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George Pratt Shultz (born December 13, 1920) is an American economist, elder statesman, and businessman. He served in various positions under three different Republican presidents. Along with Elliot Richardson, he is one of two individuals to serve in four different Cabinet positions. Born in New York City, he graduated from Princeton University
Princeton University
before serving in the United States
United States
Marine Corps during World War II. After the war, Shultz earned a PhD in industrial economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
(MIT). He taught at MIT from 1948 to 1957, taking a leave of absence in 1955 to take a position on President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers. After serving as dean of the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Graduate School of Business, he accepted President Richard Nixon's appointment to the position of United States
United States
Secretary of Labor. In that position, he imposed the Philadelphia Plan on construction contractors that refused to accept black members, marking the first use of racial quotas by the federal government. In 1970, he became the first Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and he served in that position until his appointment as United States Secretary of the Treasury in 1972. Shultz supported the Nixon shock, which sought to revive the ailing economy in part by abolishing the gold standard. He also presided over the end of the Bretton Woods system. Schultz left the Nixon administration in 1974 to become an executive with Bechtel. After becoming president and director of that company, he accepted President Ronald Reagan's offer to serve as the United States Secretary of State. He held that office from 1982 to 1989. Shultz pushed for Reagan to establish relations with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, which led to a thaw between the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union. He opposed the U.S. aid to the Sandinistas which led to the Iran–Contra affair. Shultz retired from public office in 1989 but remained active in the business and political world. He served as an informal adviser to George W. Bush
George W. Bush
and helped formulate the Bush Doctrine
Bush Doctrine
of preemptive war. He served on the Global Commission on Drug Policy, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's Economic Recovery Council, and on the boards of Bechtel
Bechtel
and the Charles Schwab Corporation. He is a member of the Hoover Institution, the Institute for International Economics, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, and other groups. Since the death of William Thaddeus Coleman Jr., Shultz is the oldest living former U.S. Cabinet
U.S. Cabinet
member.

Contents

1 Early life and career 2 Nixon Administration

2.1 Secretary of Labor 2.2 Office of Management and Budget 2.3 Secretary of the Treasury

3 Business executive 4 Reagan Administration

4.1 Secretary of State 4.2 Relations with China 4.3 Relations with Europe and the Soviet Union 4.4 Middle East diplomacy 4.5 Latin America

5 Later life

5.1 Memberships held

6 Family 7 Honors and prizes

7.1 Honorary degrees

8 Selected works 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

13.1 Video

Early life and career[edit] Shultz was born December 13, 1920, in New York City, the only child of Margaret Lennox (née Pratt) and Birl Earl Shultz, and grew up in Englewood, New Jersey.[1] His great-grandfather was an immigrant from Germany
Germany
who arrived in the United States
United States
in the middle of the 19th century. Contrary to common assumption, Shultz is not a member of the English American
English American
Pratt family, associated with John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil
Standard Oil
Trust.[2] In 1938, Shultz graduated from the elite private preparatory boarding high school, Loomis Chaffee School
Loomis Chaffee School
in Windsor, Connecticut. He earned a bachelor's degree, cum laude, at Princeton University, New Jersey, in Economics
Economics
with a minor in Public and International Affairs. His senior thesis examined the Tennessee Valley Authority's effect on local agriculture, for which he conducted on-site research, and he graduated with honors in 1942.[1][2] From 1942 to 1945, Shultz was on active duty in the U.S. Marine Corps. He was an artillery officer, attaining the rank of captain. He was detached to the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
81st Infantry Division during the Battle of Angaur (Battle of Peleliu).[3] In 1949, Shultz earned a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
in industrial economics from Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[4] From 1948 to 1957, Shultz taught in the MIT Department of Economics
Economics
and the MIT Sloan School of Management, with a leave of absence in 1955 to serve on President Dwight Eisenhower's Council of Economic Advisers
Council of Economic Advisers
as a Senior Staff Economist. In 1957, Shultz left MIT and joined the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business as a Professor of Industrial Relations, and later went on to serve as the Graduate School of Business Dean from 1962-1968.[5] During his time in Chicago, he was influenced by Nobel Laureates Milton Friedman
Milton Friedman
and George Stigler, who reinforced Shultz's view of the importance of a free-market economy.[6] He left the University of Chicago
University of Chicago
to serve for President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
in 1969. Nixon Administration[edit] Secretary of Labor[edit] Shultz was President Richard Nixon's Secretary of Labor from 1969 to 1970. He soon faced the crisis of the Longshoremen's Union
Longshoremen's Union
strike. The Lyndon B. Johnson Administration
Lyndon B. Johnson Administration
had delayed it with a Taft Hartley injunction that expired, and the press pressed him to describe his approach. He applied the theory he had developed in academia: he let the parties work it out, which they did quickly. He imposed the Philadelphia Plan requiring Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
construction unions, which refused to accept black members, to admit a certain number of blacks by an enforced deadline. This marked the first use of racial quotas in the federal government.[7] Shultz was Nixon's unofficial ambassador to the AFL-CIO. Office of Management and Budget[edit] Shultz became the first director of the Office of Management and Budget, the renamed and reorganized Bureau of the Budget, on July 1, 1970.[8] Overall, he was the 19th director to lead the agency.[9] Secretary of the Treasury[edit]

