper Germania" and "Lower Germania" do not appear in the Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
of Julius Caesar,[citation needed] yet he writes about reports that the people who lived in those regions were referred to as Germani locally, a term used for a tribe that the Romans called the Germani Cisrhenani, and that the name Germania
Germania
seems to have been adopted to designate other indigenous tribes in the area.[2][3] Lower Germania
Germania
was occupied by the Belgae. Upper Germania
Germania
was occupied by Gaulish tribes including the Helvetii, Sequani, Leuci, and Treveri, and, on the north bank of the middle Rhine, the remnant of the Germanic troops that had attempted to take Vesontio
Vesontio
under Ariovistus, but who were defeated by Caesar in 58 BC. The Romans did not abandon this region at any time after then. During a 5-year period in the initial years of his reign (28-23 BC), as Cassius Dio tells us (53.12), Octavian Caesar assumed direct governorship of the major senatorial provinces on grounds that they were in danger of insurrection and he alone commanded the troops required to restore security. They were to be restored to the senate in 10 years under proconsuls elected by the senate. Among these independent provinces were upper Germania. Apparently it had become a province in the last years of the republic. Tacitus
Tacitus
also mentions it as the province of Germania
Germania
Superior in his Annales (3.41, 4.73, 13.53). Cassius Dio viewed the Germanic tribes as Celts, an impression given perhaps by Belgica, the name assigned to lower Germania
Germania
at the time. Dio does not mention the border, but he views upper Germany
Germany
as extending to the source of the Rhine. It is not clear if he was aware of the Upper Rhine
Rhine
in Switzerland, upstream from Lake Constance. Today we call the section of the Rhine
Rhine
running through upper Germania
Germania
the middle Rhine. Limit of the empire[edit] Augustus
Augustus
had planned to incorporate all of central Germania
Germania
in one province, Germania
Germania
Magna. This plan was frustrated by the Germanic tribesmen at the Battle of Teutoburg Forest. Augustus
Augustus
decided to limit the empire at the Rhine- Danube
Danube
border. Thereafter continual conflict prevailed along it, forcing the Romans to conduct punitive expeditions and fortify Germania
Germania
Superior. By 12 BC, major bases existed at Xanten
Xanten
(Castra Vetera) and Mainz (Mogontiacum), from which Drusus operated. A system of forts gradually developed around these bases. In 69-70, all the Roman fortications along the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube
Danube
were destroyed by Germanic insurrections and civil war between the legions. At the conclusion of this violent but brief social storm they were rebuilt more extensively than before, with a road connecting Mainz
Mainz
and Augsburg
Augsburg
(Augusta Vindelicorum). Domitian
Domitian
went to war against the Chatti
Chatti
in 83-85, who were north of Frankfurt
Frankfurt
(in Hesse
Hesse
named after them). At this time the first line, or continuous fortified border, was constructed. It consisted of a cleared zone of observation, a palisade where practicable, wooden watchtowers and forts at the road crossings. The system reached maximum extent by 90. A Roman road went through the Odenwald
Odenwald
and a network of secondary roads connected all the forts and towers.

Germania
Germania
Superior and Germania
Germania
Inferior in the 3rd century.

