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Geordie
Geordie
(/ˈdʒɔːrdi/) is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside[1] region of North East England
North East England
and the name of the Northern English dialect spoken by its inhabitants. The term is associated with Tyneside, south Northumberland
Northumberland
and northern parts of County Durham. Geordie
Geordie
has been used and still is used by people to refer to anyone from North East England.[2] In many respects, Geordie
Geordie
speech represents a direct continuation and development of the language spoken by the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
settlers of this region – initially mercenaries employed by the ancient Brythons
Brythons
to fight the Pictish invaders after the end of Roman rule in Britannia in the 5th century. The Angles, Saxons
Saxons
and Jutes
Jutes
who arrived became – in the course of time – ascendant politically and culturally over the native British through subsequent migration from tribal homelands along the North Sea
North Sea
coast of the German Bight. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms that emerged during the Dark Ages spoke largely mutually intelligible varieties of what is now called Old English, each varying somewhat in phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon. This linguistic conservatism can be seen today to the extent that poems by the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
scholar the Venerable Bede
Venerable Bede
translate more successfully into Geordie
Geordie
than into present-day Standard English.[3] Thus in Northern England and the Scottish borders
Scottish borders
area, then dominated by the kingdom of Northumbria, there developed a distinct "Northumbrian" Old English dialect. Later Irish migrants (who, while relatively few in number, influenced Geordie
Geordie
phonology from the early 19th century onwards)[4][5] and Scottish admixture influenced the dialect. In more recent years (20th century to present), the North East area has received migrants from the rest of the world as well. The word "Geordie" can refer to a supporter of Newcastle United,[6] despite many Geordies supporting other local teams. The Toon Army, is the name of the most devoted Newcastle United F.C.
Newcastle United F.C.
fans, attending every home match, as well at travelling supporters following the club during away matches. The Geordie
Geordie
Schooner glassware[7] was traditionally used to serve Newcastle Brown Ale, and more generally as a serving glass for bottled beer. A similar schooner style glass is often used to serve beer in the United States but this often extends to draft, unlike in the UK where draft beers and lagers tend to be served in a pint or half pint glass. The Geordie
Geordie
dialect and self-identification as a Geordie
Geordie
are primarily associated with those of a working-class background. A 2008 newspaper survey found the Geordie
Geordie
accent the "most attractive in England".[8]

Contents

1 Geographical coverage 2 Etymology 3 Phonology

3.1 Consonants 3.2 Vowels

4 Vocabulary 5 In popular culture 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Geographical coverage[edit] When referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie
Geordie
typically refer to "a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs",[9] an area that encompasses Blyth, Ashington, North Tyneside, Newcastle, South Tyneside
Tyneside
and Gateshead.[10][11] This area has a combined population of around 2,597,000, based on 2011 Census data. The term itself, according to Brockett, originated from all the North East coal mines.[12] The catchment area for the term "Geordie" can include Northumberland
Northumberland
and County Durham[13][14] or be confined to an area as small as the city of Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
and the metropolitan boroughs of Tyneside.[1] People from Sunderland differentiate themselves as "Mackems". The earliest known recorded use of the term found by an Oxford English Dictionary word hunt occurred only as late as 1988.[15][16] Just as a Cockney
Cockney
is often colloquially defined as someone "born within the sound of the Bow bells", the term Geordie
Geordie
is sometimes defined as "within spitting distance of the Tyne"[17] and thus the area more associated with the Geordie
Geordie
accent could be thought of as the watershed and bioregion of the River Tyne, and Geordies as its inhabitants. Geordie
Geordie
is referred to as Tyneside
Tyneside
English in academic journals.[18][19][20][21] Etymology[edit] A number of rival theories explain how the term came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name George,[22] "a very common name among the pitmen"[12][23] (coal miners) in North East England; indeed, it was once the most popular name for eldest sons in the region.[citation needed] One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715. The Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George I during the 1715 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumberland, which largely supported the Jacobite cause. If true, the term may have derived from the popular anti-Hanoverian song "Cam Ye O'er Frae France?",[24] which calls the first Hanoverian king " Geordie
Geordie
Whelps", a play on "George the Guelph". Another explanation for the name is that local miners in the northeast of England used Geordie
Geordie
safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson, known locally as " Geordie
Geordie
the engine-wright",[25] in 1815[26] rather than the competing Davy lamps, designed by Humphry Davy, used in other mining communities. Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books, Geordie
Geordie
was given to North East pitmen; later he acknowledges that the pitmen also christened their Stephenson lamp Geordie.[12][23] Linguist Katie Wales[27] also dates the term earlier than does the current Oxford English Dictionary; she observes that Geordy (or Geordie) was a common name given to coal mine pitmen in ballads and songs of the region, noting that such usage turns up as early as 1793. It occurs in the titles of two songs by songwriter Joe Wilson (1841–1875): "Geordy, Haud the Bairn" and "Keep your Feet Still, Geordie". Citing such examples as the song "Geordy Black", written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, and "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this," replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie. In the English Dialect Dictionary of 1900, Joseph Wright gave the definition A man from Tyneside; a miner; a north-country vessel, quoting two sources from Northumberland, one from East Durham and one from Australia. The source from Durham stated, "In South Tyneside even, this name was applied to the Lower Tyneside
Tyneside
men."[28] Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's Geordie
Geordie
Dictionary states:

The origin of the word Geordie
Geordie
has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced.