Treasury Secretary Shultz (back row, fourth from left) with the rest of the Nixon cabinet, June 1972

He was United States Secretary of the Treasury from June 1972 to May 1974. During his tenure, Shultz was concerned with two major issues: the continuing domestic administration of Nixon's "New Economic Policy," begun under Secretary John Connally
John Connally
(Shultz privately opposed its three elements), and a renewed dollar crisis that broke out in February 1973.[2][10] Domestically Shultz enacted the next phase of the NEP: lifting price controls begun in 1971. This phase was a failure, resulting in high inflation, and price freezes were reestablished five months later.[10] Meanwhile, Shultz's attention was increasingly diverted from the domestic economy to the international arena. He participated in an international monetary conference in Paris in 1973, which grew out of the 1971 decision to abolish the gold standard, a decision that Shultz and Paul Volcker
Paul Volcker
had supported (see Nixon Shock). The conference formally abolished the Bretton Woods system, thereby causing all currencies to float. During this period Shultz co-founded the "Library Group," which became the G7. Shultz resigned shortly before Nixon to return to private life.[10] Business executive[edit] In 1974, he left government service to become executive vice president of Bechtel
Bechtel
Group, a large engineering and services company. He was later its president and a director. Under Shultz's leadership, Bechtel
Bechtel
received contracts for many large construction projects including from Saudi Arabia. In the year before he left Bechtel, the company reported a 50% increase in revenue.[11] Reagan Administration[edit] Shultz is one of only two individuals to serve in four United States Cabinet positions within the United States
United States
government, the other being Elliot Richardson. Secretary of State[edit] On July 16, 1982, he was appointed by President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
to serve as the sixtieth U.S. Secretary of State, replacing Alexander Haig, who had resigned. Shultz would serve for six and a half years – the longest tenure since Dean Rusk.[12] The possibility of a conflict of interest in his position as Secretary of State due to being in the upper management of the Bechtel
Bechtel
Group was raised by several senators during the confirmation hearings. Shultz briefly lost his temper in response to some intense questions on this subject but was nevertheless unanimously confirmed by the Senate.[13] Shultz relied primarily on the Foreign Service to formulate and implement Reagan’s foreign policy. By the summer of 1985, Shultz had personally selected most of the senior officials in the Department, emphasizing professional over political credentials in the process.[12] The Foreign Service responded in kind by giving Shultz its "complete support," making him the most popular Secretary since Dean Acheson[12] and, along with Acheson and George Marshall, one of the most admired Secretaries in the 20th century.[citation needed] Shultz's success came from not only the respect he earned from the bureaucracy but the strong relationship he forged with Reagan, who trusted him completely.[14]

