The Info List - George Armitage Miller

George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(February 3, 1920 – July 22, 2012)[1] was an American psychologist who was one of the founders of the cognitive psychology field. He also contributed to the birth of psycholinguistics and cognitive science in general. Miller wrote several books and directed the development of WordNet, an online word-linkage database usable by computer programs. He authored the paper, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two," in which he insightfully observed that many different experimental findings considered together reveal the presence of an average limit of seven for human short-term memory capacity. This paper is frequently cited in both psychology and the wider culture. He also won awards, such as the National Medal of Science. Miller started his education focusing on speech and language and published papers on these topics, focusing on mathematical, computational and psychological aspects of the field. He started his career at a time when the reigning theory in psychology was behaviorism, which eschewed any attempt to study mental processes and focused only on observable behavior. Working mostly at Harvard University, MIT
and Princeton University, Miller introduced experimental techniques to study the psychology of mental processes. He went on to be one of the founders of psycholinguistics and was then one of the key figures in founding the broader new field of cognitive science, circa 1978. He collaborated and co-authored work with other figures in cognitive science and psycholinguistics, such as Noam Chomsky. For moving psychology into the realm of mental processes and for aligning that move with information theory, computation theory, and linguistics, Miller is considered one of the great twentieth-century psychologists. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Miller as the 20th most cited psychologist of that era.[2]


1 Biography

1.1 Career 1.2 Death

2 Major contributions

2.1 Working memory 2.2 WordNet 2.3 Language psychology and computation

3 Books

3.1 Language and Communication, 1951 3.2 Plans and the Structure of Behavior, 1960 3.3 The Psychology
of Communication, 1967