In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he found of the term's use was in 1823 by local comedian Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Billy cried out to the clown:

Ah man, wee but a feul wad hae sold off his furnitor and left his wife. Noo, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis! Thous a real Geordie! gan man an hide thysel! gan an' get thy picks agyen. Thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o' wor toon.[this quote needs a citation]

(Rough translation: "Oh man, who but a fool would have sold off his furniture and left his wife? Now, you're a fair downright fool, not an artificial fool like Billy Purvis! You're a real Geordie! Go on, man, and hide yourself! Go on and get your picks [axes] again. You may do for the city, but never for the west end of our town!")

Graham is backed up historically by John Camden Hotten, who wrote in 1869: "Geordie, general term in Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."[14] Using Hotten[14] as a chronological reference, Geordie
Geordie
has been documented for at least 249 years as a term related to Northumberland
Northumberland
and County Durham. Bad-weather Geordy was a name applied to cockle sellers:

As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the most stormy in the year – September to March – the sailors' wives at the seaport towns of Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham consider the cry of the cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he hears the cry of 'cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul of Bad-Weather-Geordy. — S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835

Travel writer Scott Dobson used the term "Geordieland" in a 1973 guidebook to refer collectively to Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham.[13] Phonology[edit] The phonemic notation used in this article is based on the set of symbols used by Watt & Allen (2003). Other scholars may use different transcriptions. Consonants[edit] Geordie
Geordie
consonants generally follow those of Received Pronunciation. The dialect is non-rhotic, like most Anglo-English dialects. This means speakers do not pronounce /r/ unless it is followed by a vowel sound in that same phrase or prosodic unit. The rhotic sound (/r/) in Geordie
Geordie
is pronounced as [ɹ]. Some phonological characteristics of consonants specific to Geordie
Geordie
are listed as follows:

/ɪŋ/ appearing in an unstressed final syllable of a word (such as in reading) is pronounced as [ən] (thus, reading is [ˈɹiːdən]). Yod-coalescence
Yod-coalescence
in both stressed and unstressed syllables (so that dew becomes [dʒuː]). Geordie
Geordie
is characterised by a unique type of glottal stops. /p, k, t/ can all be glottalised in Geordie, both at the end of a syllable and sometimes before a weak vowel[29].

T glottalization, in which /t/ is realised by [ʔ] before a syllabic nasal (e.g., button as [ˈbʊʔn]), in absolute final position (get as [ɡɛʔ]), and whenever the /t/ is intervocalic so long as the latter vowel is not stressed (pity as [ˈpɪʔi]). Glottaling in Geordie
Geordie
is often perceived as a full glottal stop [ʔ] but it is in fact more often realised as 'pre-glottalisation', which is ‘an occlusion at the appropriate place of articulation and ‘glottalisation’, usually manifested as a short period of laryngealised voice before and/or after and often also during the stop gap’.[30] This type of glottal is unique to Tyneside
Tyneside
English [31]

Other voiceless stops, /p/ and /k/, are glottally reinforced in medial position, and preaspirated in final position.[32] There is no dark L.[32]

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs of Geordie
Geordie
(from Watt & Allen (2003:268)). Some of these values may not be representative of all speakers.

Monophthongs of Geordie[33]

Front Central Back

unrounded rounded

short long short long

Close ɪ iː

ʊ uː

Close-mid

eː øː ə

Open-mid ɛ ɛː

ɔː

Open a (aː)

ɒ ɒː

Length

For some speakers, vowel length alternates with vowel quality in a very similar way to the Scottish vowel length rule.[33] Vowel length is phonemic for many speakers of Geordie
Geordie
and there is often no other phonetic difference between /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ on one hand and /ɒ/ and /ɒː/ on the other.[33] If traditional dialect forms are considered, /a/ also has a phonemic long counterpart (/aː/), but they contrast only before voiceless consonants. There are minimal pairs such as tack /tak/ vs. talk /taːk/ (normal Geordie
Geordie
pronunciation: /tɔːk/). If they are disregarded, this [aː] is best regarded as a phonetic realisation of /ɔː/ in certain words (roughly, those spelt with a). It occurs only in broad Geordie. Another [aː] appears as an allophone of /a/ before final voiced consonants in words such as lad [laːd].[34]

