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The Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
is the creation myth of both Judaism and Christianity.[1] Two creation stories are found in the first two chapters of the Book
Book
of Genesis. In the first Elohim, the Hebrew generic word for God, creates the heavens and the earth in six days, then rests on, blesses and sanctifies the seventh. In the second story, God, now referred to by the personal name Yahweh, creates Adam, the first man, from dust and places him in the Garden of Eden, where he is given dominion over the animals. Eve, the first woman, is created from Adam
Adam
and as his companion. Borrowing themes from Mesopotamian mythology, but adapting them to the Israelite people's belief in one God,[2] the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
(the series of five books which begins with Genesis and ends with Deuteronomy) was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE (the Jahwist source) and was later expanded by other authors (the Priestly source) into a work very like the one we have today.[3] The two sources can be identified in the creation narrative: Priestly and Jahwistic.[4] The combined narrative is a critique of the Mesopotamian theology of creation: Genesis affirms monotheism and denies polytheism.[5] Robert Alter described the combined narrative as "compelling in its archetypal character, its adaptation of myth to monotheistic ends".[6] Misunderstanding the genre of the Genesis creation narrative, meaning the intention of the author/s and the culture within which they wrote, can result in a misreading.[7] Bruce Waltke, a well-known evangelical scholar, cautions against one such misreading, the approach which reads it as history rather than theology and so leads to Creationism and the denial of evolution.[8] As noted scholar of Jewish studies, Jon D. Levenson, puts it: "How much history lies behind the story of Genesis? Because the action of the primeval story is not represented as taking place on the plane of ordinary human history and has so many affinities with ancient mythology, it is very far-fetched to speak of its narratives as historical at all."[9]

Contents

1 Composition

1.1 Sources 1.2 Structure 1.3 Mesopotamian influence 1.4 Creation by word vs creation by combat

2 Genesis 1:1–2:3

2.1 Background 2.2 Pre-creation: Genesis 1:1–2 2.3 Six days of Creation: Genesis 1:3–2:3

2.3.1 First day 2.3.2 Second day 2.3.3 Third day 2.3.4 Fourth day 2.3.5 Fifth day 2.3.6 Sixth day

2.4 Seventh day: divine rest

3 Genesis 2:4–2:25 4 Creationism
Creationism
and the genre of Genesis 1–2 5 See also 6 Citations 7 References 8 External links

8.1 Biblical texts 8.2 Mesopotamian texts 8.3 Related links

Composition

Cuneiform tablet with the Atra-Hasis
Atra-Hasis
Epic in the British Museum

Sources See also: Documentary hypothesis Although tradition attributes Genesis to Moses, biblical scholars hold that it, together with the following four books (making up what Jews call the Torah
Torah
and biblical scholars call the Pentateuch), is "a composite work, the product of many hands and periods."[10] A common hypothesis among biblical scholars today is that the first major comprehensive draft of the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
was composed in the late 7th or the 6th century BCE (the Jahwist source), and that this was later expanded by the addition of various narratives and laws (the Priestly source) into a work very like the one existing today.[3] As for the historical background which led to the creation of the narrative itself, a theory which has gained considerable interest, although still controversial, is "Persian imperial authorisation". This proposes that the Persians, after their conquest of Babylon in 538 BCE, agreed to grant Jerusalem a large measure of local autonomy within the empire, but required the local authorities to produce a single law code accepted by the entire community. It further proposes that there were two powerful groups in the community – the priestly families who controlled the Temple, and the landowning families who made up the "elders" – and that these two groups were in conflict over many issues, and that each had its own "history of origins", but the Persian promise of greatly increased local autonomy for all provided a powerful incentive to cooperate in producing a single text.[11] Structure The creation narrative is made up of two stories, roughly equivalent to the two first chapters of the Book
Book
of Genesis.[12] (There are no chapter divisions in the original Hebrew text, see Chapters and verses of the Bible.) The first account (1:1 through 2:3) employs a repetitious structure of divine fiat and fulfillment, then the statement "And there was evening and there was morning, the [xth] day," for each of the six days of creation. In each of the first three days there is an act of division: day one divides the darkness from light, day two the "waters above" from the "waters below", and day three the sea from the land. In each of the next three days these divisions are populated: day four populates the darkness and light with sun, moon and stars; day five populates seas and skies with fish and fowl; and finally land-based creatures and mankind populate the land.[13] Consistency was evidently not seen as essential to storytelling in Ancient literature.[14] The overlapping stories of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
and 2 are contradictory but also complementary, with the first (the Priestly story) concerned with the creation of the entire cosmos while the second (the Yahwist story) focuses on man as moral agent and cultivator of his environment.[12] The highly regimented seven-day narrative of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
features an omnipotent God
God
who creates a god-like humanity, while the one-day creation of Genesis 2 uses a simple linear narrative, a God
God
who can fail as well as succeed, and a humanity which is not god-like but is punished for acts which would lead to their becoming god-like.[15] Even the order and method of creation differs.[15] "Together, this combination of parallel character and contrasting profile point to the different origin of materials in Genesis 1
Genesis 1
and Genesis 2, however elegantly they have now been combined."[16] The primary accounts in each chapter are joined by a literary bridge at Genesis 2:4, "These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created." This echoes the first line of Genesis 1, "In the beginning God
God
created the heaven and the earth", and is reversed in the next phrase, "...in the day that the LORD God
God
made the earth and the heavens". This verse is one of ten "generations" (Hebrew: תולדות‎ toledot) phrases used throughout Genesis, which provide a literary structure to the book.[17] They normally function as headings to what comes after, but the position of this, the first of the series, has been the subject of much debate.[18] Mesopotamian influence See also: Panbabylonism