Defensive strategy[edit] The plan governing the development of the limes was relatively simple. From a strategic point of view, the Agri Decumates, or region between the Rhine
Rhine
and Danube, offers a bulge in the line between the Celts and the Germanics, which the Germanics had tried to exploit under Ariovistus. The bulge divided the densely populated Celtic settlements along the entire river system in two. Invading forces could move up under cover of the Black Forest. Roman defensive works therefore cut across the base of the bulge, denying the protected corridor and shortening the line. The key point was the shoulder of the bulge at Mogontiacum
Mogontiacum
(Mainz) where the masse de manoevre or strategic reserves were located. The forts through the forest were relatively lightly defended and on that account were always being burned by the Alamanni. They gave advance notice, however. On being notified, the legions would strike out in preventative and punitive expeditions from Mainz
Mainz
or Strasburg, or Augsburg
Augsburg
on the other side. The entire system could only succeed if heavy troop concentrations were kept at Mainz. Fixed defenses alone are not much of a defense, in either ancient or modern times. Other forces are required for attack. At best the fixed defenses serve to warn or delay until a counterattack can be launched. For more complete details on the development of the limes, or frontier, see under Limes Germanicus. In the subsequent peaceful years, the limes lost its temporary character. Vici, or communities, developed around the forts. By 150, the towers and the bases had been rebuilt in stone. The soldiers now lived in good stone barracks within walls decorated by frescoes. Germanic civilization had changed as well. Where Caesar had described burning the wretched brush hovels of the Suebi
Suebi
who had come to fight for Ariovistus, the Chatti
Chatti
and the Alamanni
Alamanni
now lived in comfortable Romanized villages around the limes. Germania
Germania
Superior was reestablished as an Imperial Roman province
Roman province
in 90, taking large amounts of territory from Gallia Lugdunensis. One of its first and most famous governors was the future Emperor Trajan, who ruled the province from 96 until his accession in 98. The Helvetii settlement area became part of the province of Germania
Germania
Superior. End of the province[edit]

Part of the series on

Alsace

Rot un Wiss, traditional flag of Alsace

History

Germania
Germania
Superior (Pagus Alsatiae) (83–475) Alemanni
Alemanni
(circa 213–496) Alamannia
Alamannia
(3rd-century–911) Duchy of Alsace
Alsace
(circa 630–699) Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(982–1803) County of Ferrette (11th-century–14th-century) Salm (1165−1793) Landgraviate of Alsace
Alsace
(1186–1646)

Lower Alsace Upper Alsace

Further Austria
Further Austria
(13th-century–1648) Décapole
Décapole
(1354–1679) County of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Hanau-Lichtenberg
(1456–1736) Upper Rhenish Circle
Upper Rhenish Circle
(1500-1679) Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
(1871–1918) Gau Baden-Elsaß
Gau Baden-Elsaß
(1940–1945) Alsace
Alsace
(1945–2016) Grand Est
Grand Est
(2016–)

Culture

Coat of arms Flag Anthem People Language Demographics Musée alsacien (Hagenau Strasbourg)

Religion

according to Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
Concordat in Alsace-Moselle
(1801): (including Lorraine)

Catholic Church

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Strasbourg (Immediately subject to the Holy See)

(Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg)

(Lorraine: Roman Catholic Diocese of Metz)

Protestantism: Union of Protestant Churches of Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine:

Lutheranism:

Protestant Church of Augsburg
Augsburg
Confession of Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine

Calvinism:

Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace
Alsace
and Lorraine

Jewish
Jewish
consistories:

Strasbourg Colmar (Lorraine: Metz)

Law

Local law in Alsace-Moselle

Concordat in Alsace-Moselle

Administrative divisions

Capital: Strasbourg Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
(Unterelsaß)

Arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg Arrondissement of Molsheim Arrondissement of Saverne Arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein Arrondissement of Strasbourg

Haut-Rhin
Haut-Rhin
(Oberelsaß)

Arrondissement of Altkirch Arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé Arrondissement of Mulhouse Arrondissement of Thann-Guebwiller

Politics

Alsace
Alsace
Regional Council (1982-2015) Alsace
Alsace
independence movement

Alsace
Alsace
in the European Union

European Parliament elections

Constituency

Related topics

Politics of France Politics of Germany Politics of the European Union

Alsace
Alsace
portal

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Post 400, as Rome slowly was losing control over its northern most provinces over a period of 50 years, the southern (Swiss) parts of Germania
Germania
Superior were incorporated into the Provincia Maxima Sequanorum before they became part of Burgundy in the early 5th century. The northern parts became part of Alemannia. Governors of Germania
Germania
Superior[edit]