Phonetic quality and phonemic incidence

/iː, uː/ are typically somewhat closer than in other varieties; /uː/ is also less prone to fronting than in other varieties of BrE and its quality is rather close to the cardinal [u]. However, younger women tend to use a central [ʉː] instead.[33] /iː, uː/ are monophthongs [iː, uː ~ ʉː] only in morphologically closed syllables. In morphologically open syllables, they are realised as closing diphthongs [ei, ɵʊ]. This creates minimal pairs such as freeze [fɹiːz] vs. frees [fɹeiz] and bruise [bɹuːz ~ bɹʉːz] vs. brews [bɹɵʊz].[33][35] For simplicity, the monophthongal allophone of /uː/ is transcribed with [uː] throughout the article. The HAPPY vowel is tense [i] and is best analysed as belonging to the /iː/ phoneme.[36] As other Northern English varieties, Geordie
Geordie
lacks the FOOT-STRUT split, so that words like cut, up and luck have the same /ʊ/ phoneme as put, sugar and butcher. The typical phonetic realisation is unrounded [ɤ], but it may be hypercorrected to [ə] among middle-class (especially female) speakers.[37] The long close-mid vowels /eː, oː/ may be realised as monophthongs [eː, oː] or as opening diphthongs [ɪə, ʊə]. Alternatively, /eː/ can be a closing diphthong [eɪ] and /oː/ can be centralised to [ɵː].[33] The opening diphthongs are recessive, as younger speakers reject them in favour of the monophthongal [eː, oː ~ ɵː].[38] Other, now archaic, realisations of /oː/ include [aː] in snow [snaː] and [aʊ] in soldiers [ˈsaʊldʒɐz].[33] Geordie
Geordie
does not always adhere to the same distributional patters of vowels found in Received Pronunciation
Received Pronunciation
or even the neighbouring accents. Examples of that include the words no and stone, which may be pronounced [niː] and [stɪən], so with vowels that are best analysed as belonging to the /iː/ and /eː/ phonemes.[33] Many female speakers merge /oː/ with /ɔː/, but the exact phonetic quality of the merged vowel is uncertain.[33] /øː/ may be phonetically [øː] or a higher, unrounded vowel [ɪː].[33] According to John Wells, an RP-like vowel [əː] is also possible.[35] In broad Geordie, /øː/ merges with /ɔː/ to [ɔː] under the influence of a uvular [ʁ] that once followed it (when Geordie
Geordie
was still a rhotic dialect).[35][39] The fact that the original /ɔː/ vowel is never hypercorrected to [øː] or [əː] suggests that either this merger was never categorical, or that speakers are unusually successful in sorting those vowels out again.[35] The schwa /ə/ is often rather open ([ɐ]). It also tends to be longer in duration than the preceding stressed vowel, even if that vowel is phonologically long. Therefore, words such as water and meter are pronounced [ˈwɔd̰ɐː] and [ˈmid̰ɐː].[33] This feature is shared with the very conservative (Upper Crust) variety of Received Pronunciation.[40] Words such as voices and ended have /ə/ in the second syllable (so /ˈvoesəz, ˈɛndəd/), rather than the /ɪ/ of RP. That does not mean that Geordie
Geordie
has undergone the weak vowel merger because /ɪ/ can still be found in some unstressed syllables in place of the more usual /ə/. An example of that is the second syllable of seven /ˈsɛvɪn/, but it can also be pronounced with a simple schwa /ə/ instead. Certain weak forms also have /ɪ/ instead of /ə/; these include at /ɪt/, of /ɪv/, as /ɪz/, can /kɪn/ and us /ɪz/.[41] As in other Northern English dialects, the BATH vowel is short /a/ in Geordie. There are very few exceptions to this rule; for instance, master, plaster and sometimes also disaster are pronounced with /ɒː/.[42] Some speakers unround /ɒː/ to [ɑː].[33] Regardless of the rounding, the difference in backness between /ɒː/ and /a/ is very pronounced, a feature which Geordie
Geordie
shares with RP and some northern cities such as Stoke-on-Trent and Derby, but not with the accents of the middle north.[34]

Part 1 of Geordie
Geordie
diphthongs (from Watt & Allen (2003:268))

Part 2 of Geordie
Geordie
diphthongs (from Watt & Allen (2003:268)). /æu/ has a considerable phonetic variation.

Diphthongs of Geordie[33]

Endpoint

Front Central Back

Start point Front

iɐ æu

Central ai

Back oe uɐ

As the transcription indicates, the second elements of /iɐ, uɐ/ are commonly as open as the typical Geordie
Geordie
realisation of /ə/ ([ɐ]).[39] The first element of /æu/ is phonetically [ä] or [ɛ][43] or an intermediate [æ].[44] Traditionally, this vowel was a monophthong [uː] and this pronunciation can still be heard, as can a narrower diphthong [əu].[41] /ai/ is phonetically [äi], but the Scottish vowel length rule applied by some speakers of Geordie
Geordie
creates an additional allophone [ɛi] that has a shorter, higher and more front onset than the main allophone [äi]. [ɛi] is used in words such as knife [nɛif], whereas [äi] is used in e.g. knives [näivz].[33] For simplicity, both of them are written [ai] in this article.

Vocabulary[edit]