Marduk, god of Babylon, destroying Tiamat, the dragon of primeval chaos

Comparative mythology
Comparative mythology
provides historical and cross-cultural perspectives for Jewish mythology. Both sources behind the Genesis creation narrative borrowed themes from Mesopotamian mythology,[19][20] but adapted them to their belief in one God,[2] establishing a monotheistic creation in opposition to the polytheistic creation myth of ancient Israel's neighbors.[21][22] Genesis 1–11 as a whole is imbued with Mesopotamian myths.[19][23] Genesis 1
Genesis 1
bears both striking differences from and striking similarities to Babylon's national creation myth, the Enuma Elish.[20] On the side of similarities, both begin from a stage of chaotic waters before anything is created, in both a fixed dome-shaped "firmament" divides these waters from the habitable Earth, and both conclude with the creation of a human called "man" and the building of a temple for the god (in Genesis 1, this temple is the entire cosmos).[24] On the side of contrasts, Genesis 1
Genesis 1
is monotheistic, it makes no attempt to account for the origins of God, and there is no trace of the resistance to the reduction of chaos to order (Gk. theomachy, lit. "God-fighting"), all of which mark the Mesopotamian creation accounts.[2] Still, Genesis 1
Genesis 1
bears similarities to the Baal Cycle
Baal Cycle
of Israel's neighbor, Ugarit.[25] The Enuma Elish
Enuma Elish
has also left traces on Genesis 2. Both begin with a series of statements of what did not exist at the moment when creation began; the Enuma Elish
Enuma Elish
has a spring (in the sea) as the point where creation begins, paralleling the spring (on the land – Genesis 2 is notable for being a "dry" creation story) in Genesis 2:6 that "watered the whole face of the ground"; in both myths, Yahweh/the gods first create a man to serve him/them, then animals and vegetation. At the same time, and as with Genesis 1, the Jewish version has drastically changed its Babylonian model: Eve, for example, seems to fill the role of a mother goddess when, in Genesis 4:1, she says that she has "created a man with Yahweh", but she is not a divine being like her Babylonian counterpart.[26] Genesis 2 has close parallels with a second Mesopotamian myth, the Atra-Hasis
Atra-Hasis
epic – parallels that in fact extend throughout Genesis 2–11, from the Creation to the Flood and its aftermath. The two share numerous plot-details (e.g. the divine garden and the role of the first man in the garden, the creation of the man from a mixture of earth and divine substance, the chance of immortality, etc.), and have a similar overall theme: the gradual clarification of man's relationship with God(s) and animals.[16] Creation by word vs creation by combat The narratives in Genesis 1
Genesis 1
and 2 were not the only creation myths in ancient Israel, and the complete biblical evidence suggests two contrasting models.[27] The first is the "logos" (meaning speech) model, where a supreme God
God
"speaks" dormant matter into existence. The second is the "agon" (meaning struggle or combat) model, in which it is God's victory in battle over the monsters of the sea that mark his sovereignty and might.[28][29] Genesis 1
Genesis 1
is an examples of creation by speech, while Psalms 74 and Isaiah 51 are examples of the "agon" mythology, recalling a Canaanite myth in which God
God
creates the world by vanquishing the water deities: "Awake, awake! ... It was you that hacked Rahab in pieces, that pierced the Dragon! It was you that dried up the Sea, the waters of the great Deep, that made the abysses of the Sea a road that the redeemed might walk..."[30] Genesis 1:1–2:3

The Ancient of Days
The Ancient of Days
(William Blake, 1794)

Background The cosmos created in Genesis 1
Genesis 1
bears a striking resemblance to the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
in Exodus 35–40, which was the prototype of the Temple in Jerusalem and the focus of priestly worship of Yahweh; for this reason, and because other Middle Eastern creation stories also climax with the construction of a temple/house for the creator-god, Genesis 1 can be interpreted as a description of the construction of the cosmos as God's house, for which the Temple in Jerusalem served as the earthly representative.[31] The word bara is translated as "created" in English, but the concept it embodied was not the same as the modern term: in the world of the ancient Near East, the gods demonstrated their power over the world not by creating matter but by fixing destinies, so that the essence of the bara which God
God
performs in Genesis concerns bringing "heaven and earth" (a set phrase meaning "everything") into existence by organising and assigning roles and functions.[32] The use of numbers in ancient texts was often numerological rather than factual – that is, the numbers were used because they held some symbolic value to the author.[33] The number seven, denoting divine completion, permeates Genesis 1: verse 1:1 consists of seven words, verse 1:2 of fourteen, and 2:1–3 has 35 words (5x7); Elohim
Elohim
is mentioned 35 times, "heaven/firmament" and "earth" 21 times each, and the phrases "and it was so" and " God
God
saw that it was good" occur 7 times each.[34] Pre-creation: Genesis 1:1–2

1 In the beginning God
God
created the heaven and the earth. 2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness [was] upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God
God
moved upon the face of the waters.[35]

Although the opening phrase of Genesis 1:1 is commonly translated in English as above, the Hebrew is ambiguous, and can be translated at least three ways:

as a statement that the cosmos had an absolute beginning ("In the beginning God
God
created the heaven and the earth."); as a statement describing the condition of the world when God
God
began creating ("When in the beginning God
God
created the heavens and the earth, the earth was untamed and shapeless."); and essentially similar to the second version but taking all of Genesis 1:2 as background information ("When in the beginning God
God
created the heavens and the earth, the earth being untamed and shapeless, God said, Let there be light!").[36]

