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Georgian Jews
Jews
(Georgian: ქართველი ებრაელები kartveli ebraelebi) are one of the oldest communities in Georgia, tracing their migration into the country during the Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity
in 6th century BC.[2] Prior to Georgia's annexation by Russia, the 2600-year history of the Georgian Jews
Jews
was marked by an almost total absence of antisemitism and a visible assimilation in the Georgian language
Georgian language
and culture.[3] The Georgian Jews
Jews
were considered ethnically and culturally distinct from neighboring Mountain Jews.[4] They were also traditionally a highly separate group to the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
in Georgia, who arrived following the Russian annexation of Georgia. As a result of a major emigration wave in the 1990s, the vast majority of Georgian Jews
Jews
now live in Israel.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Origins 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Georgian annexation into the Russian Empire 1.4 Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
under the Tsarist Government 1.5 Revolution and independence 1.6 Contemporary Georgia 1.7 Independence and Georgia today 1.8 Demographics

2 Language 3 Aliyah
Aliyah
and Diaspora Outside of Georgia 4 References 5 Resource 6 External links

History[edit] The Georgian Jews
Jews
have traditionally lived separately, not only from the surrounding Georgian people, but also from the Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
in Tbilisi, who had different practices and language. The community, which numbered about 80,000 as recently as the 1970s, has largely emigrated to Israel, the United States, the Russian Federation and Belgium
Belgium
(in Antwerp). As of 2004[update], only about 13,000 Georgian Jews
Jews
remained in Georgia. According to the 2002 First General National Census of Georgia, there are 3,541 Jewish believers in the country.[5] For example, the Lezgishvili branch of Georgian Jews
Jews
have families in Israel, Moscow, Baku, Düsseldorf, and Cleveland, Ohio
Ohio
(US). Several hundred Georgian Jewish families live in the New York tri-state area, particularly in New York City
New York City
and Long Island. Origins[edit] Georgian-speaking Jewry is one of the oldest surviving Jewish communities in the world. The Georgian Jews
Jews
have an approximately 2,600-year history in the region. The origin of Georgian Jews, also known as Gurjim or kartveli ebraelebi, is debated. The most popular view is that the first Jews
Jews
made their way to southern Georgia after Nebuchadnezzar's conquest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 586 BCE and exile in Babylon. This claim is supported by the medieval Georgian historical account by Leonti Mroveli, who writes:

Then King Nebuchadnezzar captured Jerusalem. The Jews
Jews
who fled thence come to Kartli and requested from the mamasakhlisi [local ruler] of Mtskheta
Mtskheta
territory in return for tribute. He gave [a place] and settled them on the Aragvi, at spring which was called Zanavi, which was later renamed as Zanavi, the quarter of Jews.".[2]

Another version offered by Mroveli, was the settlement of the Jews
Jews
in Georgia during the Roman period of Emperor Vespasian. He wrote that Jews
Jews
lived in Georgia long before 1st century AD. According to Mroveli:

During their [Bartom and Kartam's] reign, Vespasian, the emperor of the Romans, captured Jerusalem. From there refugee Jews
Jews
come to Mtskheta
Mtskheta
and settled with the old Jews."[2]

The ancient Georgian historic chronicle, The Conversion of Kartli, is the oldest and only Georgian source concerning the history of the Jewish community in Georgia. The chronicle describes a version similar to that offered centuries later by Leonti Mroveli, but the period of Jewish migration into Georgia is ascribed to Alexander the Great:

...the warlike seed, the Honni [Jews], exiled by the Chaldeans, [came to Kartli] and requested the land for tribute from the Lord of the Bun T'urks [suburb of Mtskheta]. And they [Jews] settled in Zanavi. And they possessed it...[2]

The ancient Georgian capital of Mtskheta, where Jews
Jews
lived for thousands of years