For a list of words relating to the Geordie
Geordie
dialect, see the Geordie English category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The Geordie
Geordie
dialect shares similarities with other Northern English dialects, as well as with the Scots language. In her column for the South Shields
South Shields
Gazette, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid attests many samples of Geordie
Geordie
language usage, such as the nouns bairn ("child")[45] and clarts ("mud");[46] the adjectives canny ("pleasant")[47] and clag ("sticky");[46] and the imperative verb phrase howay ("hurry up!"; "come on!")[48] Howay is broadly comparable to the invocation "Come on!" or the French "Allez-y!" ("Go on!"). Examples of common use include Howay man!, meaning "come on" or "hurry up", Howay the lads! as a term of encouragement for a sports team for example (the players' tunnel at St James' Park has this phrase just above the entrance to the pitch), or Ho'way!? (with stress on the second syllable) expressing incredulity or disbelief.[49] The literal opposite of this phrase is haddaway ("go away"); although not as common as howay, it is perhaps most commonly used in the phrase "Haddaway an' shite" (Tom Hadaway, Figure 5.2 Haddaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.'[50]). Another word, divvie or divvy ("idiot"), seems to come from the Co-op dividend,[51] or from the two Davy lamps (the more explosive Scotch Davy[52] used in 1850, commission disapproved of its use in 1886 (inventor not known, nicknamed Scotch Davy probably given by miners after the Davy lamp
Davy lamp
was made perhaps by north east miners who used the Stephenson Lamp[26][53]), and the later better designed Davy designed by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
also called the Divvy.[54]) As in a north east miner saying 'Marra, ye keep way from me if ye usin a divvy.' It seems the word divvie then translated to daft lad/lass. Perhaps coming from the fact one would be seen as foolish going down a mine with a Scotch Divvy when there are safer lamps available, like the Geordie, or the Davy. The Geordie
Geordie
word netty,[55] meaning a toilet and place of need and necessity for relief[55][56][57] or bathroom,[55][56][57] has an uncertain origin,[58] though some have theorised that it may come from slang used by Roman soldiers on Hadrian's Wall,[59] which may have later become gabinetti in the Romanic Italian language[59] (such as in the Westoe Netty, the subject of a famous painting from Bob Olley[59][60]). However, gabbinetto is the Modern Italian diminutive of gabbia, which actually derives from the Latin
Latin
cavea ("hollow", "cavity", "enclosure"), the root of the loanwords that became the Modern English cave,[61] cage,[62] and gaol.[63] Thus, another explanation would be that it comes from a Modern Romanic Italian form of the word gabinetti,[58] though only a relatively small number of Italians have migrated to the North of England, mostly during the 19th century.[64] Some etymologists connect the word netty to the Modern English word needy. John Trotter Brockett, writing in 1829 in his A glossary of north country words...,[57] claims that the etymon of netty (and its related form neddy) is the Modern English needy[65] and need.[66] Bill Griffiths, in A Dictionary of North East Dialect, points to the earlier form, the Old English
Old English
níd; he writes: "MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of his house a knyttyng" York 1419, in which case the root could be OE níd 'necessary'".[56] Another related word, nessy is thought (by Griffiths) to derive from the Modern English "necessary".[56] A poem called "Yam" narrated by author Douglas Kew, demonstrates the usage of a number of Geordie
Geordie
words.[67][68]

Vocabulary usage

aa/aye/ai, yes[69] aall, all[70] aalwiz, always[71] aboot, about[70] alang, along[72] alreet, alright[73] an, and[70] baccy, tobacco[70] bairn, child[45] cannit, cannot[74] canny, pleasant[47] childhud, childhood[75] clag, sticky[46] clarts, mud[46] dee, do[70][76] dinnor, dinner[70] divvn't, don't[77][78] divvy, idiot doilum, idiot Frida, Friday[79] fud, food[80] gan hyem, go home gan on, go on[81] gan, go[82] gan't, gone to[83] geet, very, really guzzlin, eating[70] haad, hold (e.g. keep a haad is 'keep a hold' and had yer gob becomes 'keep quiet'.)[49] haadaway, get away, (disbelief)[84] heor, hear[81] hinny, honey (a term of endearment)[49][85] hoose, house[70] hooswife, Housewife[70] hord, heard[86] howay, hurry up, come on[48] hoy, to throw[49] hyem-myed, home made[87] ivry, every[88] lang, long[87] larns, learns[89] larnt, taught[90] ma/mar/mam, mother[70] mesel, myself[70] Monda, Monday[90] neebody, nobody[91] neet, night[82] noo, now[92] nooadays, nowadays[82] nowt, nothing[49][70] oot, out[93] owt, anything pianna, piano[82] reelise, realise[70] reet, right[94] roond, around or round[95] smaall, small[96] stotty-cyek, stotty cake (bread)[81] summack or summit, something[82] Sunda, Sunday[87] taak, talk[81] thor's, there's[84] Thorsda', Thursday[90] waarms, warms[81] watt, what[97] wawd, word[81] wesh, wash[98] wheor, where[82] wor, our[81] worsel's, ourselves[99] y'kin, you can[100]

In popular culture[edit]

Singer Cheryl Tweedy is a famous Geordie
Geordie
speaker.

The Geordie
Geordie
dialect has featured prominently in the British media, as television presenters such as Ant & Dec (who first found fame in the Newcastle-set children's drama Byker Grove) are now happy to use their natural accents on air.[101] Brendan Foster[102] and Sid Waddell[103] have both worked as television sports commentators. Cheryl Tweedy, a former member of Girls Aloud
Girls Aloud
and judge on The X Factor, has a Geordie
Geordie
accent,[104] she says that she's "proud to be Geordie!" as does Joe McElderry
Joe McElderry
the winner of the sixth series of The X Factor.[104] In May 2011, while named Cheryl Cole, she was let go from the American version of The X Factor because its "producers feared the American audience would not understand her Geordie
Geordie
accent."[105] During May 2011, taping of Britain's Got Talent, Declan Donnelly
Declan Donnelly
(of Ant & Dec) made an apparent attempt to stand up for Cole by asking co-producer and judge Simon Cowell
Simon Cowell
on the show, "Can you understand my accent?".[106]