Gaius Silius years 14–16 Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus 29–39 Hordeonius Flaccus c. 69[4] Gaius Dillius Vocula 69–70 Appius Annius Gallus 70–71/72[a] Gnaeus Pinarius Cornelius Clemens 72–75 Quintus Corellius Rufus 79/80–82/83 Lucius Antonius Saturninus 87/88–88/89 Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus 89/90-91/92 Marcus Ulpius Traianus 96–97; better known as Trajan Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus 97/98 Ignotus 110/111–111/112 Kan[us Junius Niger] 116/117–117/118[5] Gaius Quinctius Certus Poblicius Marcellus Between 121 and 128 [...]ius Celer 128/129-130/131 Tiberius Claudius Quartinus 133/134-134/135 Titus Caesernius Statius Quinctius Statianus Memmius Macrinus c. 149 - c. 152[6] Gaius Popilius Carus Pedo c. 152 - c. 155 Lucius Dasumius Tullius Tuscus c. 155 - c. 158 Gaius Aufidius Victorinus c. 162 - c. 166 Lucius Victorinus Flavius Caelianus c. 166 - c. 169 Caerellius Priscus, name uncertain; possibly c. 174 - c. 177 Publius Cornelius Anullinus c. 177 - c. 180 Marcus Helvius Clemens Dextrianus From 187[7] Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus c. 200 - c. 203[7] Titus Statilius Barbarus c. 203[7] Quintus Aiacius Modestus Crescentianus c. 206 - 209[7] [...] Avitius Attested 28 March 213[7] Quintus Junius [...] Quintianus Attested October 213[7] Claudius Aelius Pollio c. 218[7] Maximus Attianus Attested 28 March 229[7] Sextus Catius Clementinus Priscillianus c. 231[7]

Civitates[edit]

Ladenburg
Ladenburg
(Lopodunum) = Civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicretum; Wimpfen = Civitas Alisinensium; Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt Rottenburg (Sumelocenna) = Civitas Sumelocennensis; Rottweil
Rottweil
(Arae Flaviae) Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
(Aquae) = Civitas Aquensis; Mainz
Mainz
(Mogontiacum) = Civitas Aresacium; Worms (Borbetomagus) = Civitas Vangionum; Speyer
Speyer
(Noviomagus) = Civitas Nemetum; Wiesbaden
Wiesbaden
(Mattiacorum) = Civitas Mattiacorum; Heddernheim
Heddernheim
(Nida) = Civitas Taunensium; Dieburg
Dieburg
= Civitas Auderiensium

See also[edit]

List of Germanic peoples Alamanni

Notes[edit]

^ Dates in this section containing two numbers separated by a slash (such as, "71/72") do not represent two different years, but a single year expressed in two different calendars. See Dual dating.

References[edit]

^ Rüger, C. (2004) [1996]. "Germany". In Alan K. Bowman; Edward Champlin; Andrew Lintott. The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C. - A.D. 69. 10 (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 526–528. ISBN 0-521-26430-8.  ^ Schulze, Hagen (1998). Germany: A New History. Harvard University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-674-80688-3. OCLC 39042956.  ^ Hoad, T. F., ed. (2003) [1st pub. 1996]. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford Reference Online (online ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 641. doi:10.1093/acref/9780192830982.001.0001. ISBN 9780192830982. Retrieved 2016-10-01.  ^ Eck, Werner (1982). Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik [German Archaeological Institute. Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy], ed. "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139". Chiron. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck. 12: 281–362. ISBN 3406078524. ISSN 0069-3715. OCLC 932001499. 

Hordeonius Flaccus pp. 284 (also: Eck vol. 2, p. 219)

held provisional command briefly in 69 in both G. Sup. and G. Inf, over troops remaining on the Rhine
Rhine
after Vitellius's departure until being killed at the end of 69.

C. Dillius Vocula pp. 284. (also: vol. 2, p. 219)

Took over after Flaccus, and briefly held command over a portion of the armed forces of the Rhine; killed in 70.