The second seems to be the meaning intended by the original Priestly author: the verb bara is used only of God
God
(people do not engage in bara), and it concerns the assignment of roles, as in the creation of the first people as "male and female" (i.e., it allocates them sexes): in other words, the power of God
God
is being shown not by the creation of matter but by the fixing of destinies.[32] The heavens and the earth is a set phrase meaning "everything", i.e., the cosmos. This was made up of three levels, the habitable earth in the middle, the heavens above, an underworld below, all surrounded by a watery "ocean" of chaos as the Babylonian Tiamat.[37] The earth itself was a flat disc, surrounded by mountains or sea. Above it was the firmament, a transparent but solid dome resting on the mountains, allowing men to see the blue of the waters above, with "windows" to allow the rain to enter, and containing the sun, moon and stars. The waters extended below the earth, which rested on pillars sunk in the waters, and in the underworld was Sheol, the abode of the dead.[38] The opening of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
continues: "And the earth was formless and void..." The phrase "formless and void" is a translation of the Hebrew tohu wa-bohu, (Hebrew: תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ‎), chaos, the condition that bara, ordering, remedies.[39] Tohu by itself means "emptiness, futility"; it is used to describe the desert wilderness; bohu has no known meaning and was apparently coined to rhyme with and reinforce tohu.[40] The phrase appears also in Jeremiah 4:23 where the prophet warns Israel that rebellion against God
God
will lead to the return of darkness and chaos, "as if the earth had been 'uncreated'".[41] The opening of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
concludes with a statement that "darkness was on the face of the deep" (Hebrew: תְהוֹם‎ tehôm), [the] "darkness" and the "deep" being two of the three elements of the chaos represented in tohu wa-bohu (the third is the "formless earth"). In the Enuma Elish, the "deep" is personified as the goddess Tiamat, the enemy of Marduk;[39] here it is the formless body of primeval water surrounding the habitable world, later to be released during the Deluge, when "all the fountains of the great deep burst forth" from the waters beneath the earth and from the "windows" of the sky.[42] The Rûach of God
God
moves over the face of the deep before creation begins. Rûach (רוּחַ) has the meanings "wind, spirit, breath", and elohim can mean "great" as well as "god": the ruach elohim may therefore mean the "wind/breath of God" (the storm-wind is God's breath in Psalms 18:16 and elsewhere, and the wind of God
God
returns in the Flood story as the means by which God
God
restores the earth), or God's "spirit", a concept which is somewhat vague in Hebrew Bible, or it may simply signify a great storm-wind.[43] Six days of Creation: Genesis 1:3–2:3

The Creation – Bible
Bible
Historiale (c. 1411)

God's first act was the creation of undifferentiated light; dark and light were then separated into night and day, their order (evening before morning) signifying that this was the liturgical day; and then the sun, moon and stars were created to mark the proper times for the festivals of the week and year. Only when this is done does God
God
create man and woman and the means to sustain them (plants and animals). At the end of the sixth day, when creation is complete, the world is a cosmic temple in which the role of humanity is the worship of God. This parallels Mesopotamian myth (the Enuma Elish) and also echoes chapter 38 of the Book
Book
of Job, where God
God
recalls how the stars, the "sons of God", sang when the corner-stone of creation was laid.[44] First day

3 And God
God
said, Let there be light: and there was light. 4 And God
God
saw the light, that [it was] good: and God
God
divided the light from the darkness. 5 And God
God
called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day..[45]

Day 1 begins with the creation of light (and, by implication, time). God
God
creates by spoken command and names the elements of the world as he creates them. In the ancient Near East the act of naming was bound up with the act of creating: thus in Egyptian literature the creator god pronounced the names of everything, and the Enûma Elish begins at the point where nothing has yet been named.[46] God's creation by speech also suggests that he is being compared to a king, who has merely to speak for things to happen.[47] Second day

6 And God
God
said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. 7 And God
God
made the firmament, and divided the waters which [were] under the firmament from the waters which [were] above the firmament: and it was so. 8 And God
God
called the firmament Heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.[48]

Rāqîa‘, the word translated as firmament, is from rāqa‘, the verb used for the act of beating metal into thin plates.[49] Created on the second day of creation and populated by luminaries on the fourth, it is a solid dome which separates the earth below from the heavens and their waters above, as in Egyptian and Mesopotamian belief of the same time.[50] In Genesis 1:17 the stars are set in the raqia‘; in Babylonian myth the heavens were made of various precious stones (compare Exodus 24:10 where the elders of Israel see God
God
on the sapphire floor of heaven), with the stars engraved in their surface.[51] Third day

9 And God
God
said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry [land] appear: and it was so. 10 And God
God
called the dry [land] Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God
God
saw that [it was] good. 11 And God
God
said: 'Let the earth put forth grass, herb yielding seed, and fruit-tree bearing fruit after its kind, wherein is the seed thereof, upon the earth.' And it was so. 12 And the earth brought forth grass, [and] herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed [was] in itself, after his kind: and God
God
saw that [it was] good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.[52]

On the third day, the waters withdraw, creating a ring of ocean surrounding a single circular continent.[53] By the end of the third day God
God
has created a foundational environment of light, heavens, seas and earth.[54] The three levels of the cosmos are next populated in the same order in which they were created – heavens, sea, earth. God
God
does not create or make trees and plants, but instead commands the earth to produce them. The underlying theological meaning seems to be that God
God
has given the previously barren earth the ability to produce vegetation, and it now does so at his command. "According to (one's) kind" appears to look forward to the laws found later in the Pentateuch, which lay great stress on holiness through separation.[55] Fourth day

14 And God
God
said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years; 15 and let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth.’ And it was so. 16 And God
God
made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars. 17 And God
God
set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 18 and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God
God
saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.[56]

On Day Four the language of "ruling" is introduced: the heavenly bodies will "govern" day and night and mark seasons and years and days (a matter of crucial importance to the Priestly authors, as religious festivals were organised around the cycles of the sun and moon);[57] later, man will be created to rule over the whole of creation as God's regent. God
God
puts "lights" in the firmament to "rule over" the day and the night.[58] Specifically, God
God
creates the "greater light," the "lesser light," and the stars. According to Victor Hamilton, most scholars agree that the choice of "greater light" and "lesser light", rather than the more explicit "sun" and "moon", is anti-mythological rhetoric intended to contradict widespread contemporary beliefs that the sun and the moon were deities themselves.[59] Fifth day