AC/DC vocalist Brian Johnson
Brian Johnson
has a strong Geordie
Geordie
accent.[107]

Geordie song-related topics

Singers Songwriters Songbooks Characters, events and places

See also:

Geordie

v t e

The musicians Brian Johnson
Brian Johnson
and Sting are Geordies (though Sting has lost much of his Geordie
Geordie
accent and speaks in a standard English accent). The song "Why Aye Man" is also a popular Geordie
Geordie
song by Geordie
Geordie
Mark Knopfler. Jade Thirlwall and Perrie Edwards from girl group Little Mix
Little Mix
are both from South Shields, near Newcastle and have Geordie
Geordie
accents, Jade's sometimes being very strong. The dialect was also popularized by the comic magazine Viz, where the dialect is often conveyed phonetically by unusual spellings within the comic strips. Viz magazine was founded on Tyneside
Tyneside
by two locals, Chris Donald and his brother Simon. The Steve Coogan-helmed BBC
BBC
comedy I'm Alan Partridge
I'm Alan Partridge
featured a Geordie
Geordie
named Michael (Simon Greenall) as the primary supporting character and de facto best friend of the eponymous hero, despite Partridge's referring to Michael at one point as 'just the Work Geordie' and having great difficulty understanding what he says. The movie Goal!, which stars Kuno Becker
Kuno Becker
and Alessandro Nivola (and also sees a cameo of Brian Johnson) prominently exposes the Newcastle football club, as well as exposing the Geordies and their dialect. Mike Neville presenter of the BBC
BBC
local news programme Look North, in the 1960s and 1970s, not only incorporated Geordie
Geordie
into the show, albeit usually in comedy pieces pointing up the gulf between ordinary Geordies and officials speaking Standard English, but were responsible for a series of recordings, beginning with Larn Yersel' Geordie[108] which attempted, not always seriously, to bring the Geordie
Geordie
dialect to the rest of England. In the lyrics of the song "Sailing to Philadelphia" by Mark Knopfler, Jeremiah Dixon, surveyor of the Mason-Dixon line, describes himself as a " Geordie
Geordie
boy".[109] Knopfler also includes a "Geordie" reference in the song "5:15 am", from the album Shangri-La: "the bandit man / came up the great north road / up to geordieland / to mine the motherlode." In an earlier live album and video, Alchemy: Dire Straits Live, the band are seen in a pub – on the wall hangs a scoreboard for darts featuring "Geordies" vs. "All Others." The Jocks and the Geordies was a Dandy comic strip running from 1975 to the early 1990s. Dorfy, real name Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid, was a noted Geordie
Geordie
dialect writer who once wrote for the South Shields Gazette.[110][111][112][113][114] Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
Auf Wiedersehen, Pet
was a popular fictional British comedy-drama series about three Geordies (Dennis, Oz and Neville) leaving England to go and find work in Germany during the heights of unemployment in Thatcher's Britain. Finding work on a building site in Düsseldorf, they lived there on-site in a basic wooden hut (not dissimilar from ones seen in a WWII-era POW camp) as part of a group of seven British migrant construction workers: the other four were Wayne from London, Bomber from somewhere in the West Country, Barry from the West Midlands, and Moxey from Liverpool.[115][116] The three Geordie characters were supposed to be from Birtley Co. Durham (Dennis, played by Tim Healy), Gateshead
Gateshead
(Oz, played by Jimmy Nail), and North Shields (Neville, played by Kevin Whately) and all three actors who played them were Geordies themselves. In 1974, Alan Price's "Jarrow Song" reached number one in the old RNI International Service, and number 4 in the UK charts, which brought to the attention once again of the Jarrow Crusade.[117] The character Detective Inspector Robert "Robbie" Lewis (formerly Detective Sergeant) in the long-running ITV series Inspector Morse is a self-described Geordie
Geordie
– although not a "professional" one. His speech variety serves as a foil to Morse's pedantry and RP. Comedian Sarah Millican
Sarah Millican
is also a Geordie. The Hairy Bikers
The Hairy Bikers
are a pair of television chefs, consisting of Geordie
Geordie
Simon King and Lancastrian Dave Myers. The duo's lifestyle TV show The Hairy Bikers' Cookbook
The Hairy Bikers' Cookbook
is a mixture of cookery and travelogue.[118] The character " Geordie
Geordie
Georgie", as portrayed by Catherine Tate
Catherine Tate
in her eponymous TV show, is a Geordie, complete with a thick affected accent, and is portrayed regularly taking part in (mostly ridiculously ambitious) sponsored events for a North East-based charity – the charity in question usually has a website with an outrageous domain name, for instance, the site for the charity she supports for battered husbands is "www.chinnedbythemissus.co.uk". The sketches usually conclude with her remonstrating her co-worker Martin, sometimes by violent means, for his apparent non-support of her charitable crusades.[119] The MTV
MTV
programme Geordie
Geordie
Shore, a spin-off of Jersey Shore, is set in Newcastle and features several Geordie
Geordie
speaking cast members. The Richard Adams
Richard Adams
novel The Plague Dogs
The Plague Dogs
features a fox who speaks "Northumbrian" Geordie, with a pronunciation guide and glossary. Scott Dobson provided assistance on the dialect. Actor Robson Green
Robson Green
is a Geordie. Standup comic Ross Noble, a Newcastle native, has been known to make jokes about being Geordie. Capitalising on pride in speaking Geordie, a number of objects are sold that highlight Geordie
Geordie
speech and culture, such as a "Borth Sortificat for a genuine Geordie", coffee mugs, etc.[120] Charlie Hunnam, who hails from Newcastle, refers to the swagger he walks with in Pacific Rim as a " Geordie
Geordie
walk".[121] Episode 8.13 "And Justice for All" of the ABC program Castle included a blue collar character who was a native Geordie
Geordie
speaker and student of English as a second language; this was somewhat humorous since, technically, speakers of this dialect already speak English. In the BBC
BBC
Radio drama series The Archers, the character Ruth Archer hails from Prudhoe, Northumberland
Northumberland
and speaks with a Geordie
Geordie
accent, in contrast to the various Midland and other more southerly accents on the show, which is set in a fictional county in the English Midlands. The actress portraying her, Felicity Finch was raised in Egglescliffe, a town in the southern part of County Durham. Notes[edit]