Ap. Annius Gallus pp. 284,287,290 (also: vol. 2, p. 219) Cn. Pinarius Cornelius Clemens pp. 291, 293, 295 (also: vol. 2, p. 219)

was certainly there by 73; whether still there in 74/75 is uncertain.

Q. Corellius Rufus pp. 302, 304–306; (also: vol. 2, p. 219)

was certainly there by 82; either took command immediately after being Consul, or a few years later.

Lucius Antonius Saturninus pp. 314–315. (also: vol. 2, p. 219)

Killed early 87 by Lappius Maximum (gov. of Germ. Inf.) during his attempted insurrection.

C. Octavius Tidius Tossianus L. Iavolenus Priscus pp. 316, 318–319. (also: vol. 2, p. 219) M. Ulpius Traianus p. 326, 328 (also: vol. 2, p. 219) L. Iulius Ursus Servianus p. 328, 330. (also: vol. 2, p. 219) Ignotus p. 349, 351. (also: vol. 2, p. 219)

"Unknown" in Latin, but referring to someone who left a trace, and the word is used in sources as a substitute pronoun for a name, as capital-I "Ignotus", rather than as a descriptive adjective. He was possibly an assessor from Belgica who was also militarily responsible for Ger. Sup. and Inf.

^ Eck, Werner (1983). Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Kommission für Alte Geschichte und Epigraphik [German Archaeological Institute. Commission for Ancient History and Epigraphy], ed. "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139, II". Chiron. Munich: Verlag C. H. Beck. 13: 147–237. ISBN 3406093337. ISSN 0069-3715. OCLC 932001499. CS1 maint: Ignored ISBN errors (link)

Kan[us? Junius Niger] p. 148, 219. C. Quinctius Certus Poblicius Marcellus pp. 169, 171, 196, 219.

The description "between 121 and 128" ("zwischen 121 u. 128") indicates "at some time within this interval", not necessarily for the entire interval. P. 169 shows him as gov. Syria 130/131–134/135, and references annex 1, "Governors whose exact dates cannot be ascertained", and on p. 196 discusses the possibilities based on an incomplete inscription. fn[411] p. 171 quotes an inscription from April 132 listing him by 120 as already Consul of Germ. sup. and then Legate.

[...]ius Celer pp. 165–169, 219. Full name and identity uncertain.

Note 398 p. 165 gives possible connections with 'Roscius Aleianus Caler' (reading the 'ius' as possibly 'nus'), or with L. Roscius Aelianus Maecius Celer, or Catellius Celer, as the main possibilities. Other researchers have also mentioned these: Q. Pompeius --- Catellius Celer Allius?---, L. Roscius [---Mae]cius Celer M[anlius?--] Postumus Mam[ilianus?---] Vergilius Staberia[nus---], M. Maecius Celer, Q. Insteius Celer, [I]ulius ...[In]steius Pauli[nus], and Ti. Lartidius Celer.

Ti. Claudius Quartinus pp. 174, 219.

Probably the same person as was Consul Quartinus in 130; and he might be the immediate successsor of [...]ius Celer (in which case there's no gap in 131/132-132/133, which is not otherwise covered)

^ Alföldy, Géza (1977). Konsulat und Senatorenstand unter den Antoninen [Consuls and Senators under the Antonine Emperors]. Volume 27 of Antiquitas: Abhandlungen zur Alten Geschichte [Antiquitas: Essays on Ancient History] (in German). Bonn: Rudolf Habelt Verlag. pp. 228–229. ISBN 978-3-7749-1334-9. OCLC 299616620. Retrieved 12 April 2017. , which uses standard Praenomen abbreviations (one letter, sometimes a few letters, and a period) for the praenomina; names in the source are listed thus:

T. Casernius Statianus, p. 228 C. Popilius Carus Pedo, p. 228 L. Dasumius Tullius Tuscus, p. 228 C. Aufidius Victorinus, p. 228–229 L. Iunius Victorinus Flavius Caelianus, p 229

was "possibly" (möglicherweise) the successor of . Aufidius Victorinus in c.166-c.169, depending on whether some incomplete text listed as "L. Iu______" was properly identified and dated by E. Birley (see Alföldy-1977, p.171, note 137)

[Caerellius Priscus], p. 229

the brackets indicates his name is uncertain or unknown; he is an anonymous legate mentioned in one inscription, whose children went by the name, 'Caerilius', and most likely identify 'Caerellius Priscus', per E. Birley; further details at Alföldy-1977, p. 186.