Shultz with President Reagan outside the Oval Office, December 1986

Relations with China[edit] Shultz inherited negotiations with China
China
over Taiwan
Taiwan
from his predecessor. Under the terms of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Relations Act, the United States was obligated to assist in Taiwan's defense, which included the sale of arms. The Administration debate on Taiwan, especially over the sale of military aircraft, resulted in a crisis in relations with China, which was alleviated only in August 1982, when, after months of arduous negotiations, the United States
United States
and China
China
issued a joint communiqué on Taiwan
Taiwan
in which the United States
United States
agreed to limit arms sales and China
China
agreed to seek a "peaceful solution."[15] Relations with Europe and the Soviet Union[edit] By the summer of 1982, relations were strained not only between Washington and Moscow but also between Washington and key capitals in Western Europe. In response to the imposition of martial law in Poland the previous December, the Reagan administration had imposed sanctions on a pipeline between West Germany
Germany
and the Soviet Union. European leaders vigorously protested sanctions that damaged their interests but not U.S. interests in grain sales to the Soviet Union. Shultz resolved this "poisonous problem" in December 1982, when the United States agreed to abandon sanctions against the pipeline, and the Europeans agreed to adopt stricter controls on strategic trade with the Soviets.[16] A more controversial issue was the NATO Ministers’ 1979 "dual track" decision: if the Soviets refused to remove their SS-20 medium range ballistic missiles within four years, then the Allies would deploy a countervailing force of cruise and Pershing II
Pershing II
missiles in Western Europe. When negotiations on these intermediate nuclear forces (INF) stalled, 1983 became a year of the protest. Shultz and other Western leaders worked hard to maintain allied unity amidst popular anti-nuclear demonstrations in Europe and United States. In spite of Western protests and Soviet propaganda, the allies began deployment of the missiles as scheduled in November 1983.[16] US-Soviet tensions were raised by the announcement in March 1983 of the Strategic Defense Initiative, and exacerbated by the Soviet shoot-down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007
Korean Air Lines Flight 007
near Moneron Island
Moneron Island
on September 1. Tensions reached a height with the Able Archer 83 exercises in November 1983, during which the Soviets feared a pre-emptive American attack.[17] Following the missile deployment and the exercises, both Shultz and Reagan resolved to seek further dialogue with the Soviets.[16][18] When President Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
of Russia came to power in 1985, Shultz advocated that Reagan pursue a personal dialogue with him. Reagan gradually changed his perception of Gorbachev's strategic intentions in 1987, when the two leaders signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty.[19] The treaty, which eliminated an entire class of missiles in Europe, was a milestone in the history of the Cold War. Although Gorbachev took the initiative, Reagan was well prepared by the State Department to adopt a policy of negotiations.[20] Two more events in 1988 persuaded Shultz that Soviet intentions were changing. First, the Soviet Union's initial withdrawal from Afghanistan indicated that the Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
was dead. "If the Soviets left Afghanistan, the Brezhnev Doctrine
Brezhnev Doctrine
would be breached, and the principle of 'never letting go' would be violated," Shultz reasoned.[19] The second event, according to Keren Yarhi-Milo of Princeton University, happened during the nineteenth Communist Party Conference, "at which Gorbachev proposed major domestic reforms such as the establishment of competitive elections with secret ballots; term limits for elected officials; separation of powers with an independent judiciary; and provisions for freedom of speech, assembly, conscience, and the press."[19] The proposals indicated that Gorbachev was making revolutionary and irreversible changes.[19] Middle East diplomacy[edit] In response to the escalating violence of the Lebanese civil war, Reagan sent a Marine contingent to protect the Palestinian refugee camps and support the Lebanese Government. The October 1983 bombing of the Marine barracks in Beirut killed 241 U.S. servicemen, after which the deployment came to an ignominious end.[12] Shultz subsequently negotiated an agreement between Israel and Lebanon
Lebanon
and convinced Israel to begin a partial withdrawal of its troops in January 1985 despite Lebanon's contravention of the settlement.[21] During the First Intifada
First Intifada
(see Arab–Israeli conflict), Shultz "proposed ... an international convention in April 1988 ... on an interim autonomy agreement for the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip, to be implemented as of October for a three-year period".[22] By December 1988, following six months of shuttle diplomacy, Shultz had established a diplomatic dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was picked up by the next Administration.[12] Latin America[edit] Shultz was well known for outspoken opposition to the "arms for hostages" scandal that would eventually become the Iran Contra situation. In a 1983 testimony before the U.S. Congress, he said that the Sandinista
Sandinista
government in Nicaragua
Nicaragua
was "a cancer in our own land mass", that must be "cut out". He was also opposed to any negotiation with the government of Daniel Ortega: "Negotiations are a euphemism for capitulation if the shadow of power is not cast across the bargaining table." Later life[edit]

Shultz (far left) at the Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library July 17, 2007, with the President of Poland
Poland
Lech Kaczyński
Lech Kaczyński
and Mrs. Kaczyński as well as former First Lady Nancy Reagan
Nancy Reagan
(center, second from right)

George Shultz left office on January 20, 1989. After leaving public office, Shultz became the first prominent Republican to call for the legalization of recreational drugs. He went on to add his signature to an advertisement, published in The New York Times on June 8, 1998, entitled "We believe the global war on drugs is now causing more harm than drug abuse itself." In 2011, he was part of the Global Commission on Drug Policy, which called for a public health and harm reduction approach towards drug use, alongside other luminaries such as Kofi Annan, Paul Volcker, and George Papandreou.[23] Shultz was an early advocate for the presidential candidacy of George W. Bush, whose father, George H. W. Bush, had served as Reagan's vice president. In April 1998, Shultz hosted a meeting at which George W. Bush discussed his views with policy experts including Michael Boskin, John Taylor and Condoleezza Rice, who were evaluating possible Republican candidates to run for President in 2000. At the end of the meeting, the group felt they could support a Bush candidacy, and Shultz encouraged him to enter the race.[24][25] He then served as an advisor for Bush's presidential campaign during the 2000 election, and senior member of the "Vulcans", a group of policy mentors for Bush, which also included Dick Cheney, Paul Wolfowitz, and Rice. One of his most senior advisors and confidants was former Ambassador Charles Hill. Shultz has been called the father of the "Bush Doctrine", because of his advocacy of preventive war.[26] He generally defended the Bush administration's foreign policy.[26] He also occasionally advised Bush and his administration during his presidency, such as in a January 2006 meeting at the White House
White House
of former Secretaries of Defense and State, to discuss United States foreign policy with Bush administration officials. In 2005, Shultz spoke out against the Cuban embargo, calling the policy towards Cuba
Cuba
"insane".[27] He argued that free trade would help bring down Fidel Castro's regime and that the embargo led only to continued repression. In 2003, Shultz served as co-chair (along with Warren Buffett) of California's Economic Recovery Council, an advisory group to the campaign of California
California
gubernatorial candidate Arnold Schwarzenegger. On January 15, 2008, Shultz co-authored (with William Perry, Henry Kissinger and Sam Nunn) an opinion paper in The Wall Street Journal, that called on governments to embrace the vision of a world free of nuclear weapons.[28] The four have created the Nuclear Security Project to advance this agenda. Nunn reinforced that agenda during a speech at the Harvard Kennedy School
Harvard Kennedy School
on October 21, 2008, saying, "I’m much more concerned about a terrorist without a return address that cannot be deterred than I am about deliberate war between nuclear powers. You can’t deter a group who is willing to commit suicide. We are in a different era. You have to understand the world has changed."[29] In 2010, the four were featured in the documentary film Nuclear Tipping Point, which discussed their agenda. On January 11, 2011, Shultz wrote a letter to President Barack Obama urging him to pardon Jonathan Pollard. He stated, "I am impressed that the people who are best informed about the classified material Pollard passed to Israel, former CIA Director James Woolsey
James Woolsey
and former Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee Dennis DeConcini, favor his release".[30][31] Shultz favors a revenue-neutral carbon tax as the most economically efficient means of addressing global warming. In April 2013, he co-wrote, with economist Gary Becker, an opinion article in the Wall Street Journal which concluded that "a revenue-neutral carbon tax would benefit all Americans by eliminating the need for costly energy subsidies while promoting a level playing field for energy producers."[32] He repeated this call in a September 2014 talk at MIT.[33] In March 2015 Shultz wrote in The Washington Post
The Washington Post
that he recommended "level[ing] the playing field for competing sources of energy so that costs imposed on the community are borne by the sources of energy that create them, most particularly carbon dioxide," and doing so through a carbon tax which is "revenue-neutral, returning all net funds generated to the taxpayers so that no fiscal drag results and the revenue would not be available for politicians to spend on pet projects."[34] In April 2016, he was one of eight former Treasury secretaries who called on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to remain a member of the European Union ahead of the "Brexit" referendum in June.[35] Shultz is a leader of the Climate Leadership Council, along with Henry Paulson and James Baker.[36] Memberships held[edit]