^ a b "AskOxford.com – a person from Tyneside". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.  ^ " Geordie
Geordie
Accent and Dialect Origins". englandsnortheast.co.uk. 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ Simpson, David (2009). "Venerable Bede". Retrieved 6 August 2010. Bede's Latin
Latin
poems seem to translate more successfully into Geordie than into modern day English!  ^ A Source Book for Irish English. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "Migration of Irish to Newcastle upon Tyne
Newcastle upon Tyne
and Weetslade Northumberland". Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ Andy Gray & Richard Keys: EPL predictions ^ Ewalt, David M. "Meet The Geordie
Geordie
Schooner". Forbes.  ^ Published on 24/09/2008 22:31 (2008-09-24). "Scots accent is UK's second favourite - UK - Scotsman.com". Thescotsman.scotsman.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ "geordie – Definitions from Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ "Jarrow Song". allyrics.net. Retrieved 7 October 2008.  ^ "Blaydon Races". Archived from the original on 6 November 2007. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  ^ a b c Brockett, John Trotter (1829). A Glossary of North Country Words in Use with Their Etymology and Affinity to Other Languages, and Occasional Notices of Local Customs and Popular Superstitions. E. Charnley. p. 131. GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. "How! Geordie
Geordie
man! how is't"  ^ a b Dobson, Scott (1973). A Light Hearted Guide to Geordieland. Graham. ISBN 978-0-902833-89-0. Plus Geordieland means Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham  ^ a b c Camden Hotten, John (2004) [1869]. The Slang Dictionary: Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases and Fast Expressions of High and Low Society (reprint ed.). p. 142. Retrieved 2007-10-11. Geordie, general term in Northumberland
Northumberland
and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century  ^ "New Entry for OED Online: Mackem, n. (Draft Entry Jan. 2006)". OED.com. 11 January 2006. pp. "OED News: BBC
BBC
Balderdash and Piffle (Series One)" section. Archived from the original on 19 April 2009. Retrieved 31 July 2011.  ^ "The Mackem
Mackem
Wordhunt!". BBC
BBC
News. 21 June 2005. pp. "Wear > Voices 2005" section.  ^ " Geordie
Geordie
Dialect – BBC". Retrieved 27 October 2014.  ^ Keuchler (2010) ^ Simmelbauer (2000:27) ^ Watt (2000:69–101) ^ Watt & Allen (2003:267–271) ^ "AskOxford.com – from the given name George". Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 1 September 2007.  ^ a b Brockett, John Trotter (1846). A Glossary of North Country Words (revised ed.). p. 187. GEORDIE, George – a very common name among the pitmen. 'How! Geordie
Geordie
man! How is't' The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie
Geordie
to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphry Davy's Lamp.  ^ Recorded by the folk group Steeleye Span
Steeleye Span
on their album Parcel of Rogues, 1973. ^ Smiles, Samuel (1862). "chapter 8". The lives of the engineers. III.  ^ a b Smiles, Samuel (1859). The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer. p. 120. As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor.  ^ Katie Wales (2006). Northern English: A Cultural and Social History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 134–136. ISBN 978-0-521-86107-6.  ^ Wright, Joseph (1900). English Dialect Dictionary Volume 2: D-G. London: Henry Frowde. p. 597.  ^ Wells, John (1982). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 374.  ^ Watt & Allen (2003). " Tyneside
Tyneside
English". Journal of the Phonetic Association. 33: 267–271.  ^ Docherty & Foulkes (2005). Hardcastle & Mackenzie Beck, ed. Glottal variants of (t) in the Tyneside
Tyneside
variety of English: an acoustic profiling study. A Figure of Speech – a Festschrift for John Laver. London: Lawrence Erlbaum. pp. 173–199.  ^ a b Jones, Mark. "Sounds & Words Week 4 Michaelmas 2010 Lecture Notes" (PDF). Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Watt & Allen (2003), p. 269. ^ a b Wells (1982), pp. 360, 375. ^ a b c d Wells (1982), p. 375. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 362, 376. ^ Beal (2004), pp. 121–122. ^ Beal (2004), pp. 123–124. ^ a b Beal (2004), p. 126. ^ Wells (1982), p. 283. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 376. ^ Beal (2004), pp. 122–123. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 375–376. ^ Watt & Allen (2003), p. 268. ^ a b "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa wuz a bairn.  ^ a b c d "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Wor Geordie
Geordie
taalk is hyemly taalk; an wawds like 'clag' and 'clarts'  ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Is canny, friendly, hyemly wawds that waarms aall Geordie
Geordie
hearts.  ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. wawds y've nigh forgot – ""Howay!"" ""Gan on!""  ^ a b c d e "Dorphy dialog". Archived from the original on 13 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007.  ^ Colls, Robert; Lancaster, Bill; Bryne, David; Carr, Barry; Hadaway, Tom; Knox, Elaine; Plater, Alan; Taylor, Harvey; Williamson; Younger, Paul (2005). Geordies. Northumbria
Northumbria
University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-904794-12-7. Hadaway an' shite; 'Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.'  ^ IMS: Customer Satisfaction: BIP2005 (Integrated Management Systems). BSI Standards. 2003. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-580-41426-8. An early example, which may be remembered by older readers was the Co-op dividend or 'divvie'. On paying their bill, shoppers would quote a number recorded ...  ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 14. SCOTCH DAVY LAMP". Retrieved 2 December 2007. CONSTRUCTION. Gauzes. Cylindrical, 2 ins diameter. 41/2" high with conical top, a double gauze 1 ins. in depth at the peak. 24 mesh iron. Light. Candle.  ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 16. STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP". Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ Henderson, Clarks. "NEIMME: Lamps – No. 1 – DAVY LAMP". Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ a b c Graham, Frank (November 1986). The Geordie
Geordie
Netty: A Short History and Guide. Butler Publishing; New Ed edition. ISBN 978-0-946928-08-8.  ^ a b c d Griffiths, Bill (1 December 2005). A Dictionary of North East Dialect. Northumbria
Northumbria
University Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-904794-16-5. Netty outside toilet, Ex.JG Annfield Plain 1930s. "nessy or netty" Newbiggin-in-Teesdale C20/mid; "outside netties" Dobson Tyne 1972; 'lavatory' Graham Geordie
Geordie
1979. EDD distribution to 1900: N'd. NE 2001: in circulation. ?C18 nessy from necessary; ? Ital. cabinette; Raine MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of hys house knyttyng" York 1419, in which case root could be OE nid 'necessity'. Plus "to go to the Necessary" (public toilet) Errington p.67 Newcastle re 1800s: "lav" Northumbrian III C20/2 re Crawcrook; "oot back" G'head 2001 Q; "larty – toilet, a children's word, the school larties'" MM S.Shields C20/2 lavatory  ^ a b c Trotter Brockett, John (1829). A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions. Oxford University. p. 214. NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick's Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon
Etymon
needy, a place of need or necessity.  ^ a b "Netty". although some theories suggest it is an abbreviation of Italian gabbinetti, meaning 'toilet'  ^ a b c Wainwright, Martin (4 April 2007). "Urinal finds museum home". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 October 2007. the urinals have linguistic distinction: the Geordie
Geordie
word "netty" for lavatory derives from Roman slang on Hadrian's Wall
Hadrian's Wall
which became "gabinetto" in Italian  ^ "Famed Geordie
Geordie
netty is museum attraction". The Northern Echo. 31 March 2007.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ Saunders, Rod. "Italian Migration to Nineteenth Century Britain: Why and Where, Why?". anglo-italianfhs.org.uk. Retrieved 3 September 2008. They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80–100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500–600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100–150 Italians made cutlery.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2013-06-15.  ^ YAM narrated by author Douglas Kew. 29 July 2007. Retrieved 2 January 2008.  ^ Kew, Douglas (7 February 2001). A Traveller's Tale. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-55212-552-6.  ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 1 July 2009.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 22 July 2009.  ^ "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa aalwiz...  ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa gan alang the streets...  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. It larnt us alreet...  ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. when y' cannit produce a ticket?  ^ "Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. the whole o' me childhud  ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Aa cud dee aall these things.  ^ "Dorfy on the stress of Christmas shopping". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2013-10-01. Y' divvent see onny salt so...  ^ "We divvn't want ta gan..." Evening Chronicle. 2004-02-06. Retrieved 2013-10-01.  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. that on Frida's..  ^ "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. wor fud.  ^ a b c d e f g "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ a b c d e f "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Wheor d' the' gan t'?  ^ a b "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Thor's music in the hyemly soond o' 'howk,' or 'haadaway.'  ^ "Here's a word from Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. an' w' had nivvor hord o'...  ^ a b c "Dorfy's school days, with just pennies for uniforms". South Shields Gazette. 5 August 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. o' ivry parent wuz t' own...  ^ "Dorfy looking fondly back on her youth". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 29 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. one 'musical' bairn that wuz sent t' larn music.  ^ a b c "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ "A housewife's lot, according to Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 22 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. NEEBODY seems t' reelise that a hooswife aalwiz...  ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012.  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. that had been shifted oot..  ^ "Dorfy loses her bus ticket". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. y' warn't reet.  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. come roond an’...  ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. a bucket o' smaall coal t’...  ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. o' watt sh'...  ^ "A taste of domestic service for Dorfy". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 1 July 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. Cud Aa wesh?  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. w' got worsel's interested...  ^ "Dorfy always found something to say". South Shields
South Shields
Gazette. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2012. y' kin set doon as...  ^ "ANT & DEC". celebrity.itv.com. 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2011.  ^ Smith, Graeme (17 April 2000). "The long road well taken; Graeme Smith FACE TO FACE with Brendan Foster". The Herald (Glasgow).  ^ Walters, Mike (18 December 2008). "Darts commentary legend Sid Waddell hopes he discovered the next Doctor Who". Daily Mirror.  ^ a b "X-Factor's Cheryl and Joe's Geordie
Geordie
banter". Metro. 4 December 2009.  ^ "Cheryl Cole in talks with over return to UK X Factor". The Daily Telegraph. London. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 28 May 2011.  ^ Robertson, Colin (31 May 2011). "Boos and cigarettes for Simon Cowell Cheryl Cole fans taunt X Factor boss". The Sun (United Kingdom). London. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ "Ac/Dc's Brian Johnson
Brian Johnson
To Receive Honorary Doctorate From U.K.'S Northumbria
Northumbria
University". Blabbermouth. 12 December 2016.  ^ "Neville,Mike: George House – Very Best Of Larn Yersel: Geordie & Geordierama". TV Presenter. 13 December 1995. Retrieved 6 November 2007.  ^ "Sailing To Philadelphia". Retrieved 9 November 2007. I Am Jeremiah Dixon; I Am A Geordie
Geordie
Boy  ^ "Dorphy, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid. Dorphy's Geordie
Geordie
dialog, South Shields Gazette". Archived from the original on 13 April 2003. Retrieved 4 November 2007.  ^ Sandvid, D (1970). Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside
Tyneside
Readings. H Hill. ISBN 978-0-900463-11-2.  ^ Sandvid, D (1988). Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside
Tyneside
Readings. Sandhill P. ISBN 978-0-946098-12-5.  ^ Sandvid, D (1969). Between Ye an' Me. H Hill. ISBN 978-0-900463-08-2.  ^ Sandvid, D (1976). I Remember. Tree P. ISBN 978-0-904790-02-3.  ^ "THE ORIGINAL AUF WIEDERSEHEN PET HOMEPAGE". Retrieved 17 January 2008.  ^ Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard "Oz" Osborne, Brian "Bomber" Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey
Albert Arthur Moxey
(7 October 2002). Auf Wiedersehen Pet Box Set – The Complete Series 1 and 2 [1983] (PAL). Region 2. ASIN B00005UPJX. Retrieved 17 January 2008.  ^ "RNI International Service Number One Hits, 1971–1974". 14 June 1974. Retrieved 28 August 2009. 14-06, "Jarrow Song", Alan Price  ^ Ferguson, Euan (11 December 2005). "Meet the new Delia and Nigella". Observer Food Monthly. London. 'just no relation to what you get late on a Geordie
Geordie
night out,' recalls Si.  ^ "The Catherine Tate
Catherine Tate
Show Series 3". seesaw.com. Retrieved 23 February 2011. Geordie
Geordie
Georgie drums up support for all the little folk in the North East who suffer from sex addiction.  ^ p. 146, 147. Joan C. Beal. 2009. "Enregisterment, commodification, and historical context: 'Geordie' versus 'Sheffieldish'". American Speech vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 138–156. ^ Brian Truitt (11 July 2013). " Charlie Hunnam
Charlie Hunnam
brings swagger to world of 'Pacific Rim'". USA Today. Retrieved 27 October 2014. 