20 And God
God
said: ‘Let the waters swarm with swarms of living creatures, and let fowl fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.’ 21 And God
God
created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God
God
saw that it was good. 22 And God
God
blessed them, saying: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.’ 23 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day. —(Genesis 1:20–1:23)

In the Egyptian and Mesopotamian mythologies, the creator-god has to do battle with the sea-monsters before he can make heaven and earth; in Genesis 1:21, the word tannin, sometimes translated as "sea monsters" or "great creatures", parallels the named chaos-monsters Rahab and Leviathan
Leviathan
from Psalm 74:13, and Isaiah 27:1, and Isaiah 51:9, but there is no hint (in Genesis) of combat, and the tannin are simply creatures created by God.[60] Sixth day

The Creation of the Animals (1506–11), by Grão Vasco

24 And God
God
said: ‘Let the earth bring forth the living creature after its kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after its kind.’ And it was so. 25 And God
God
made the beast of the earth after its kind, and the cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the ground after its kind; and God
God
saw that it was good. 26 And God
God
said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 27 And God
God
created man in His own image, in the image of God
God
created He him; male and female created He them. 28 And God
God
blessed them; and God
God
said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 29 And God
God
said: ‘Behold, I have given you every herb yielding seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed—to you it shall be for food; 30 and to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is a living soul, [I have given] every green herb for food.’ And it was so. 31 And God
God
saw every thing that He had made, and, behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.[61]

When in Genesis 1:26 God
God
says "Let us make man", the Hebrew word used is adam; in this form it is a generic noun, "mankind", and does not imply that this creation is male. After this first mention the word always appears as ha-adam, "the man", but as Genesis 1:27 shows ("So God
God
created man in his [own] image, in the image of God
God
created he him; male and female created he them."), the word is still not exclusively male.[62] Man was created in the "image of God". The meaning of this is unclear: suggestions include:

Having the spiritual qualities of God
God
such as intellect, will, etc.; Having the physical form of God; A combination of these two; Being God's counterpart on earth and able to enter into a relationship with him; Being God's representative or viceroy on earth.[63]

The fact that God
God
says "Let us make man..." has given rise to several theories, of which the two most important are that "us" is majestic plural,[64] or that it reflects a setting in a divine council with God enthroned as king and proposing the creation of mankind to the lesser divine beings.[65] God
God
tells the animals and humans that he has given them "the green plants for food" – creation is to be vegetarian. Only later, after the Flood, is man given permission to eat flesh. The Priestly author of Genesis appears to look back to an ideal past in which mankind lived at peace both with itself and with the animal kingdom, and which could be re-achieved through a proper sacrificial life in harmony with God.[66] Upon completion, God
God
sees that "every thing that He had made ... was very good" (Genesis 1:31). This implies that the materials that existed before the Creation ("tohu wa-bohu," "darkness," "tehom") were not "very good." Israel Knohl hypothesized that the Priestly source set up this dichotomy to mitigate the problem of evil.[67] Seventh day: divine rest

1 And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2 And on the seventh day God
God
finished His work which He had made; and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. 3 And God
God
blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it; because that in it He rested from all His work which God
God
in creating had made.[68]

Creation is followed by rest. In ancient Near Eastern literature the divine rest is achieved in a temple as a result of having brought order to chaos. Rest is both disengagement, as the work of creation is finished, but also engagement, as the deity is now present in his temple to maintain a secure and ordered cosmos.[69] Compare with Exodus 20:8–20:11: "Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is a sabbath unto the LORD thy God, in it thou shalt not do any manner of work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, nor thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates; for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested on the seventh day; wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it." Genesis 2:4–2:25

Seventh Day of Creation (from the 1493 Nuremberg Chronicle)

According to Genesis 2–3, the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
story, was probably authored around 500 BCE as "a discourse on ideals in life, the danger in human glory, and the fundamentally ambiguous nature of humanity – especially human mental faculties".[70] According to Genesis 2:10–14 the Garden lies on the mythological border between the human and the divine worlds, probably on the far side of the Cosmic ocean
Cosmic ocean
near the rim of the world; following a conventional ancient Near Eastern concept, the Eden river first forms that ocean and then divides into four rivers which run from the four corners of the earth towards its centre.[70] The Jahwistic creation account opens "in the day that the LORD God made the earth and the heavens", a set introduction similar to those found in Babylonian myths.[71] Before the man is created the earth is a barren waste watered by an ed; Genesis 2:6 the King James Version translated this as "mist", following Jewish practice, but since the mid-20th century Hebraists have generally accepted that the real meaning is "spring of underground water".[72] In Genesis 1
Genesis 1
the characteristic word for God's activity is bara, "created"; in Genesis 2 the word used when he creates the man is yatsar, meaning "fashioned", a word used in contexts such as a potter fashioning a pot from clay.[73] God
God
breathes his own breath into the clay and it becomes nephesh, a word meaning "life", "vitality", "the living personality"; man shares nephesh with all creatures, but the text describes this life-giving act by God
God
only in relation to man.[74] Eden, where God
God
puts his Garden of Eden, comes from a root meaning "fertility": the first man is to work in God's miraculously fertile garden.[75] The "tree of life" is a motif from Mesopotamian myth: in the Epic of Gilgamesh
Epic of Gilgamesh
the hero is given a plant whose name is "man becomes young in old age", but a serpent steals the plant from him.[76][77] There has been much scholarly discussion about the type of knowledge given by the second tree. Suggestions include: human qualities, sexual consciousness, ethical knowledge, or universal knowledge; with the last being the most widely accepted.[78] In Eden, mankind has a choice between wisdom and life, and chooses the first, although God
God
intended them for the second.[79] The mythic Eden and its rivers may represent the real Jerusalem, the Temple and the Promised Land. Eden may represent the divine garden on Zion, the mountain of God, which was also Jerusalem; while the real Gihon
Gihon
was a spring outside the city (mirroring the spring which waters Eden); and the imagery of the Garden, with its serpent and cherubs, has been seen as a reflection of the real images of the Solomonic Temple with its copper serpent (the nehushtan) and guardian cherubs.[80] Genesis 2 is the only place in the Bible
Bible
where Eden appears as a geographic location: elsewhere (notably in the Book
Book
of Ezekiel) it is a mythological place located on the holy Mountain of God, with echoes of a Mesopotamian myth of the king as a primordial man placed in a divine garden to guard the tree of life.[81] "Good and evil" is a merism, in this case meaning simply "everything", but it may also have a moral connotation. When God
God
forbids the man to eat from the tree of knowledge he says that if he does so he is "doomed to die": the Hebrew behind this is in the form used in the Bible
Bible
for issuing death sentences.[82] The first woman is created to be ezer kenegdo – a term notably difficult to translate – to the man. Kenegdo means "alongside, opposite, a counterpart to him", and ezer means active intervention on behalf of the other person.[83] God's naming of the elements of the cosmos in Genesis 1
Genesis 1
illustrated his authority over creation; now the man's naming of the animals (and of Woman) illustrates Adam's authority within creation.[84] The woman is called ishah, "Woman", with an explanation that this is because she was taken from ish, meaning "man"; the two words are not in fact connected. Later, after the story of the Garden is complete, she receives a name: Hawwah (Eve). This means "living" in Hebrew, from a root that can also mean "snake".[85] The word traditionally translated "rib" in English can also mean "side", "chamber", or "beam".[86] A long-standing exegetical tradition holds that the use of a rib from man's side emphasizes that both man and woman have equal dignity, for woman was created from the same material as man, shaped and given life by the same processes.[87] Medieval homilies about marriage as a sacrament stated that Eve
Eve
was made from a more noble material (the better half) than Adam;[88] Creationism
Creationism
and the genre of Genesis 1–2