Shultz with Rex Tillerson
Rex Tillerson
and Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice
in 2018

Shultz is the Chairman of JPMorgan Chase's International Advisory Council, and an Honorary Director of the Institute for International Economics. He is a member of the Hoover Institution
Hoover Institution
at Stanford University, the Washington Institute for Near East Policy
Washington Institute for Near East Policy
(WINEP) Board of Advisors, the New Atlantic Initiative, the prestigious Mandalay Camp at the Bohemian Grove, the Committee for the Liberation of Iraq, and the Committee on the Present Danger. He serves as an Advisory Board member for the Partnership for a Secure America and Citizens' Climate Lobby.[37] He is honorary chairman of the Israel Democracy Institute.[38] Shultz formerly served on the Board of Directors for the Bechtel Corporation, Charles Schwab Corporation, and was a member of the Board of Directors of Gilead Sciences
Gilead Sciences
from January 1996 to December 2005. He is currently a co-chairman of the North American Forum and serves on the board for Accretive Health. He was a member of the board of directors of Theranos, a Silicon Valley biotech company, from 2011 to 2015.[39] After media reports exposed controversial practices at the startup in 2015, following the whistleblowing efforts of Shultz' own grandson, Tyler, he moved to Theranos' Board of Counselors, where he continues to serve as of November 2016.[40] Family[edit] While serving with the Marines in Hawaii, he met military nurse lieutenant Helena Maria O'Brien (1915–1995). They married on February 16, 1946, and had five children (Margaret Ann Tilsworth, Kathleen Pratt Shultz Jorgensen, Peter Milton, Barbara Lennox Shultz White, Alexander George).[1][41] Helena died in 1995 of pancreatic cancer. In 1997, Shultz married Charlotte Mailliard Swig, a prominent San Francisco philanthropist and socialite.[42] His grandson, Tyler Shultz, was a whistleblower who exposed falsified lab tests at Theranos
Theranos
while working there, and while his grandfather George Shultz was a board member at the company.[43] Honors and prizes[edit] This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

2016 – Presidential Medal of Honor, San Francisco
San Francisco
State University 2014 – Honorary Reagan Fellow Award of Eureka College[44] 2012 – Henry A. Kissinger Prize of the American Academy in Berlin[45] 2011 – Honorary Officer of the Order of Australia[46] 2010 – California
California
Hall of Fame. 2007 – Truman Medal for Economic Policy.[47] 2008 – Rumford Prize
Rumford Prize
[48] 2007 – Emma Lazarus
Emma Lazarus
Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty
Award. 2006 – National World War II
World War II
Museum, American Spirit Award.[47] 2005 – Lead21, Lifetime Achievement Award. 2004 – American Whig-Cliosophic Society, James Madison
James Madison
Award for Distinguished Public Service.[49] 2004 – American Economic Association, Distinguished Fellow.[50] 2002 – Reagan Distinguished American Award.[47] 2002 – Ralph Bunche Award.[51]

American Philosophical Society.[47] James H. Doolittle Award.[47] Elliot Richardson
Elliot Richardson
Prize.[47] John Witherspoon Medal.[47]

2001 – Eisenhower Medal for Leadership.[47] 2000 – Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Award for Public Service. 1996 – Koret Prize.[47] 1992 – Seoul Peace Prize (Korea).[47] 1992 – United States
United States
Military Academy, Sylvanus Thayer Award. 1989 – Presidential Medal of Freedom.[47] 1989 – Order of the Rising Sun
Order of the Rising Sun
with Paulownia Flowers, Grand Cordon (Japan).[51] 1986 – Freedoms Foundation, George Washington Medal.[47] 1986 – U.S. Senator John Heinz Award (Jefferson Awards) For Public Service.[52] 1970 – Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[53]