Georgian sources also refer to the arrival of the first Jews
Jews
in Western Georgia from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
during the 6th century AD. Approximately 3,000 of the Jews
Jews
fled to Eastern Georgia, which by that time was controlled by the Persians, to escape severe persecution by the Byzantines. The existence of the Jews
Jews
in these regions during this period is supported by the archaeological evidence, which shows that Jews
Jews
lived in Mtskheta, the ancient capital of the Eastern Georgian state of Iberia-Kartli.[citation needed] According to the Georgian hagiography, Jewish communities existed in Georgia in the 1st century. A Georgian Jew called Elias was said to be in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Crucifixion
Crucifixion
and brought Jesus' robe back with him to Georgia. He had acquired it from a Roman soldier at Golgotha. The Jews
Jews
spoke Georgian, and later Jewish traders developed a dialect called Kivruli, or Judaeo-Georgian, which included a number of Hebrew words. In the second half of the 7th century, the Muslim Empire conquered extensive Georgian territory, which became an Arab
Arab
caliph province. Arab
Arab
emirs ruled in the Georgian capital Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and surrounding territory for nearly 500 years, until 1122. Genetic studies carried out on Georgian Jews
Jews
as part of a wider survey showed close genetic links with other Jews, and in particular with Iraqi and Persian Jews. This seemed to prove the historical accounts of Jewish migration from Persia into Georgia.[6] Middle Ages[edit]

A Judeo-Aramaic inscription of Abraham, son of Sarah, from Mtskheta from the 4th to 6th centuries

There is not much documentation about Georgian Jews
Jews
under the Arab domination. In the late 9th century, Abu-Imran Musa al-Za'farani (later known as Abu-Imran al-Tiflisi) founded a Jewish Karai sect called the Tiflis Sect ("Tiflisites"), which lasted for more than 300 years. The sect deviated from Rabbinic halakhah in its marriage and kashrut customs. This sect did not represent the great majority of Georgian Jews, whom adhered to traditional Rabbinical Judaism
Judaism
while maintaining strong religious ties with Baghdad
Baghdad
and other Jews
Jews
of Iraq.[citation needed] The Mongols swept through Georgia in 1236, prompting many of the Jews of Eastern and Southern Georgia to move to the western region, which remained independent. There they formed small communities along the Black Sea, and eventually their poverty forced them into serfdom. For 500 years, beginning in the end of the 14th century, the Jews
Jews
of Georgia belonged to the kamani, or serf class, under the Georgian elite.[citation needed] Their situation worsened in the 15th and 16th centuries due to constant military conflicts and invasions by Timur, Ottoman Empire, and Muslim Persia. By the end of the 15th century, Georgia had fragmented into three separate kingdoms and five feudal territories. Jewish serfs were sold from master to master as a family or individuals as debt payments or gifts.[citation needed] The Jewish communities were torn apart and Jewish communal life was nearly impossible to maintain. Isolation and lack of a religious and spiritual center led to a decline of Jewish knowledge.[citation needed] An endless string of wars and rebellions characterized the late 18th and early 19th centuries as a result of Russian interference to the region, leaving the region decimated. Jewish property was often confiscated and Jews
Jews
were forced to seek the protection of the local feudal lords. Instead of finding security, many Jews
Jews
became enslaved by these lords. The serfs, including Jewish ones, were divided into three categories according to Georgian law: the King's serfs, Feudal serfs, and the Church's serfs.[citation needed] During this period, large migrations of Jews
Jews
took place, either voluntary or forced. In the 15th and 16th centuries, a large number of Jews
Jews
left for, and many Jews
Jews
in that region are still of Georgian descent. In the 17th and 18th centuries, tens of thousands of Jewish and non-Jewish Georgians
Georgians
were forcibly relocated to Persia by the Islamic Persian invaders.[citation needed] Georgian annexation into the Russian Empire[edit]

Georgian Jews
Jews
of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
probably around 1900