4 Legacy 5 Awards 6 List of Miller's books

6.1 Chapters in books

7 References 8 External links

Biography[edit] Miller was born on February 3, 1920, in Charleston, West Virginia, the son of an executive at a steel company,[1] George E. Miller, and Florence (Armitage) Miller.[3] Soon after, his parents divorced. He grew up with only his mother during the Great Depression, attended public school, and graduated from Charleston High School in 1937. He relocated with his mother and stepfather to Washington D.C., and was at George Washington University
George Washington University
for a year. His family practiced Christian Science, which required turning to prayer, rather than medical science, for healing. After his stepfather was transferred to Birmingham, Alabama, Miller transferred to the University of Alabama.[4] He received his bachelor's degree in history and speech in 1940, and a master's in speech in 1941 from the University of Alabama. He had taken courses in phonetics, voice science, and speech pathology . Membership in the Drama club fostered his interest in courses in the Speech Department. He was also influenced by Professor Donald Ramsdell, who introduced him both to psychology, and, indirectly through a seminar, to his future wife Katherine James.[4] They married on November 29, 1939. Katherine died in January 1996.[3][5] He married Margaret Ferguson Skutch Page in 2008.[3][6] Miller taught the course "Introduction to Psychology" at Alabama for two years. He enrolled in the PhD program in psychology at Harvard University in 1943, after coming to the university in 1942.[4] He received his doctorate in 1946 from Harvard's Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory, under the supervision of Stanley Smith Stevens, researching military voice communications for the Army Signal Corps during World War II. His doctorate thesis, "The Optimal Design of Jamming Signals," was classified top secret by the US Army.[4] Career[edit] After receiving his doctorate, Miller stayed as a research fellow at Harvard, to continue his research on speech and hearing. He was appointed assistant professor of psychology in 1948. The course he developed on language and communication would eventually lead to his first major book, Language and communication (1951). He took a sabbatical in 1950, and spent a year as a visiting fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, to pursue his interest in mathematics. Miller befriended J. Robert Oppenheimer, with whom he played squash.[7] In 1951, Miller joined MIT
as an associate professor of psychology. He led the psychology group at MIT
Lincoln Lab. He worked on voice communication and human engineering, whereupon he identified the minimal voice features of speech required for it to be intelligible. Based on this work, in 1955, he was invited to a talk at the Eastern Psychological Association. That presentation, "The magical number seven, plus or minus two", was later published as a paper which went on to be a legendary one in cognitive psychology.[4] Miller moved back to Harvard as a tenured associate professor in 1955 and became a full professor in 1958, expanding his research into how language affects human cognition.[4] At the university he met a young Noam Chomsky, another of the founders of cognitive science. They spent a summer together at Stanford training the faculty, and their two families shared a house. In 1958–59, Miller took leave to join the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences
at Palo Alto, California, (now at Stanford University).[8] There he collaborated with Eugene Galanter and Karl Pribram on the book Plans and the Structure of Behavior. In 1960, along with Jerome S. Bruner,[1][4] he co-founded the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard.[4] The cognitive term was a break from the then-dominant school of behaviorism, which insisted cognition was not fit for scientific study.[1] The center attracted such notable visitors as Jean Piaget, Alexander Luria
Alexander Luria
and Chomsky.[8] Miller then became the chair of the psychology department.[4] Miller was instrumental at the time for recruiting Timothy Leary
Timothy Leary
to teach at Harvard. Miller knew Leary from the University of Alabama, where Miller was teaching psychology and Leary graduated with an undergraduate degree from the department. In 1967, Miller taught at Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University
for a year, as a visiting professor,[3] From 1968 to 1979, he was Professor at the Rockefeller University
Rockefeller University
and continued as Adjunct Professor there from 1979 to 1982. A new president's selection at Rockefeller made him leave.[8] He moved to Princeton University
Princeton University
in 1979 as the James S. McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Psychology.[5][9][4] In 1986, he helped in founding the Cognitive Science Laboratory at Princeton. Eventually he became a professor emeritus and senior research psychologist at Princeton. He also directed the McDonnell-Pew Program in Cognitive Science.[4] Miller had honorary doctorates from the University of Sussex
University of Sussex
(1984), Columbia University
Columbia University
(1980), Yale University
Yale University
(1979), Catholic University of Louvain (1978),[4] Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University
(in humane letters, 2003),[10] and an honorary DSC from Williams College (2000).[11] He was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957,[12] the National Academy of Sciences
National Academy of Sciences
in 1962,[12] the presidency of the Eastern Psychological Association in 1962,[4] the presidency of the American Psychological Association