Honorary degrees[edit] Honorary degrees have been conferred from the universities of Columbia, Notre Dame, Loyola, Pennsylvania, Rochester, Princeton, Carnegie Mellon, City University of New York, Yeshiva, Northwestern, Technion, Tel Aviv, Weizmann Institute of Science, Baruch College of New York, Williams College, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Tbilisi State University in the Republic of Georgia, and Keio University in Tokyo.[47] Selected works[edit]

Shultz, George P. and Goodby, James E. The War that Must Never be Fought, Hoover Press, ISBN 978-0-8179-1845-3, 2015. Shultz, George P. and Shoven, John B. Putting Our House in Order: A Guide to Social Security and Health Care Reform. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008 Economics
Economics
in Action: Ideas, Institutions, Policies, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, Stanford University, 1995. Shultz, George P. Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State, New York: Scribner's
Scribner's
1993. U.S. Policy and the Dynamism of the Pacific; Sharing the Challenges of Success, East-West Center (Honolulu), Pacific Forum, and the Pacific and Asian Affairs Council, 1988. The U.S. and Central America: Implementing the National Bipartisan Commission Report: Report to the President from the Secretary of State, U.S. Department of State (Washington, DC), 1986. Risk, Uncertainty, and Foreign Economic Policy, D. Davies Memorial Institute of International Studies, 1981. (With Kenneth W. Dam) Economic Policy beyond the Headlines, Stanford Alumni Association, 1977. Leaders and Followers in an Age of Ambiguity, New York University Press (New York, NY), 1975. (With Albert Rees) Workers and Wages in an Urban Labor Market, University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press, 1970. (With Arnold R. Weber) Strategies for the Displaced Worker: Confronting Economic Change, Harper (New York, NY), 1966. (Editor and author of introduction, with Robert Z. Aliber) Guidelines, Informal Controls, and the Market Place: Policy Choices in a Full Employment Economy, University of Chicago
University of Chicago
Press (Chicago), 1966. (Editor, with Thomas Whisler) Management Organization and the Computer, Free Press (New York, NY), 1960. (Editor, with John R. Coleman) Labor Problems: Cases and Readings, McGraw (New York, NY), 1953. Pressures on Wage Decisions: A Case Study in the Shoe Industry, Wiley (New York, NY), 1951. (With Charles Andrew Myers) The Dynamics of a Labor Market: A Study of the Impact of Employment Changes on Labor Mobility, Job Satisfaction, and Company and Union Policies, Prentice-Hall
Prentice-Hall
(Englewood Cliffs, NJ), 1951.

See also[edit]

Foreign policy of the Reagan administration International Conference on Nuclear Disarmament Korean Air Lines Flight 007 Nuclear Tipping Point

World War II
World War II
portal United States
United States
Marine Corps portal Biography portal

Notes[edit]