In 1801, the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
annexed Eastern Georgia. The King's serfs became the Treasury's serfs, and were obliged to pay taxes to the Tsar. In 1835 there were 1,363 Jews
Jews
with 113 Karaites living in the town of Kutais (Kutaisi) and its surroundings: 1,040 in Gori, 623 in Akhaltsikhe, and 61 in Tiflis (Tbilisi). The total Jewish population of Georgia and the region beyond the Caucasus was 12,234.[citation needed] In 1864-71, the Russian authorities abolished serfdom, and Jewish former serfs moved to towns and villages where free Jews
Jews
were already settled. Finally the Jews
Jews
of Georgia began to develop Jewish communities. Each group moved together to the same towns and established their own respective synagogues. They were usually made up of a number of extended family groups spanning three or four generations. Each community had a gabbai who served as a rabbi, shohet, mohel, and Cheder, and oversaw religious and communal affairs. These small communities developed into the Jewish quarter of their particular towns. In the beginning of the 19th century, Ashkenazi Russian Jews
Jews
were forced to move to Georgia by the Russian government. The Ashkenazi Jews
Jews
and the Georgian Jews
Jews
began establishing contact with each other, but relations were strained. Georgian Jews
Jews
viewed the Ashkenazim
Ashkenazim
as godless and secular, while the Ashkenazim
Ashkenazim
looked down on the Georgian Jews. Zionism
Zionism
was a uniting cause for the two groups. Ashkenazim
Ashkenazim
joined Zionist organizations and began to spread their ideas to the Georgian Jewish communities. In 1897, the first Zionist organization was established in Tbilisi. On 20 August 1901, the First Congress of Caucasus Zionists was held in Tbilisi. Rabbi
Rabbi
David Baazov
David Baazov
led Georgian Zionism
Zionism
during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. In 1903, Baazov attended the Sixth Zionist Congress in Basel, Switzerland. In 1918, the All-Jewish Congress in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
took place and included representatives from every Georgian and Russian Jewish community in the country. Beginning in 1863, groups of Jews
Jews
began making aliyah, mostly for religious reasons. By 1916, 439 Georgian Jews
Jews
lived in Israel, mostly in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
near the Damascus Gate. Most Jews
Jews
who made aliyah were poor and worked as freight-handlers in Jerusalem. Other more prominent Georgian Jews
Jews
served as financiers and carpet merchants. Prominent Georgian Jewish families in the holy land before 1948 were the Dabra (Davarashvili) and Kokia (Kakiashvili) families.[citation needed] Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
under the Tsarist Government[edit] The tradition of the relationship between Jews
Jews
and other Georgians
Georgians
has no signs of anti-Semitism, excluding the Tsarist Government. For many centuries, the Church in Georgia did not incite against the Jews, and the Georgian Jews
Jews
were visibly assimilated in the country's rural life and culture.[3] In the second half of the 19th century, there were some outbreaks of anti-Semitic acts, perhaps stemming from the influence of the Russian Orthodox Church.[citation needed] Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
was supplemented by the end of serfdom and the urbanization of the Jewish population. As Jews
Jews
became traders instead of field hands, Georgian workers began to see them as competitors and economic threats. Anti-Semitism
Anti-Semitism
had been active in Russia
Russia
for centuries and, under the annexation, began to influence non- Jews
Jews
in Georgia. Six blood libels have been recorded as having taken place in Georgia. The first blood libel was in Surami
Surami
in 1850. A little boy from Gori disappeared while on a visit with his parents. The child was found dead after four days, and the Jews
Jews
were blamed for his death. The guberniya doctor examined the dead child and concluded that he was drowned. The people blamed the Jews
Jews
and started riots against the Jews. Only the intervention of the head of the Viceroyalty avoided more problems. The worst and most infamous case was in the village of Sachkhere
Sachkhere
in 1878, when nine Jews
Jews
were accused of partaking in the ritual killing of a Christian child to use the blood to make matzah for Passover. The highly publicized trial occurred in Kutaisi, and was called the Kutaisi
Kutaisi
Trial. The accused were found not guilty, but the blood libels continued. Revolution and independence[edit]

Old Jewish cemetery in Kutaisi

Old Synagogue
Synagogue
(20th century) in Bandza, Martvili Municipality

After the October 1917 Russian Revolution threw out the Tsar's government and replaced it with the Bolsheviks, Georgians
Georgians
clamored for independence from their occupiers. On 26 May 1918, the Georgian Republic declared its independence. With independence came freedom of speech, press, and organization, which improved the economic situation of the Jews
Jews
of Georgia. This newfound freedom did not last long. The Red Army
Red Army
invaded Georgia in February 1921, prompting a mass exodus from the region. Approximately 1,500–2,000 Jews
Jews
left Georgia, 1,000–1,200 of whom settled in Israel. The remainder fled mainly to Istanbul, where a Georgian Jewish community had been in existence since the 1880s.