American Psychological Association
in 1969,[4] and to the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences
in 1985.[12][13] Miller was the keynote speaker at the first convention of the Association for Psychological Science in 1989.[14] He was a Fulbright research fellow
Fulbright research fellow
at Oxford University
Oxford University
in 1964–65,[8] and in 1991, received the National Medal of Science.[12] Death[edit] In his later years, Miller enjoyed playing golf.[1] He died in 2012 at his home in Plainsboro, New Jersey
Plainsboro, New Jersey
of complications of pneumonia and dementia.[5] At the time of his death, he was survived by his wife Margaret; the children from his first marriage: son Donnally James and daughter Nancy Saunders; two stepsons, David Skutch and Christopher Skutch; and three grandchildren: Gavin Murray-Miller, Morgan Murray-Miller and Nathaniel James Miller.[6][12] Major contributions[edit] Miller's career started during the reign of behaviorism in psychology. Behaviorists questioned whether mental thought processes were fit for scientific study, not being observable. They focused on working with responses to stimuli, particularly among other animals. Miller disagreed. He, Jerome Bruner, and Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
are considered the founders of the field of Cognitive Psychology
that replaced behaviorism as the framework for analyzing the mind.[5] Working memory[edit] From the days of William James, psychologists had the idea memory consisted of short-term and long-term memory. While short-term memory was expected to be limited, its exact limits were not known. In 1956, Miller would quantify its capacity limit in the paper "The magical number seven, plus or minus two". He tested immediate memory via tasks such as asking a person to repeat a set of digits presented; absolute judgment by presenting a stimulus and a label, and asking them to recall the label later; and span of attention by asking them to count things in a group of more than a few items quickly. For all three cases, Miller found the average limit to be seven items. He had mixed feelings about the focus on his work on the exact number seven for quantifying short-term memory, and felt it had been misquoted often. He stated, introducing the paper on the research for the first time, that he was being persecuted by an integer.[1] Miller invented the term chunk to characterize the highly variable units to which the limit on memory applied. A chunk might be a single letter or a familiar word or even a larger familiar unit. Miller himself saw no relationship among the disparate tasks of immediate memory and absolute judgment, but lumped them to fill a one-hour presentation. The results influenced the budding field of cognitive psychology.[15] WordNet[edit] For many years starting from 1986, Miller directed the development of WordNet, a large computer-readable electronic reference usable in applications such as search engines.[12] Wordnet is a large lexical database representing human semantic memory in English. Its fundamental building block is a synset, which is a collection of synonyms representing a concept or idea. Words can be in multiple synsets. The entire class of synsets is grouped into nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs separately, with links existing only within these four major groups but not between them. Going beyond a thesaurus, WordNet
also includes inter-word relationships such as part/whole relationships and hierarchies of inclusion.[16]Although not intended to be a dictionary, Wordnet did have many short definitions added to it as time went on. Miller and colleagues had planned the tool to test psycholinguistic theories on how humans use and understand words.[17] Miller also later worked closely with entrepreneur Jeff Stibel and scientists at Simpli.com Inc., on a meaning-based keyword search engine based on WordNet.[18] Wordnet has proved to be extremely influential on an international scale. It has now been emulated by wordnets in many different languages. Language psychology and computation[edit] Miller is considered one of the founders of psycholinguistics, which links language and cognition in psychology, to analyze how people use and create language.[1] His 1951 book Language and Communication is considered seminal in the field.[5] His later book, The Science of Words (1991) also focused on language psychology.[19] He published papers along with Noam Chomsky
Noam Chomsky
on the mathematics and computational aspects of language and its syntax, two new areas of study.[20][21][22] Miller also researched how people understood words and sentences, the same problem faced by artificial speech-recognition technology. The book Plans and the Structure of Behavior (1960), written with Eugene Galanter and Karl H. Pribram, explored how humans plan and act, trying to extrapolate this to how a robot could be programmed to plan and do things.[1] Miller is also known for coining Miller's Law: "In order to understand what another person is saying, you must assume it is true and try to imagine what it could be true of".[23] Books[edit] Miller authored several books, many considered the first major works in their respective fields. Language and Communication, 1951[edit] Miller's Language and Communication was one of the first significant texts in the study of language behavior. The book was a scientific study of language, emphasizing quantitative data, and was based on the mathematical model of Claude Shannon's information theory.