^ a b c Katz, Bernard S.; C. Daniel Vencill (1996). Biographical Dictionary of the United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury, 1789–1995. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 320–332. ISBN 9780313280122.  ^ a b c Vellani, Robert (2003). "George P. Shultz". In Arnold Markoe and Kenneth T. Jackson. Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives, Thematic Series: Sports Figures (fee, via Fairfax County Public Library). New York: Charles Scribner's
Scribner's
Sons. GALEK3436600565. Retrieved 2012-02-07. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) (subscription required) ^ U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives
(December 21, 2004). "Joint Resolution: Recognizing the 60th anniversary of the Battle of Peleliu". Congressional Record. Government Printing Office. 150. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved 2012-02-07.  H.J. Res. 102 ^ project editor, Tracie Ratiner. (2006). Encyclopedia of World Biography (2nd ed.). Detroit, Michigan: Thomson Gale. ISBN 1-4144-1041-7. OCLC 1414410417. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  ^ "Ronald Reagan: Nomination of George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
To Be Secretary of State". www.presidency.ucsb.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-15.  ^ "The Chicago School and Its Impact" Commanding Heights: George Shultz, October 2, 2000 ^ Frum, David (2000). How We Got Here: The '70s. New York, New York: Basic Books. p. 243. ISBN 0-465-04195-7.  ^ Richard J. Ellis (2015). The Development of the American Presidency (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. pp. 387–388.  ^ "Former Directors of OMB and BOB". Office of Management and Budget. Retrieved August 22, 2016.  ^ a b c "History of the Treasury: George P. Shultz". United States Department of the Treasury, Office of the Curator. 2001. Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-12.  ^ Lueck, Thomas (June 26, 1982). " Bechtel
Bechtel
Loses Another Officer to Reagan's Cabinet". Retrieved August 11, 2016.  ^ a b c d e "Secretary Shultz Takes Charge". Short History of the Department of State. United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2009-02-13.  ^ Greider, William (December 9, 1982). "The Boys From Bechtel". Rolling Stone Magazine, USA. Retrieved August 11, 2016.  ^ van Dijk, Ruud et al, eds. (2008) Encyclopedia of the Cold War, Vol. 1. New York: Routledge, p. 787. ^ "Reagan's Foreign Policy". Short History of the Department of State. United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2009-02-13.  ^ a b c "The United States
United States
in Europe". Short History of the Department of State. United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2009-02-13.  ^ Andrew, Christopher; Gordievsky, Oleg (1992). KGB: The Inside Story of Its Foreign Operations from Lenin to Gorbachev. Harpercollins. p. 600. ISBN 0-06-016605-3.  ^ Reagan, Ronald (1990). An American Life. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 585, 588–589. ISBN 1-59248-531-6.  ^ a b c d Yarhi-Milo, Keren (Summer 2013). "In the Eye of the Beholder: How Leaders and Intelligence Communities Assess the Intentions of Adversaries". International Security. 38 (1): 31. doi:10.1162/isec_a_00128. Retrieved August 1, 2013.  ^ "Gorbachev and Perestroika". Short History of the Department of State. United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2009-02-13.  ^ "George P. Shultz". United States
United States
Department of State, Office of the Historian. Retrieved 2009-02-13.  ^ Oded, 135 ^ "The Global Commission on Drug Policy - List of Commissioners". The Global Commission on Drug Policy, Switzerland. December 1, 2016. Retrieved December 16, 2016.  ^ " George W. Bush
George W. Bush
Chronology". Boston: WGBH-TV. October 12, 2004. Retrieved February 28, 2011.  ^ "The Choice 2004". Frontline. Boston, Massachusetts, USA. October 12, 2004. PBS. WGBH-TV. Retrieved February 28, 2011.  ^ a b Henninger, Daniel (April 29, 2006). "Father of the Bush Doctrine". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2008-08-12.  ^ George Shultz, Charlie Rose
Charlie Rose
(December 22, 2005). Charlie Rose interview with George Shultz. Charlie Rose
Charlie Rose
Inc.  ^ "Toward a Nuclear-Free World", The Wall Street Journal, January 15, 2008 ^ Maclin, Beth (October 20, 2008) "A Nuclear weapon-free world is possible, Nunn says", Belfer Center, Harvard University. Retrieved on 2008-10-21. ^ "George Shultz calls for Jonathan Pollard's release". The Washington Post. January 11, 2011. Retrieved 2013-11-12.  ^ "The truth about Jonathan Pollard". CNN. June 22, 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-12.  ^ Shultz, George; Becker, Gary (April 7, 2013). "Why We Support a Revenue-Neutral Carbon Tax: Coupled with the elimination of costly energy subsidies, it would encourage competition". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 22, 2016.  ^ Dizikes, Peter (October 1, 2014). "George Shultz: "Climate is changing," and we need more action; Former secretary of state — and former MIT professor — urges progress on multiple fronts". MIT News. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2015.  ^ Shultz, George (March 13, 2015). "A Reagan approach to climate change". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2016.  ^ "Staying in EU 'best hope' for UK's future say ex-US Treasury secretaries". BBC News. April 20, 2016.  ^ John Schwartz (February 7, 2017). "'A Conservative Climate Solution': Republican Group Calls for Carbon Tax". The New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2017. The group, led by former Secretary of State James A. Baker III, with former Secretary of State George P. Shultz and Henry M. Paulson Jr., a former secretary of the Treasury, says that taxing carbon pollution produced by burning fossil fuels is “a conservative climate solution” based on free-market principles.  ^ "Advisory Board - Citizens' Climate Lobby". Retrieved 21 January 2018.  ^ "International Advisory Council". The Israel Democracy Institute. Retrieved 2013-11-12.  ^ "A singular board at Theranos". Fortune. June 12, 2014. Retrieved 2015-09-22.  ^ Carreyrou, John (November 17, 2016). " Theranos
Theranos
Whistleblower Shook the Company—And His Family". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 17, 2016.  ^ "George P. Shultz". Contemporary Authors Online (fee, via Fairfax County Public Library). Detroit, MI: Gale. 2010. GALEH1000090903. Retrieved 2012-02-07. . Gale Biography In Context. (subscription required) ^ Donnally, Trish (August 16, 1997). "Swig Tames Her Tiger". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-04-26.  ^ Carreyrou, John (November 17, 2016). " Theranos
Theranos
Whistleblower Shook the Company—And His Family". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2016-11-17.  ^ "Former Secretary of State George Shultz to be Honorary Reagan Fellow at EC Endowed scholarship created in his name". Eureka College.  ^ "The American Academy in Berlin
American Academy in Berlin
– The Henry A. Kissinger Prize 2012".  ^ Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, No. S134, Wednesday, September 14, 2011. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Hoover Foundation: Fellow, bio notes. ^ Nuclear Arms Control Leaders Receive Prestigious Rumford Prize
Rumford Prize
from the American Academy. ^ http://www.university-media.com/university/princeton-university/news/whig-clio-to-honor-shultz-for-public-service/9285.html ^ "American Economic Association". www.aeaweb.org.  ^ a b Sleeman, Elizabeth. (2003). The International Who's Who 2004, p. 1547. ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation".  ^ "Book of Members, 1780-2010: Chapter S" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 13, 2011. 