Part of a series on

Creationism

History Neo-creationism

Types

Young Earth

Old Earth

Day-age Gap Progressive

Intelligent design

Biblical cosmology

Book
Book
of Genesis

Creation narrative Framework interpretation As an allegory

Omphalos hypothesis

Creation science

Created kind Flood geology Creationist cosmologies Intelligent design

Creation–evolution controversy

History Creation myth Public education "Teach the Controversy"

Religious views

Non-creation

Creator in Buddhism Jainism and non-creationism

Evolution

Theistic evolution

Buddhist Catholic Hindu Islamic Jewish Mormon

Creationism
Creationism
portal

v t e

See also: Literary genre, Myth (other), and Narrative

Eden (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1472–1553)

The meaning to be derived from the Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
will depend on the reader's understanding of its genre, the literary "type" to which it belongs: "it makes an enormous difference whether the first chapters of Genesis are read as scientific cosmology, creation myth, or historical saga".[89] Misunderstanding of the genre of the text, meaning the intention of the author/s and the culture within which they wrote, will result in a misreading.[7] Reformed evangelical scholar Bruce Waltke cautions against one such misreading, the "woodenly literal" approach which leads to "creation science" and such "implausible interpretations" as the "gap theory", the presumption of a "young earth", and the denial of evolution.[8] Another scholar, Conrad Hyers, sums up the same thought in these words: "A literalist interpretation of the Genesis accounts is inappropriate, misleading, and unworkable [because] it presupposes and insists upon a kind of literature and intention that is not there."[90] Whatever else it may be, Genesis 1
Genesis 1
is "story", since it features character and characterisation, a narrator, and dramatic tension expressed through a series of incidents arranged in time.[91] The Priestly author of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
had to confront two major difficulties. First, there is the fact that since only God
God
exists at this point, no-one was available to be the narrator; the storyteller solved this by introducing an unobtrusive "third person narrator".[92] Second, there was the problem of conflict: conflict is necessary to arouse the reader's interest in the story, yet with nothing else existing, neither a chaos-monster nor another god, there cannot be any conflict. This was solved by creating a very minimal tension: God
God
is opposed by nothingness itself, the blank of the world "without form and void."[92] Telling the story in this way was a deliberate choice: there are a number of creation stories in the Bible, but they tend to be told in the first person, by Wisdom, the instrument by which God created the world; the choice of omniscient third-person narrator in the Genesis narrative allows the storyteller to create the impression that everything is being told and nothing held back.[93] It can also be regarded as ancient history, "part of a broader spectrum of originally anonymous, history-like ancient Near Eastern narratives."[94] It is frequently called myth in scholarly writings, but there is no agreement on how "myth" is to be defined, and so while Brevard Childs famously suggested that the author of Genesis 1–11 "demythologised" his narrative, meaning that he removed from his sources (the Babylonian myths) those elements which did not fit with his own faith, others can say it is entirely mythical.[95] Genesis 1–2 can be seen as ancient science: in the words of E.A. Speiser, "on the subject of creation biblical tradition aligned itself with the traditional tenets of Babylonian science."[96] The opening words of Genesis 1, "In the beginning God
God
created the heavens and the earth", sum up the author(s) belief that Yahweh, the god of Israel, was solely responsible for creation and had no rivals.[97] Later Jewish thinkers, adopting ideas from Greek philosophy, concluded that God's Wisdom, Word and Spirit penetrated all things and gave them unity.[98] Christianity
Christianity
in turn adopted these ideas and identified Jesus
Jesus
with the creative word: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God" (John 1:1).[99] When the Jews came into contact with Greek thought it led to a major reinterpretation of the underlying cosmology of the Genesis narrative. The biblical authors conceived the cosmos as a flat disc-shaped earth in the centre, an underworld for the dead below, and heaven above.[100] Below the earth were the "waters of chaos", the cosmic sea, home to mythic monsters defeated and slain by God; in Exodus 20:4, God
God
warns against making an image "of anything that is in the waters under the earth".[97] There were also waters above the earth, and so the raqia (firmament), a solid bowl, was necessary to keep them from flooding the world.[101] During the Hellenistic period this was largely replaced by a more "scientific" model as imagined by Greek philosophers, according to which the earth was a sphere at the centre of concentric shells of celestial spheres containing the sun, moon, stars and planets.[100] The idea that God
God
created the world out of nothing (creatio ex nihilo) is central today to Islam, Christianity, and Judaism
Judaism
– indeed, the medieval Jewish philosopher Maimonides
Maimonides
felt it was the only concept that the three religions shared[102] – yet it is not found directly in Genesis, nor in the entire Hebrew Bible.[103] The Priestly authors of Genesis 1
Genesis 1
were concerned not with the origins of matter (the material which God
God
formed into the habitable cosmos), but with assigning roles so that the Cosmos
Cosmos
should function.[32] This was still the situation in the early 2nd century AD, although early Christian scholars were beginning to see a tension between the idea of world-formation and the omnipotence of God; by the beginning of the 3rd century this tension was resolved, world-formation was overcome, and creation ex nihilo had become a fundamental tenet of Christian theology.[104] See also