[24] It used a probabilistic model imposed on a learning-by-association scheme borrowed from behaviorism, with Miller not yet attached to a pure cognitive perspective.[25] The first part of the book reviewed information theory, the physiology and acoustics of phonetics, speech recognition and comprehension, and statistical techniques to analyze language.[24] The focus was more on speech generation than recognition.[25] The second part had the psychology: idiosyncratic differences across people in language use; developmental linguistics; the structure of word associations in people; use of symbolism in language; and social aspects of language use.[24] Reviewing the book, Charles E. Osgood classified the book as a graduate-level text based more on objective facts than on theoretical constructs. He thought the book was verbose on some topics and too brief on others not directly related to the author's expertise area. He was also critical of Miller's use of simple, Skinnerian single-stage stimulus-response learning to explain human language acquisition and use. This approach, per Osgood, made it impossible to analyze the concept of meaning, and the idea of language consisting of representational signs. He did find the book objective in its emphasis on facts over theory, and depicting clearly application of information theory to psychology.[24] Plans and the Structure of Behavior, 1960[edit] In Plans and the Structure of Behavior, Miller and his co-authors tried to explain through an artificial-intelligence computational perspective how animals plan and act.[26] This was a radical break from behaviorism which explained behavior as a set or sequence of stimulus-response actions. The authors introduced a planning element controlling such actions.[27] They saw all plans as being executed based on input using a stored or inherited information of the environment (called the image), and using a strategy called test-operate-test-exit (TOTE). The image was essentially a stored memory of all past context, akin to Tolman's cognitive map. The TOTE strategy, in its initial test phase, compared the input against the image; if there was incongruity the operate function attempted to reduce it. This cycle would be repeated till the incongruity vanished, and then the exit function would be invoked, passing control to another TOTE unit in a hierarchically arranged scheme.[26] Peter Milner, in a review in the Canadian Journal of Psychology, noted the book was short on concrete details on implementing the TOTE strategy. He also critically viewed the book as not being able to tie its model to details from neurophysiology at a molecular level. Per him, the book covered only the brain at the gross level of lesion studies, showing that some of its regions could possibly implement some TOTE strategies, without giving a reader an indication as to how the region could implement the strategy.[26] The Psychology
of Communication, 1967[edit] Miller's 1967 work, The Psychology
of Communication, was a collection of seven previously published articles. The first "Information and Memory" dealt with chunking, presenting the idea of separating physical length (the number of items presented to be learned) and psychological length (the number of ideas the recipient manages to categorize and summarize the items with). Capacity of short-term memory was measured in units of psychological length, arguing against a pure behaviorist interpretation since meaning of items, beyond reinforcement and punishment, was central to psychological length.[28] The second essay was the paper on magical number seven. The third, 'The human link in communication systems,' used information theory and its idea of channel capacity to analyze human perception bandwidth. The essay concluded how much of what impinges on us we can absorb as knowledge was limited, for each property of the stimulus, to a handful of items.[28] The paper on "Psycholinguists" described how effort in both speaking or understanding a sentence was related to how much of self-reference to similar-structures-present-inside was there when the sentence was broken down into clauses and phrases.[29] The book, in general, used the Chomskian view of seeing language rules of grammar as having a biological basis—disproving the simple behaviorist idea that language performance improved with reinforcement—and using the tools of information and computation to place hypotheses on a sound theoretical framework and to analyze data practically and efficiently. Miller specifically addressed experimental data refuting the behaviorist framework at concept level in the field of language and cognition. He noted this only qualified behaviorism at the level of cognition, and did not overthrow it in other spheres of psychology.[28] Legacy[edit] The Cognitive Neuroscience Society established a George A. Miller Prize in 1995 for contributions to the field.[30] The American Psychological Association established a George A. Miller Award in 1995 for an outstanding article on general psychology.[31] From 1987 the department of psychology at Princeton University
Princeton University
has presented the George A. Miller prize annually to the best interdisciplinary senior thesis in cognitive science.[32] The paper on the magical number seven continues to be cited by both the popular press to explain the liking for seven-digit phone numbers and to argue against nine-digit zip codes, and by academia, especially modern psychology, to highlight its break with the behaviorist paradigm.[1] Miller was considered the 20th most eminent psychologist of the 20th century in a list[33] republished by, among others, the American Psychological Association.[34] Awards[edit]