References[edit]

Oded, Eran. "Arab-Israel Peacemaking." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. Shultz, George P. and Shoven, John B. Putting Our House in Order: A Guide to Social Security and Health Care Reform. New York: W. W. Norton, 2008. Shultz, George Pratt. Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State, New York: Scribner's
Scribner's
1993. Skoug, Kenneth N., The United States
United States
and Cuba
Cuba
Under Reagan and Shultz: A Foreign Service Officer Reports. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Further reading[edit]

Dan Rather
Dan Rather
and Gary Paul Gates, The Palace Guard (1974) William Safire, Before the Fall: An Inside Look at the Pre-Watergate White House
White House
(1975) Laurence I. Barrett, Gambling with History: Reagan in the White House (1983) Allen J. Matsuow, Nixon's Economy: Boom, Busts, Dollars, and Votes (1998) TIME
TIME
(July 5, 1982) Newsweek
Newsweek
(July 5, 1982, February 7, 1983, May 31, 1993) The New Republic
The New Republic
(Dec 15, 1986) The Economist
Economist
(Apr 2, 1988 and December 3, 1988) Wilson, James Graham (2014). The Triumph of Improvisation: Gorbachev's Adaptability, Reagan's Engagement, and the End of the Cold War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801452295. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: George P. Shultz

Wikimedia Commons has media related to George P. Shultz.

Turmoil & Triumph: The George Shultz Years "George P. Shultz". Hoover Institution, Stanford University. 2008. Archived from the original on September 10, 2005. . Association for the Study of the Middle East and Africa (ASMEA) Roberts, Russ (September 3, 2007). "George Shultz on Economics, Human Rights and the Fall of the Soviet Union". EconTalk. Library of Economics
Economics
and Liberty. 

Listen to this article (info/dl)

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Video[edit]

Appearances on C-SPAN Turmoil & Triumph: The George Shultz Years" George Shultz discusses his book Putting Our House in Order on YouTube (filmed on April 15, 2008 at Stanford) George Shultz on panel aired on Democracy Now!
Democracy Now!
program, September 6, 2007 George Shultz on Charlie Rose Booknotes interview with Shultz on Turmoil and Triumph: My Years as Secretary of State, June 27, 1993.

Academic offices

Preceded by W. Allen Wallis Dean of the Booth School of Business 1962–1969 Succeeded by Sidney Davidson

Political offices

Preceded by W. Willard Wirtz United States
United States
Secretary of Labor 1969–1970 Succeeded by James Day Hodgson

Preceded by Bob Mayo as Director of the Bureau of the Budget Director of the Office of Management and Budget 1970–1972 Succeeded by Caspar Weinberger

Preceded by John Connally United States
United States
Secretary of the Treasury 1972–1974 Succeeded by William E. Simon

Preceded by Alexander Haig United States
United States
Secretary of State 1982–1989 Succeeded by James Baker

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of State

Secretary of Foreign Affairs 1781–89

R. Livingston Jay

Secretary of State 1789–present

Jefferson Randolph Pickering J. Marshall Madison Smith Monroe Adams Clay Van Buren E. Livingston McLane Forsyth Webster Upshur Calhoun Buchanan Clayton Webster Everett Marcy Cass Black Seward Washburne Fish Evarts Blaine Frelinghuysen Bayard Blaine Foster Gresham Olney Sherman Day Hay Root Bacon Knox Bryan Lansing Colby Hughes Kellogg Stimson Hull Stettinius Byrnes G. Marshall Acheson Dulles Herter Rusk Rogers Kissinger Vance Muskie Haig Shultz Baker Eagleburger Christopher Albright Powell Rice (tenure) Clinton (tenure) Kerry (tenure) Tillerson

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of the Treasury

18th century

Hamilton Wolcott Dexter

19th century

Gallatin Campbell Dallas Crawford Rush Ingham McLane Duane Taney Woodbury Ewing Forward Spencer Bibb Walker Meredith Corwin Guthrie Cobb Thomas Dix Chase Fessenden McCulloch Boutwell Richardson Bristow Morrill Sherman Windom Folger Gresham McCulloch Manning Fairchild Windom Foster Carlisle Gage

20th century

Shaw Cortelyou MacVeagh McAdoo Glass Houston Mellon Mills Woodin Morgenthau Vinson Snyder Humphrey Anderson Dillon Fowler Barr Kennedy Connally Shultz Simon Blumenthal Miller Regan Baker Brady Bentsen Rubin Summers

21st century

O'Neill Snow Paulson Geithner Lew Mnuchin

v t e

United States
United States
Secretaries of Labor

Secretaries of Commerce and Labor

Cortelyou Metcalf Straus Nagel

Secretaries of Labor

Wilson Davis Doak Perkins Schwellenbach Tobin Durkin Mitchell Goldberg Wirtz Shultz Hodgson Brennan Dunlop Usery Marshall Donovan Brock McLaughlin Dole Martin Reich Herman Chao Solis Perez Acosta

v t e

Directors of the United States
United States
Office of Management and Budget

Dawes Lord Roop Douglas D. W. Bell Smith Webb Pace Lawton Dodge Hughes Brundage Stans D. E. Bell Gordon Schultze Zwick Mayo Shultz Weinberger Ash Lynn Lance McIntyre Stockman Miller Wright Darman Panetta Rivlin Raines Lew Daniels Bolten Portman Nussle Orszag Lew Burwell Donovan Mulvaney

v t e

Cabinet of President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
(1969–74)