References[edit]

Beal, Joan (2004), "English dialects in the North of England: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive, A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 113–133, ISBN 3-11-017532-0  Keuchler, Karsten (2010), Geordie
Geordie
Accent and Tyneside
Tyneside
English, GRIN Verlag, ISBN 978-3640742738  Rowe, Charley (2007), "He divn't gan tiv a college ti di that, man! A study of do (and to) in Tyneside
Tyneside
English", Language Sciences, 12 (2): 360–371  Rowe, Charley (2009), Salience and resilience in a set of Tyneside English shibboleths, Language Variation: European Perspectives II, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 191–204  Simmelbauer, Andrea (2000), The dialect of Northumberland: A lexical investigation, Anglistische Forschungen, Universitätsverlag C. Winter, ISBN 978-3825309343  Watt, Dominic (2000), "Phonetic parallels between the close–mid vowels of Tyneside
Tyneside
English: Are they internally or externally motivated?", Language variation and change, 12 (1): 69–101  Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), " Tyneside
Tyneside
English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397  Wells, John C. (1982), Accents of English, Volume 2: The British Isles (pp. i–xx, 279–466), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-52128540-2 

External links[edit]

Look up Geordie
Geordie
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Newcastle English (Geordie) Sounds Familiar?– Listen to examples of Geordie
Geordie
and other regional accents and dialects of the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar' website 'Hover & Hear' Geordie
Geordie
pronunciations, and compare side by side with other accents from the UK and around the World. The Geordie
Geordie
Directory – Find out about & learn the Geordie accent How To Get A Geordie
Geordie
Accent, in which actor and voice coach Gareth Jamison explains the essentials of the Geordie
Geordie
accent A Geordie
Geordie
Dialect Song that describes a romantic encounter on the short bus journey from St James' Park
St James' Park
to the General Hospital: Mother of Me Bairns (lyrics included)

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