Distinguished Scientific Contribution award from the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1963.[3] Distinguished Service award from the American Speech and Hearing Association, 1976.[3] Award in Behavioral Sciences from the New York Academy of Sciences, 1982.[3] Guggenheim fellow in 1986.[3] William James
William James
fellow of the American Psychological Society, 1989.[3] Hermann von Helmholtz award from the Cognitive Neurosciences Institute, 1989.[3] Gold Medal from the American Psychological Foundation in 1990.[3] National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
from The White House, 1991.[3] Louis E. Levy medal from the Franklin Institute, 1991.[3] International Prize from the Fyssen Foundation, 1992.[3] William James
William James
Book award from the APA Division of General Psychology, 1993.[3] John P. McGovern award from the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2000.[3] Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology
award from the APA in 2003.[3] Antonio Zampolli Prize from the European Languages Research Association, 2006.[35]

List of Miller's books[edit]

— (1963). Language and Communication. McGraw Hill. ASIN B000SRSOIK.  — (1965). Mathematics and Psychology
(Perspectives in Psychology). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9780471604082.  Frank Smith; George A. Miller, eds. (1966). The genesis of language; a psycholinguistic approach; proceedings of a conference on language development in children. The MIT
Press.  Frank Smith; George A Miller (1968). The Genesis of Language: A Psycholinguistic Approach. The MIT
Press. ISBN 978-0262690225.  George A. Miller, ed. (1973). Communication, Language and Meaning (Perspectives in Psychology). Basic Books. ISBN 9780465128334.  — (1974). Linguistic Communication: Perspectives for Research. International Reading Association. ISBN 978-0872079298.  — (1975). The Psychology
of Communication. Harper Androw-1975. ISBN 978-0465097074.  George A. Miller; Philip N Johnson-Laird (1976). Language and Perception. Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. ISBN 978-0674509474.  Morris Halle; Joan Bresnan; George A. Miller, eds. (1978). Linguistic theory and psychological reality. The MIT
Press. ISBN 0262080958.  George A. Miller; Elizabeth Lenneberg, eds. (1978). Psychology
and biology of language and thought : essays in honor of Eric Lenneberg. Academic Press. ISBN 0124977502.  Oscar Grusky; George A. Miller, eds. (1981). Sociology of Organizations (2nd ed.). Free Press. ISBN 9780029129302.  Ned Joel Block; Jerrold J. Katz; George A. Miller, eds. (1981). Readings in Philosophy of Psychology, Volume II. Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674748781.  George A. Miller; Eugene Galanter; Karl H. Pribram
Karl H. Pribram
(1986). Plans and the Structure of Behavior. Adams Bannister Cox Pubs. ISBN 0937431001.  — (1987). Spontaneous Apprentices: Children and Language (Tree of Life). Seabury Press. ISBN 978-0816493302.  — (1987). Language and Speech. W H Freeman & Co (sd). ISBN 978-0716712978.  — (1991). Psychology: The Science of Mental Life. Penguin Books Ltd. ISBN 9780140134896.  — (1991). The Science of Words. W H Freeman & Co. ISBN 978-0716750277. 

Chapters in books[edit]

Miller, George A.; Galanter, Eugene (1960), "Some comments on Stochastic models and psychological theories", in Arrow, Kenneth J.; Karlin, Samuel; Suppes, Patrick, Mathematical models in the social sciences, 1959: Proceedings of the first Stanford symposium, Stanford mathematical studies in the social sciences, IV, Stanford, California: Stanford University
Stanford University
Press, pp. 277–297, ISBN 9780804700214. 