Adapa Anno Mundi Atra-hasis epic Allegorical interpretations of Genesis Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament Babylonian mythology Bereishit (parsha) Biblical chronology Biblical cosmology Biblical criticism Christian mythology Creation (other) Enûma Eliš Genesis flood narrative Hexameron Islamic creation narrative Human timeline Jewish mythology Life timeline List of creation myths Mesopotamian mythology Nature timeline Primeval history Religion and mythology Sumerian creation myth Sumerian literature Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Tree of life

Citations

^ Leeming & Leeming 2009, p. 113. ^ a b c Sarna 1997, p. 50. ^ a b Davies 2007, p. 37. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 37. ^ Wenham 2003b, p. 37. ^ Alter 2004, p. xii. ^ a b Andersen 1987, p. 142. ^ a b Waltke 1991, pp. 6–9. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 11. ^ Speiser 1964, p. xxi. ^ Ska 2006, pp. 169, 217–18. ^ a b Alter 1981, p. 141. ^ Ruiten 2000, pp. 9–10. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 9 "One aspect of narrative in Genesis that requires special attention is its high tolerance for different versions of the same event, a well-known feature of ancient Near Eastern literature, from earliest times through rabbinic midrash. ... This could not have happened if the existence of variation were seen as a serious defect or if rigid consistency were deemed essential to effective storytelling." ^ a b Carr 1996, pp. 62–64. ^ a b Carr 1996, p. 64. ^ Cross 1973, pp. 301ff. ^ Thomas 2011, pp. 27–28. ^ a b Lambert 1965. ^ a b Levenson 2004, p. 9. ^ Leeming 2004. ^ Smith 2001. ^ Kutsko 2000, p. 62, quoting J. Maxwell Miller. ^ McDermott 2002, pp. 25–27. ^ Smith 2001, Chapter 6. ^ Van Seters 1992, pp. 122–24. ^ Dolansky 2016. ^ Fishbane 2003, pp. 34–35. ^ Graves and Patai 1986"Chapter 6" ^ Hutton 2007, p. 274. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 13. ^ a b c Walton 2006, p. 183. ^ Hyers 1984, p. 74. ^ Wenham 1987, p. 6. ^ Genesis 1:1–1:2 ^ Bandstra 2008, pp. 38–39. ^ Spence 2010, p. 72. ^ Knight 1990, pp. 175–76. ^ a b Walton 2001. ^ Alter 2004, p. 17. ^ Thompson 1980, p. 230. ^ Wenham 2003a, p. 29. ^ Blenkinsopp 2011, pp. 33–34. ^ Blenkinsopp 2011, pp. 21–22. ^ Genesis 1:3–1:5 ^ Walton 2003, p. 158. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 39. ^ Genesis 1:6–1:8 ^ Hamilton 1990, p. 122. ^ Seeley 1991, p. 227. ^ Walton 2003, pp. 158–59. ^ Genesis 1:9–1:13 ^ Seeley 1997, p. 236. ^ Bandstra 2008, p. 41. ^ Kissling 2004, p. 106. ^ Genesis 1:14–1:19 ^ Bandstra 2008, pp. 41–42. ^ Walsh 2001, p. 37 (fn.5). ^ Hamilton 1990, p. 127. ^ Walton 2003, p. 160. ^ Genesis 1:24–31 ^ Alter 2004, pp. 18–19, 21. ^ Kvam et al. 1999, p. 24. ^ Davidson 1973, p. 24. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 14. ^ Rogerson 1991, pp. 19ff. ^ Knohl 2003, p. 13. ^ Genesis 2:1–2:3 ^ Walton 2006, pp. 157–58. ^ a b Stordalen 2000, pp. 473–74. ^ Van Seters 1998, p. 22. ^ Andersen 1987, pp. 137–40. ^ Alter 2004, pp. 20, 22. ^ Davidson 1973, p. 31. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 15. ^ Davidson 1973, p. 29. ^ Levenson 2004, p. 9 "The story of Adam
Adam
and Eve's sin in the garden of Eden (2.25–3.24) displays similarities with Gilgamesh, an epic poem that tells how its hero lost the opportunity for immortality and came to terms with his humanity. ... the biblical narrator has adapted the Mesopotamian forerunner to Israelite theology." ^ Kooij 2010, p. 17. ^ Propp 1990, p. 193. ^ Stordalen 2000, pp. 307–10. ^ Davidson 1973, p. 33. ^ Alter 2004, p. 21. ^ Alter 2004, p. 22. ^ Turner 2009, p. 20. ^ Hastings 2003, p. 607. ^ Jacobs 2007, p. 37. ^ Hugenberger 1988, p. 184. ^ Schnell, Rüdiger (1998-01-01). Geschlechterbeziehungen und Textfunktionen: Studien zu Eheschriften der Frühen Neuzeit (in German). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 167 ff. ISBN 9783110940398.  ^ Wood 1990, pp. 323–24. ^ Hyers 1984, p. 28. ^ Cotter 2003, pp. 5–9. ^ a b Cotter 2003, p. 7. ^ Cotter 2003, p. 8. ^ Carr 1996, p. 21. ^ Hamilton 1990, pp. 57–58. ^ Seidman 2010, p. 166. ^ a b Wright 2002, p. 53. ^ Kaiser 1997, p. 28. ^ Parrish 1990, pp. 183–84. ^ a b Aune 2003, p. 119. ^ Ryken et al 1998, p. 170 ^ Soskice 2010, p. 24. ^ Nebe 2002, p. 119. ^ May 2004, p. 179.