Feast of Sukkot, Shalom Koboshvili, 1938

Initially, the Soviets allowed the Jews
Jews
to maintain their religious customs, but after a Georgian rebellion in 1924, the Bolshevik government terminated all Zionist activity, imposed economic restrictions, and generally discriminated against the Jewish community. As a result, many Jewish businesses were bankrupted and 200 families applied for exit visas. Only 18 were allowed to emigrate. In the mid-1920s, the Soviets focused on industrializing and secularizing the Jews
Jews
of Georgia. Mass numbers of Jews
Jews
were forced to work in factories or to join craft cooperatives and collective farm projects. In 1927–1928, OZET, the organization for settling Jewish workers on farms, established a number of Jewish collective farms. These small homogeneous communities became isolated Jewish communities where Jewish learning was continued. Recognizing this, the Communists disbanded the communities in the 1930s, scattering the Jews
Jews
among various farms and destroying Jewish communal life. Meanwhile, blood libels continued in full force, with occurrences in Sachkhere
Sachkhere
in 1921, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
in 1923, and Akhaltsikhe
Akhaltsikhe
in 1926. Due to Soviet persecution and the declining economic situation, Zionist leaders focused on increasing aliyah efforts. The Soviets firmly opposed Jewish emigration and, during the 1930s, cracked down on Zionist organizations, arresting or murdering many members. In 1937-38, the authorities stifled participation in Jewish religious services or cultural activities. In September 1937, nine hakhams, two of whom were Ashkenazi, were arrested in Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
(Staliniri at the time), and sent to prison without trial and murdered. The only surviving Jewish institution was the History and Ethnography Museum, but it too was soon closed down. Its director, Aharon Krikheli was arrested in 1948, and the museum closed in the early 1950s, thus signifying the annihilation of Jewish culture
Jewish culture
in Georgia, which the Soviets had built up during the prewar years. Contemporary Georgia[edit]

Old Synagogue
Synagogue
in Oni

During World War II, thousands of Georgian Jews
Jews
served in the Red Army. After the war, the authorities arrested Jews
Jews
and closed or destroyed synagogues, and anti-Semitic acts of violence erupted. But despite their attempts, the Soviets could not completely annihilate the practice of Judaism
Judaism
and, even in the late 1960s and 1970s, most Georgian Jews
Jews
managed to observe their traditions. Georgian Jews
Jews
were able to preserve their identity better than Jews
Jews
in European parts of the Soviet Union, and assimilated and intermarried less. Throughout Soviet rule, Jews
Jews
remained society's scapegoat. They made up the majority of Georgians
Georgians
convicted for economic crimes, and were punished more severely than the rest of the population. Blood libels continued with incidents in Tskhaltubo
Tskhaltubo
in 1963, Zestafoni
Zestafoni
in 1964, and Kutaisi in 1965. After the Six Day War, huge numbers of Soviet Jews
Jews
began protesting for the right to immigrate to Israel, and many applied for exit visas. Georgian Jews
Jews
made up a large percentage of this number. They were among the very first to begin protesting, and were among the most militant of campaigners. In August 1969, eighteen families wrote to the Human Rights Commission of the United Nations
Human Rights Commission of the United Nations
demanding permission to make aliyah. This was the first public insistence by Soviet Jews for immigration to Israel. The Israeli government and the Jewish world campaigned heavily on behalf of the plight of the Soviet Jewry. In July 1971, a group of Georgian Jews
Jews
went on a hunger strike outside a Moscow
Moscow
post office. The determination of Soviet Jewish activists and international pressure led the Soviets to lessen their harsh anti-Jewish policies. During the 1970s, the Soviets permitted limited Jewish emigration to Israel, and about 30,000 Georgian Jews
Jews
made aliyah, with thousands of others leaving for other countries. Approximately 17% of the Soviet Jewish population emigrated at this time. In 1979, the Jewish population in Georgia was 28,300 and, by 1989, it had decreased to 24,800. While most Soviet Jewish emigration was individual, Georgian-Jewish emigration was communal. Due to Georgian-Jewish traditions of strong, extended families and the strict, patriarchal nature of Georgian families, Georgians
Georgians
immigrated as whole communities, with emigration of individuals causing a chain reaction leading to more emigration, and brought their community structures with them. For example, nearly the entire population of at least two Georgian towns made aliyah. At the time the emigration started, Israel
Israel
had a policy of scattering the population around the country, and was experiencing a housing shortage, with the result that Georgians
Georgians
were assigned housing in different parts of the country. The Georgians
Georgians
began demanding that they be concentrated together, and the crisis reached a fever pitch when several families threatened to return to Georgia, and new immigrants, forewarned by predecessors, began demanding to be placed in specific areas upon arrival. Although Prime Minister Golda Meir criticized the Georgians' desire to "isolate themselves into ghettos", the Israeli Immigrant Absorption Ministry eventually bowed to their demands, and began to create concentrations of around 200 families in twelve areas of the country.[7] In Israel, Georgian immigrants successfully integrated into society, but faced certain problems. Georgian immigrants were usually able to find jobs with ease, and often worked in light industry jobs, such as dock workers, porters, and construction workers, but faced certain issues. One major issue was religion; the Georgian Jews
Jews
were often devout and had fiercely clung to their traditions in the Soviet Union, and were stunned to discover that Israeli Jews
Jews
were mostly secular. As a result, Georgian immigrants demanded their own separate synagogues to continue their unique religious traditions, which the government agreed to, and enrolled their children in religious schools rather than regular schools.[7] Independence and Georgia today[edit]