^ a b c d e f g h i Paul Vitello (August 1, 2012). "George A. Miller, a pioneer in cognitive psychology, is dead at 92". New York Times. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Profie details: George Armitage Miller". Marquis Who's Who. Retrieved August 7, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n No Authorship Indicated (1991). "Gold medal awards for life achievement: George Armitage Miller". American Psychologist. 46 (4): 326.328. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.46.4.326.  ^ a b c d e Thomas M. Haugh II (August 6, 2012). "George A. Miller dies at 92; pioneer of cognitive psychology". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ a b Emily Langer (August 3, 2012). "George A. Miller; helped transform the study of psychology; at 92". Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 19, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ Pais A. (2006). J. Robert Oppenheimer: A life. Oxford University Press. p. 89.  ^ a b c d Richard Hébert (July 2006). "The Miller's tale". American Psychological Society. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ Lindzey, G. (1989). A History of psychology
History of psychology
in autobiography. Stanford University
Stanford University
Press.  ^ "Preeminent leaders awarded honorary degrees". Carnegie Mellon University: Carnegie Mellon Today. May 13, 2003. Retrieved August 23, 2012.  ^ "Honorary degrees". Williams University: Office of the President. Retrieved August 23, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f Michael Hotchkiss (July 26, 2012). "George Miller, Princeton psychology professor and cognitive pioneer, dies". Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ "G.A. ('George') Miller (1920–2012)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved July 17, 2015.  ^ "The history of APS: A timeline". Association for Psychological Science. Archived from the original on May 15, 2012. Retrieved August 22, 2012.  ^ Cowan, N.; Morey, C. C.; Chen, Z. "The legend of the magical number seven". In Sergio Della Sala. Tall tales About the Brain: Separating Fact from Fiction (PDF). Oxford University
Oxford University
Press. ISBN 978-0-19-856877-3  ^ Daniel Shiffman. "Daniel Shiffman: WordNet". Archived from the original on August 19, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ Sampson, Geoffrey (2000). "Reviews". International Journal of Lexicography. 13 (1): 54.9. doi:10.1093/ijl/13.1.54.  ^ "Beyond keyword searching.Oingo and Simpli.com introduce meaning-based searching". December 20, 1999. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ "George A. Miller". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 8, 2012.  ^ N. Chomsky; George A. Miller (1957). Pattern Conception (Technical report). ASTIA. Document AD110076.  ^ Noam Chomsky; George A. Miller (1958). "Finite State Languages" (PDF). Inform. and Control. 1: 91–112. doi:10.1016/s0019-9958(58)90082-2.  ^ N. Chomsky; George A. Miller (1962). "Introduction to the Formal Analysis of Natural Languages". In R.R. Bush; E. Galanter; R.D. Luce. Handbook of Mathematical Psychology. 2. Wiley. pp. 269–321.  ^ Robert J. Banis (September 8, 2007). "BA 3320.Introduction to operations management". Archived from the original on November 25, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ a b c d Osgood, C. E. (1952). "Language and communication". Psychological Bulletin. 49 (4): 361.363. doi:10.1037/h0052690.  ^ a b Smith, S.M. (1952). "Language and Communication". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 47 (3): 734–735. doi:10.1037/h0052503.  ^ a b c Milner, P. M. (1960). "Review of Plans and the Structure of Behavior". Canadian Journal of Psychology. 14 (4): 281.82. doi:10.1037/h0083461.  ^ Wallace, A.F.C (1960). "Plans and the structure of behavior: Review". American Anthropologist. 62 (6): 1065–1067. doi:10.1525/aa.1960.62.6.02a00190.  ^ a b c Bunge, Mario (1968). "Reviews: George A. Miller: The Psychology
of Communication". The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 18 (4): 350.52. doi:10.1093/bjps/18.4.350.  ^ "Georage A. Miller: The Psychology
of Communication: Seven Essays: Review". Journal of Business Communication. 5 (2): 54–55. 1968. doi:10.1177/002194366800500208.  ^ "George A. Miller Prize in cognitive neuroscience". Cognitive Neuroscience Society. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ "George A. Miller Award for an Outstanding Recent Article on General Psychology". American Psychological Association. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ "George A. Miller Sr. Thesis
Prize". Department of Psychology, Princeton University. 2004. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved August 10, 2012.  ^ Haggbloom, S.J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139.52. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ "Sidebar: Eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Monitor on Psychology. 33 (7): 29. 2002.  ^ "LREC 2006 Conference: Winners of the 2006 Antonio Zampolli Prize". LREC. 2006. Retrieved August 10, 2012. 

External links[edit]

2007 discussion on the cognitive revolution, with Chomsky, Bruner, Pinker and others: Part I[permanent dead link] 2007 discussion on the cognitive revolution, with Chomsky, Bruner, Pinker and others: Part II[permanent dead link] 2007 discussion on the cognitive revolution, with Chomsky, Bruner, Pinker and others: Part III[permanent dead link] 2007 discussion on the cognitive revolution, with Chomsky, Bruner, Pinker and others: Part IV[permanent dead link] Classics in the history of psychology: The seven plus/minus two paper Bio on Kurtzweil.net Old faculty page Communication, Language, and Meaning (edited by Miller) A blog with links to discussions on the seven-plus-minus-two paper Neurotree: Miller's academic genealogy George A. Miller at Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Authorities, with 26 catalog records

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Presidents of the American Psychological Association


G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1892) George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd
(1893) William James
William James
(1894) James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
(1895) George Stuart Fullerton (1896) James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(1897) Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1898) John Dewey
John Dewey
(1899) Joseph Jastrow
Joseph Jastrow


Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce
(1901) Edmund Sanford (1902) William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan
(1903) William James
William James
(1904) Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1905) James Rowland Angell
James Rowland Angell
(1906) Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907) George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton
(1908) Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd
(1909) Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
(1910) Carl Seashore
Carl Seashore
(1911) Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike
(1912) Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren
(1913) Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth
(1914) John B. Watson
John B. Watson
(1915) Raymond Dodge (1916) Robert Yerkes
Robert Yerkes
(1917) John Wallace Baird (1918) Walter Dill Scott (1919) Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz
(1920) Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1921) Knight Dunlap (1922) Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman
(1923) G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1924) I. Madison Bentley (1925)


Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(1927) Edwin Boring
Edwin Boring
(1928) Karl Lashley (1929) Herbert Langfeld (1930) Walter Samuel Hunter (1931) Walter Richard Miles (1932) Louis Leon Thurstone (1933) Joseph Peterson (1934) Albert Poffenberger (1935) Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull
(1936) Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman
(1937) John Dashiell (1938) Gordon Allport (1939) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1940) Herbert Woodrow (1941) Calvin Perry Stone (1942) John Edward Anderson (1943) Gardner Murphy
Gardner Murphy
(1944) Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie
(1945) Henry Garrett (1946) Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
(1947) Donald Marquis (1948) Ernest Hilgard (1949) J. P. Guilford (1950)


Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears
(1951) J. McVicker Hunt (1952) Laurance F. Shaffer (1953) Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954) E. Lowell Kelly (1955) Theodore Newcomb (1956) Lee Cronbach (1957) Harry Harlow
Harry Harlow
(1958) Wolfgang Köhler (1959) Donald O. Hebb (1960) Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller
(1961) Paul E. Meehl (1962) Charles E. Osgood (1963) Quinn McNemar (1964) Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1965) Nicholas Hobbs (1966) Gardner Lindzey (1967) Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
(1968) George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(1969) George Albee (1970) Kenneth B. Clark (1971) Anne Anastasi (1972) Leona E. Tyler (1973) Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell


Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
(1980) John J. Conger (1981) William Bevan (1982) Max Siegel (1983) Janet Taylor Spence (1984) Robert Perloff (1985) Logan Wright (1986) Bonnie Strickland (1987) Raymond D. Fowler (1988) Joseph Matarazzo (1989) Stanley Graham (1990) Charles Spielberger (1991) Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992) Frank Farley (1993) Ronald E. Fox (1994) Robert J. Resnick (1995) Dorothy Cantor (1996) Norman Abeles (1997) Martin Seligman
Martin Seligman
(1998) Richard Suinn (1999) Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)


Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo
(2002) Robert Sternberg (2003) Diane F. Halpern (2004) Ronald F. Levant (2005) Gerald Koocher (2006) Sharon Brehm (2007) Alan E. Kazdin (2008) James H. Bray (2009) Carol D. Goodheart (2010) Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011) Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012) Donald N. Bersoff (2013) Nadine Kaslow
Nadine Kaslow
(2014) Barry S. Anton (2015) Susan H. McDaniel (2016) Antonio Puente (2017) Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)

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Basic psychology

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Applied psychology

Anomalistic Applied behavior analysis Assessment Clinical Community Consumer Counseling Critical Educational Ergonomics Feminist Forensic Health Industrial and organizational Legal Media Military Music Occupational health Pastoral Political Psychometrics Psychotherapy Religion School Sport and exercise Suicidology Systems Traffic


Animal testing Archival research Behavior epigenetics Case study Content analysis Experiments Human subject research Interviews Neuroimaging Observation Qualitative research Quantitative research Self-report inventory Statistical surveys