P. Cornelius Anullinus, p. 229

apparently after he served as curator alvei Tiberis (the official responsible for maintaining the channels of the Tiber)

^ a b c d e f g h i Leunissen, Paul M.M. (1989). "Zweiter Teil: Prosopographische Listen II. Die Provinzialfasten 2) Die Konsularen prätorischen kaiserlichen Provinzen" [Second Part: Prosopographical Lists, II. The Provinces 2) The consular praetorian imperial province]. Konsuln und konsulare in der zeit von Commodus bis Severus Alexander : 180-235 n. Chr. : prosopographische untersuchungen zur senatorischen elite im römischen kaiserreich [Consuls from Commodus to Severus Alexander: 180-235: Prosopographical Investigations into the Senatorial Elite in the Roman Empire]. Dutch Monographs on Ancient History and Archaeology. VI. Amsterdam: Verlag J.C. Gieben. pp. 245–247. ISBN 90-6053-028-6. OCLC 803822187. Retrieved 19 April 2017. CS1 maint: Ignored ISBN errors (link)

Further reading[edit]

Valerie M. Hope: Constructing Identity: The Roman Funerary Monuments of Aquelia, Mainz
Mainz
and Nimes; British Archaeological Reports (16. Juli 2001) ISBN 978-1-84171-180-5

External links[edit]

The Fleets and Roman Border Policy LIMES GERMANIAE SUPERIORIS Germany.

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica and Sardinia Crete and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania
Germania
Inferior Germania
Germania
Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

  Alsace
Alsace
topics

Departments

Bas-Rhin
Bas-Rhin
(Strasbourg)

Arrondissement of Haguenau-Wissembourg Arrondissement of Molsheim Arrondissement of Saverne Arrondissement of Sélestat-Erstein Arrondissement of Strasbourg

Haut-Rhin
Haut-Rhin
(Colmar)

Arrondissement of Altkirch Arrondissement of Colmar-Ribeauvillé Arrondissement of Mulhouse Arrondissement of Thann-Guebwiller

Culture

Coat of arms Flag Anthem People Language Demographics Religion Musée alsacien

Hagenau Strasbourg

Alsace
Alsace
independence movement

Sports

RC Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Alsace Strasbourg
Strasbourg
IG SC Schiltigheim FC Sélestat Sélestat Alsace
Alsace
Handball FC Vendenheim Étoile Noire de Strasbourg Internationaux de Strasbourg Rallye de France
France
Alsace (Rallye Alsace-Vosges)

History

Germania
Germania
Superior (Pagus Alsatiae) (83–475) Alemanni
Alemanni
(circa 213–496) Alamannia
Alamannia
(3rd-century–911) Duchy of Alsace
Alsace
(circa 630–699) Prince-Bishopric of Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(982–1803) County of Ferrette (11th-century–14th-century) Salm (1165−1793) Landgraviate of Alsace
Alsace
(1186–1646)

Lower Alsace Upper Alsace

Further Austria
Further Austria
(13th-century–1648) Décapole
Décapole
(1354–1679) County of Hanau-Lichtenberg
Hanau-Lichtenberg
(1456–1736) Upper Rhenish Circle
Upper Rhenish Circle
(1500-1679) Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
(1871–1918) Gau Baden-Elsaß
Gau Baden-Elsaß
(1940–1945) Alsace
Alsace
(1945–2016) Grand Est
Grand Est
(2016–)

A

.