Israel's 60th independence day celebration in Tbilisi, Georgia attended by Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Georgia declared her independence in 1991. Since independence, the country faced continuous military conflict, leaving the region in political and economic turmoil. The situation of the Jewish community of Georgia improved dramatically due to the end of the Soviet occupation. In 1994, President Shevardnadze issued a decree to protect Jewish religious, cultural and historic monuments. In addition, the Jews
Jews
of Georgia have successfully maintained their Jewish identity and traditions despite the oppression they faced under the Soviets. Intermarriage has always been low and levels of Jewish knowledge are significantly higher than those of other CIS republics. In 1990, the Rachamim Society was established, which supplies financial and medical support to the Jews
Jews
of Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and maintains Jewish cemeteries and synagogues. It functions as an umbrella organization for Ashkenazi Jews. The Association of Georgian Jews (Derekh Yehudi) focuses on regaining Jewish property confiscated during the Soviet era. The Jewish community still faces acts of violence and obstacles in the return of property rights to a 19th-century Ashkenazi synagogue stolen by the Soviets. The Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
of Georgia from Chabad Lubavitsch is Rabbi
Rabbi
Avraham Michaelshvili, who has been there since the early 1990s hosting the Georgian community and many guests with fervor and devotion. There is a further Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
Ariel Levin. There is no umbrella organization for all Jews
Jews
in Georgia, but more than 30 Jewish institutions are in existence, in addition to one Jewish day school and four supplementary schools. Three Jewish newspapers are published - Menora, Shalom, and 26 Century, and there is also a Jewish radio and television station.

Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Synagogue, Hanukkah prayer

The Jewish population of Georgia has steadily decreased over the years due to aliyah in response to the political and economic issues since independence. Overall, since 1989, 21,134 Jews
Jews
have moved to Israel. Once numbering as many as 100,000, today the Georgian Jewish population is approximately 13,000. Tbilisi
Tbilisi
has the largest Jewish population at 11,000 out of 1.5 million. Jewish communities are located in Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi, Oni, Akhaltsikhe, Akhalkalaki, Surami, Kareli, and Stalin's hometown of Gori, and synagogues are located in most of these cities. The provinces of Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and South Ossetia are virtually devoid of Jews
Jews
due to the military conflicts in these areas. Many Abkhazian Jews
Jews
emigrated to Israel
Israel
from Abkhazia during the war in the 1990s there, while the few who stayed are mostly elderly. A synagogue is still active in Sukhumi. There is one Jew left in South Ossetia
South Ossetia
(see articles History of the Jews
Jews
in Abkhazia
Abkhazia
and History of the Jews
Jews
in South Ossetia). In January 2001, in a first step toward establishing relations, the Georgian Orthodox Church
Georgian Orthodox Church
and the Jewish community of Georgia signed a cooperation agreement of mutual respect and support. In 2002, Georgian Orthodox Christianity was established as the state religion, and since then there has been concern for all religious minorities in the country. Relations between Georgia and Israel
Israel
are warm, however. The Israeli embassy is located in Tbilisi
Tbilisi
and also serves Armenia; the Georgian embassy is in Tel Aviv. Israel
Israel
has supplied humanitarian aid to Georgia a number of times, including drought assistance and aid for earthquake victims. The Jewish Agency for Israel
Israel
(JAFI) and American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) both have permanent representatives in Georgia. JDC and Hesed Eliyahu distribute food and medical aid to the Jewish elderly, who make up more than 50% of the Georgian Jewish community. As a result of the 2008 South Ossetia
South Ossetia
War, some 200 Georgian Jews immigrated to Israel
Israel
with assistance from the Jewish Agency.[8] During that war, the Jewish Quarter of Tskhinvali
Tskhinvali
was destroyed during the Battle of Tskhinvali.[9] Demographics[edit] Georgia's population almost doubled between 1926 and 1970, then began declining, with dramatic declines in the 1970s and 1990s, when many Georgian Jews
Jews
left and moved to other countries, especially to Israel.[10]

Historical Georgian Jewish population

Year Pop. ±%

1926 30,534 —    

1939 42,300 +38.5%

1959 51,589 +22.0%

1970 55,398 +7.4%

1979 28,315 −48.9%

1989 24,834 −12.3%

2002 5,000 −79.9%

2010 3,200 −36.0%

Source:

[11] [12] [13] The Jewish population data includes Mountain Jews, Georgian Jews, Bukharan Jews
Jews
(or Central Asian Jews), Krymchaks
Krymchaks
(all per the 1959 Soviet census), and Tats.[14]

Language[edit] The traditional language of the Georgian Jews
Jews
is Judaeo-Georgian, a variant of Georgian, characterized by a large number of Hebrew loanwords, and written using either the Georgian alphabet
Georgian alphabet
or Hebrew alphabet. Besides speaking Judaeo-Georgian, the Georgian Jews
Jews
speak the languages of the peoples surrounding them. In Georgia, these include Georgian and Russian; in Belgium, Dutch; in the United States and Canada English; and in Israel, Hebrew. Aliyah
Aliyah
and Diaspora Outside of Georgia[edit] Main article: Georgian Jews
Jews
in Israel Many Georgian Jews
Jews
now live in Israel. In the United States, the principal Georgian Jewish synagogue is the Congregation of Georgian Jews
Jews
in the Forest Hills section of Queens, New York
Queens, New York
City. In Belgium, most Georgian Jews
Jews
are member of the Antwerp
Antwerp
Jewish community. The main Georgian synagogue in Belgium
Belgium
is on Isabellalei in Antwerpen, and is led by rabbi Avishalom Kalazan of Yemenite origin. Most of the community is engaged in jewelry trade, with the new generation going into more diverse directions. A second Georgian Jewish synagogue became active around year 2012 under leadership of rabbi Yitzhak Pichkhadze. One notable Georgian Jew in USA is Tamir Sapir, born Temur Sepiashvili, an immigrant taxi driver turned businessman from New York. Another notable Georgian Jew is Dr. Yuri Busi (born Yuri Busiashvili), who was known for being the physician for the actress Lucille Ball.[15] Dr. Busi developed a successful career as a Cardiologist serving mostly the emigrant Soviet community in Los Angeles. In Israel, most Georgian Jews
Jews
settled near the coast in cities such as Lod, Bat Yam, Ashdod, and Holon. There are Georgian Jews
Jews
in Jerusalem as well, with several prominent synagogues. This trend of concentrated communities of Georgian Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
has changed and the population is much more integrated now, is more homogeneously dispersed in the country, and is now successfully integrated in every sphere of the society. References[edit]

^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived 24 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian) ^ a b c d The Wellspring of Georgian Historiography: The Early Medieval
Medieval
Historical Chronicle The Conversion of Katli and The Life of St. Nino, Constantine B. Lerner, England: Bennett and Bloom, London, 2004, p. 60 ^ a b Forget Atlanta - this is the Georgia on my mind By Jewish Discoveries and Harry D. Wall Feb. 7, 2015, Haaretz ^ Mountain Jews: customs and daily life in the Caucasus, Leʼah Miḳdash-Shemaʻʼilov, Liya Mikdash-Shamailov, Muzeʼon Yiśraʼel (Jerusalem), UPNE, 2002, page 9 ^ Statistics of Georgia Archived 31 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Begley, Sharon. (7 August 2012) Genetic study offers clues to history of North Africa's Jews
Jews
Reuters. In.reuters.com. Retrieved on 2013-04-16. ^ a b Michael Curtis, Mordecai S. Chertoff: Israel: Social Structure and Change. ^ 100 Georgian Jews
Jews
Make Aliyah
Aliyah
to Israel
Israel
since outbreak of crisis[permanent dead link]. Jewishinstlouis.org. Retrieved on 16 April 2013. ^ Jewish Quarter targeted in Georgian offensive. Russia
Russia
Today ^ "tab30.XLS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ "Приложение Демоскопа Weekly". Demoscope.ru. 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/Files/2002_13_WJP.pdf ^ "Powered by Google Docs". Docs.google.com. Retrieved 14 April 2013.  ^ YIVO Population and Migration: Population since World War I. Yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved on 14 April 2013. ^ "All the World Loved Lucille Ball". people.com. Retrieved 3 April 2018. 

Resource[edit]

Caucasus article in the Jewish Encyclopedia

Georgia (country)
Georgia (country)
portal Judaism
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portal

External links[edit]

World Congress of Georgian Jews Way of life and customs by Rachel Arbel and Lili Magal from World Congress of Georgian Jews WATCH: Forget Atlanta - this is the Georgia on my mind, Haaretz

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