References

Alter, Robert (1981). The Art of Biblical narrative. Basic Books. ISBN 9780465004270.  Alter, Robert (2004). The Five Books of Moses. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-33393-0.  Andersen, Francis I. (1987). "On Reading Genesis 1–3". In O'Connor, Michael Patrick; Freedman, David Noel. Backgrounds for the Bible. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9780931464300.  Aune, David E. (2003). "Cosmology". Westminster Dictionary of the New Testament and Early Christian Literature. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664219178.  Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company. p. 576. ISBN 0-495-39105-0.  Blenkinsopp, Joseph (2011). Creation, Un-Creation, Re-Creation: A Discursive Commentary on Genesis 1–11. T&T Clarke International. ISBN 9780567372871.  Bouteneff, Peter C. (2008). Beginnings: Ancient Christian Readings of the Biblical Creation Narrative. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic. ISBN 978-0-8010-3233-2.  Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 9780827610019.  Brueggemann, Walter (1982). "Genesis 1:1–2.4". Interpretation of Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 382. ISBN 978-0-8042-3101-5.  Carr, David M. (1996). Reading the Fractures in Genesis. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22071-1.  Carr, David M. (2011). "The Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
Story". An Introduction to the Old Testament. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444356236.  Cotter, David W (2003). Genesis. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814650400.  Cross, Frank Moore (1973). "The Priestly Work". Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic: Essays in the History of the Religion of Israel. Harvard University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-674-09176-0.  Dalley, Stephanie (2000). Myths from Mesopotamia: Creation, the Flood, Gilgamesh, and Others. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192835895.  Davidson, Robert (1973). Genesis 1–11. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521097604.  Davies, G.I. (2007). "Introduction to the Pentateuch". In Barton, John; Muddiman, John. Oxford Bible
Bible
Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199277186.  Dolansky, Shawna (2016). "The Multiple Truths of Myths". Biblical Archeology Review. 42 (1): 18, 60.  Fishbane, Michael (2003). Biblical Myth and Rabbinic Mythmaking. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-826733-9.  Friedman, Richard Elliott (2003). The Bible
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with Sources Revealed. HarperCollins. ISBN 9780061951299.  Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews (PDF). Jewish Publication Society. p. 695.  Graves, Robert; Patai, Raphael (1986). Hebrew Myths: The Book
Book
of Genesis. Random House. ISBN 9780795337154.  Hamilton, Victor P (1990). The Book
Book
of Genesis: Chapters 1–17. New International Commentary on the Old Testament
Old Testament
(NICOT). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 540. ISBN 0-8028-2521-4.  Hastings, James (2003). Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, Part 10. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7661-3682-3.  Heidel, Alexander (1963). Babylonian Genesis (2nd ed.). Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-32399-4.  Heidel, Alexander (1963). The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels (2nd Revised ed.). Chicago University Press. ISBN 0-226-32398-6.  Hugenberger, G.P. (1988). "Rib". In Bromiley, Geoffrey W. The International Standard Bible
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Encyclopedia, Volume 4. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837844.  Hutton, Jeremy (2007). Isaiah 51:9–11 and the Rhetorical Appropriation and Subversion of Hostile Theologies. Journal of Biblical Literature. 126. Society of Biblical Literature. JSTOR 27638435.  Hyers, Conrad (1984). The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science. Westminster John Knox. ISBN 9780804201254.  Jacobs, Mignon R (2007). Gender, Power, and Persuasion: The Genesis Narratives and Contemporary Perspectives. Baker Academic.  Janzen, David (2004). The Social Meanings of Sacrifice in the Hebrew Bible: A Study of Four Writings. Walter de Gruyter Publisher. ISBN 978-3-11-018158-6.  Kaiser, Christopher B. (1997). Creational Theology and the History of Physical Science. Brill. ISBN 9004106693.  Kaplan, Aryeh (2002). "Hashem/Elokim: Mixing Mercy with Justice". The Aryeh Kaplan Reader: The Gift He Left Behind. Mesorah Publication, Ltd. p. 224. ISBN 0-89906-173-7. Retrieved 29 December 2010.  Keel, Othmar (1997). The Symbolism of the Biblical World. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060149.  King, Leonard (2010). Enuma Elish: The Seven Tablets of Creation; The Babylonian and Assyrian Legends Concerning the Creation of the World and of Mankind. Cosimo Inc.  Kissling, Paul (2004). Genesis, Volume 1. College Press. ISBN 9780899008752.  Knight, Douglas A (1990). "Cosmology". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737.  Knohl, Israel (2003). The Divine Symphony: The Bible's Many Voices. Jewish Publication Society. ISBN 9780827610187.  Kooij, Arie van der (2010). "The Story of Paradise in the Light of Mesopotamian Culture and Literature". In Dell, Katherine J; Davies, Graham; Koh, Yee Von. Genesis, Isaiah, and Psalms. Brill. ISBN 9004182314.  Kugler, Robert; Hartin, Patrick (2009). An Introduction to the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802846365.  Kutsko, John F. (2000). Between Heaven and Earth: Divine Presence and Absence in the Book
Book
of Ezekiel. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575060415.  Kvam, Kristen E.; Schearing, Linda S.; Ziegler, Valarie H., eds. (1999). Eve