Vice President

Spiro T. Agnew (1969–73) None (1973) Gerald R. Ford (1973–74)

Secretary of State

William P. Rogers
William P. Rogers
(1969–73) Henry A. Kissinger (1973–74)

Secretary of the Treasury

David M. Kennedy
David M. Kennedy
(1969–71) John B. Connally (1971–72) George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(1972–74) William E. Simon
William E. Simon
(1974)

Secretary of Defense

Melvin R. Laird (1969–73) Elliot L. Richardson (1973) James R. Schlesinger
James R. Schlesinger
(1973–74)

Attorney General

John N. Mitchell
John N. Mitchell
(1969–72) Richard G. Kleindienst (1972–73) Elliot L. Richardson (1973) William B. Saxbe
William B. Saxbe
(1974)

Postmaster General

Winton M. Blount
Winton M. Blount
(1969–71)

Secretary of the Interior

Walter J. Hickel (1969–70) Rogers C. B. Morton (1970–74)

Secretary of Agriculture

Clifford M. Hardin
Clifford M. Hardin
(1969–71) Earl L. Butz (1971–74)

Secretary of Commerce

Maurice H. Stans (1969–72) Peter G. Peterson (1972–73) Frederick B. Dent
Frederick B. Dent
(1973–74)

Secretary of Labor

George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(1969–70) James D. Hodgson (1970–73) Peter J. Brennan
Peter J. Brennan
(1973–74)

Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare

Robert H. Finch (1969–70) Elliot L. Richardson (1970–73) Caspar W. Weinberger (1973–74)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

George W. Romney
George W. Romney
(1969–73) James T. Lynn (1973–74)

Secretary of Transportation

John Volpe
John Volpe
(1969–73) Claude S. Brinegar (1973–74)

v t e

Cabinet of President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
(1981–89)

Cabinet

Secretary of State

Alexander M. Haig Jr. (1981–82) George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz
(1982–89)

Secretary of the Treasury

Donald T. Regan (1981–85) James A. Baker (1985–88) Nicholas F. Brady
Nicholas F. Brady
(1988–89)

Secretary of Defense

Caspar W. Weinberger (1981–87) Frank C. Carlucci (1987–89)

Attorney General

William French Smith
William French Smith
(1981–85) Edwin Meese
Edwin Meese
(1985–88) Richard L. Thornburgh (1988–89)

Secretary of the Interior

James G. Watt
James G. Watt
(1981–83) William P. Clark (1983–85) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1985–89)

Secretary of Agriculture

John R. Block (1981–86) Richard E. Lyng (1986–89)

Secretary of Commerce

Malcolm Baldrige (1981–87) C. William Verity (1987–89)

Secretary of Labor

Raymond J. Donovan
Raymond J. Donovan
(1981–85) William E. Brock III (1985–87) Ann Dore McLaughlin (1987–89)

Secretary of Health and Human Services

Richard S. Schweiker (1981–83) Margaret M. Heckler (1983–85) Otis Bowen
Otis Bowen
(1985–89)

Secretary of Housing and Urban Development

Samuel R. Pierce (1981–89)

Secretary of Transportation

Drew Lewis (1981–83) Elizabeth H. Dole (1983–87) James H. Burnley IV
James H. Burnley IV
(1987–89)

Secretary of Energy

James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards
(1981–83) Donald P. Hodel
Donald P. Hodel
(1983–85) John S. Herrington
John S. Herrington
(1985–89)

Secretary of Education

Terrel H. Bell (1981–85) William J. Bennett (1985–88) Lauro F. Cavazos (1988–89)

Cabinet-level

Vice President

George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
(1981–89)

White House
White House
Chief of Staff

James A. Baker (1981–85) Donald T. Regan (1985–87) Howard H. Baker Jr. (1987–88) Kenneth M. Duberstein (1988–89)

Director of the Office of Management and Budget

David Stockman
David Stockman
(1981–85) James C. Miller III
James C. Miller III
(1985–88) Joseph R. Wright Jr. (1988–89)

Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Anne M. Gorsuch (1981–83) William D. Ruckelshaus (1983–85) Lee M. Thomas
Lee M. Thomas
(1985–89)

Director of Central Intelligence

William J. Casey
William J. Casey
(1981–87) William H. Webster
William H. Webster
(1987–89)

Ambassador to the United Nations

Jeane Kirkpatrick
Jeane Kirkpatrick
(1981–85) Vernon A. Walters
Vernon A. Walters
(1985–89)

Trade Representative

William E. Brock III (1981–85) Clayton K. Yeutter (1985–89)

Chairperson of the Council of Economic Advisers

Murray L. Weidenbaum (1981–82) Martin S. Feldstein (1982–84) Beryl W. Sprinkel (1985–89)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108736335 LCCN: n50022917 ISNI: 0000 0001 1081 3070 GND: 119143011 SUDOC: 087674351 BNF: cb123684901 (data) MGP: 206919 NDL: 00456505 NKC: vse2012724691 SN

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