William James (1842–1910) Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936) Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) Edward Thorndike (1874–1949) Carl Jung (1875–1961) John B. Watson (1878–1958) Clark L. Hull (1884–1952) Kurt Lewin (1890–1947) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Gordon Allport (1897–1967) J. P. Guilford (1897–1987) Carl Rogers (1902–1987) Erik Erikson (1902–1994) B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985) Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001) Harry Harlow (1905–1981) Raymond Cattell (1905–1998) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970) Neal E. Miller (1909–2002) Jerome Bruner (1915–2016) Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996) Hans Eysenck (1916–1997) Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001) David McClelland (1917–1998) Leon Festinger (1919–1989) George Armitage Miller (1920–2012) Richard Lazarus (1922–2002) Stanley Schachter (1922–1997) Robert Zajonc (1923–2008) Albert Bandura (b. 1925) Roger Brown (1925–1997) Endel Tulving (b. 1927) Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987) Noam Chomsky (b. 1928) Ulric Neisser (1928–2012) Jerome Kagan (b. 1929) Walter Mischel (b. 1930) Elliot Aronson (b. 1932) Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934) Paul Ekman (b. 1934) Michael Posner (b. 1936) Amos Tversky (1937–1996) Bruce McEwen (b. 1938) Larry Squire (b. 1941) Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941) Martin Seligman (b. 1942) Ed Diener (b. 1946) Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946) John Anderson (b. 1947) Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947) Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949) Richard Davidson (b. 1951) Susan Fiske (b. 1952) Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)


Counseling topics Disciplines Important publications Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Research methods Schools of thought Timeline Topics

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United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science

Behavioral and social science


1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller


1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman


1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow


2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin


2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences


1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr


1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss


1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood


1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis


2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner


2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin



1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell


1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon


2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox


2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences


1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby


1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo


1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier


1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens


2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv


2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences


1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller


1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth


1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer


1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman


2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford


2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences


1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky


1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf


1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel


1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff


2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington


2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

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Human memory

Basic concepts

Encoding Storage Recall

Attention Consolidation Neuroanatomy



Echoic Eidetic Eyewitness Iconic Motor learning Visual


"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" Working memory




Active recall Autobiographical Explicit

Declarative Episodic Semantic

Flashbulb Hyperthymesia Implicit Meaningful learning Personal-event Procedural Rote learning Selective retention Tip of the tongue



anterograde childhood post-traumatic psychogenic retrograde transient global

Decay theory Forgetting
curve Interference theory Memory
inhibition Motivated forgetting Repressed memory Retrieval-induced forgetting Selective amnesia Weapon focus


Confabulation False memory Hindsight bias Imagination inflation List of memory biases Memory
conformity Misattribution of memory Misinformation effect Source-monitoring error Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome


Art of memory Memory
and aging Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm Exceptional memory Indirect tests of memory Lost in the mall technique Memory
disorder Memory
implantation Methods used to study memory The Seven Sins of Memory Effects of exercise on memory

In society

Collective memory Cultural memory False memory
False memory
syndrome Memory
and social interactions Memory
sport Politics of memory Shas Pollak World Memory

Related topics

Absent-mindedness Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model Context-dependent memory Childhood memory Cryptomnesia Effects of alcohol Emotion and memory Exosomatic memory Flashbacks Free recall Involuntary memory Levels-of-processing effect Memory
and trauma Memory
improvement Metamemory Mnemonic Muscle memory Priming


Prospective memory Recovered-memory therapy Retrospective memory Sleep and memory State-dependent memory Transactive memory


Robert A. Bjork Stephen J. Ceci Susan Clancy Hermann Ebbinghaus Sigmund Freud Patricia Goldman-Rakic Jonathan Hancock Judith Lewis Herman HM (patient) Ivan Izquierdo Marcia K. Johnson Eric Kandel KC (patient) Elizabeth Loftus Geoffrey Loftus Chris Marker James McGaugh Paul R. McHugh Eleanor Maguire George Armitage Miller Brenda Milner Lynn Nadel Dominic O'Brien Ben Pridmore Henry L. Roediger III Steven Rose Cosmos Rossellius Daniel Schacter Richard Shiffrin Arthur P. Shimamura Andriy Slyusarchuk Larry Squire Susumu Tonegawa Anne Treisman Endel Tulving Robert Stickgold Clive Wearing

Psychology Mind and brain

Authority control

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