Eve
and Adam: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Readings on Genesis and Gender. Indiana University Press. p. 515. ISBN 0-253-21271-5.  Lambert, W. G. (1965). "A New Look at the Babylonian Background of Genesis". The Journal of Theological Studies. 16 (2). pp. 287–300.  Leeming, David A. (2010). Creation Myths of the World: An Encyclopedia. 1. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598841749.  Leeming, David A. (2004). "Biblical creation". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2010-05-05.  Leeming, David A.; Leeming, Margaret (2009). "A dictionary of creation myths". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195102758.  Levenson, Jon D. (2004). "Genesis: Introduction and Annotations". In Berlin, Adele; Brettler, Marc Zvi. The Jewish study Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195297515.  Louth, Andrew (2001). "Introduction". In Andrew Louth. Genesis 1–11. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830814718.  May, Gerhard (2004). Creatio Ex Nihilo (English trans. of 1994 ed.). T&T Clarke International. ISBN 9780567083562.  McDermott, John J. (2002). Reading the Pentateuch: A Historical Introduction. Paulist Press. ISBN 9780809140824.  McMullin, Ernin (2010). "Creation Ex Nihilo: Early History". In Burrell, David B.; Cogliati, Carlo; Soskice, Janet M.; Stoeger, William R. Creation and the God
God
of Abraham. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139490788.  Nebe, Gottfried (2002). "Creation in Paul's Theology". In Hoffman, Yair; Reventlow, Henning Graf. Creation in Jewish and Christian Tradition. Sheffield Academic Press. ISBN 9780567573933.  Parrish, V. Steven (1990). "Creation". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737.  Penchansky, David (Nov 2005). Twilight of the Gods: Polytheism in the Hebrew Bible. U.S.: Westminster/John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22885-2.  Propp, W.H. (1990). "Eden Sketches". In Propp, W.H.; Halpern, Baruch; Freedman, D.N. The Hebrew Bible
Bible
and its Interpreters. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9780931464522.  Ruiten, Jacques T. A. G. M. (2000). Primaeval History Interpreted. Brill. ISBN 9004116583.  Rogerson, John William (1991). Genesis 1–11. T&T Clark. ISBN 9780567083388.  Sarna, Nahum M. (1997). "The Mists of Time: Genesis I–II". In Feyerick, Ada. Genesis: World of Myths and Patriarchs. New York: NYU Press. p. 560. ISBN 0-8147-2668-2.  Ryken, Leland; Wilhoit, Jim; Longman, Tremper; Duriez, Colin; Penney, Douglas; Reid, Daniel G., eds. (1998). "Cosmology". Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830867332.  Sawyer, John F.A. (1992). "The Image of God, the Wisdom of Serpents, and the Knowledge of Good and Evil". In Paul Morris, Deborah Sawyer. A Walk in the Garden: Biblical, Iconographical and Literary Images of Eden. Sheffield Academic Press Press. ISBN 9780567024473.  Schwartz, Howard; Loebel-Fried, Caren; Ginsburg, Elliot K. (2007). Tree of Souls: The Mythology of Judaism. Oxford University Press. p. 704. ISBN 9780195358704.  Seidman, Naomi (2010). "Translation". In Ronald Hendel. Reading Genesis: Ten Methods. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521518611.  Seeley, Paul H. (1991). "The Firmament
Firmament
and the Water Above: The Meaning of Raqia in Genesis 1:6–8" (PDF). Westminster Theological Journal. Westminster Theological Seminary. 53: 227–40.  Seeley, Paul H. (1997). "The Geographical Meaning of 'Earth' and 'Seas' in Genesis 1:10" (PDF). Westminster Theological Journal. Westminster Theological Seminary. 59: 231–55.  Ska, Jean-Louis (2006). Introduction to Reading the Pentateuch. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061221.  Smith, Mark S. (Oct 2002). The Early History of God: Yahweh
Yahweh
and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (2nd ed.). William B Eerdmans Publishing Co. ISBN 0-8028-3972-X.  Smith, Mark S. (Nov 2001). The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts (New ed.). Oxford University Press USA. ISBN 0-19-516768-6.  Soskice, Janet M. (2010). "Creatio ex nihilo: its Jewish and Christian foundations". In Burrell, David B.; Cogliati, Carlo; Soskice, Janet M.; Stoeger, William R. Creation and the God
God
of Abraham. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781139490788.  Speiser, Ephraim Avigdor (1964). Genesis. Doubleday.  Spence, Lewis (2010) [1916]. Myths and Legends of Babylonia and Assyria. Cosimo, Inc. p. 72. ISBN 978-1616404642.  Stenhouse, John (2000). "Genesis and Science". In Gary B. Ferngren. The History of Science and Religion in the Western Tradition: An Encyclopedia. New York, London: Garland Publishing, Inc. p. 76. ISBN 0-8153-1656-9.  Stagg, Evelyn and Frank (1978). "Genesis and Science". Woman in the World of Jesus. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Westminster Press. p. 135. ISBN 0-664-24195-6.  Stordalen, Terje (2000). Echoes of Eden. Peeters. ISBN 9789042908543.  Thomas, Matthew A. (2011). These Are the Generations: Identity, Covenant and the Toledot
Toledot
Formula. T&T Clark (Continuum). ISBN 9780567487643.  Thompson, J. A. (1980). Jeremiah. New International Commentary on the Old Testament
Old Testament
(2nd ed.). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 831. ISBN 0-8028-2530-3.  Tsumura, David Toshio (2005). Creation And Destruction: A Reappraisal of the Chaoskampf Theory in the Old Testament. Eisenbrauns. ISBN 9781575061061.  Turner, Laurence A. (2009). Genesis. Sheffield Phoenix Press. ISBN 9781906055653.  Van Seters, John (1998). "The Pentateuch". In McKenzie, Steven L.; Graham, M. Patrick. The Hebrew Bible
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Today: An Introduction to Critical Issues. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 9780664256524.  Van Seters, John (1992). Prologue to History: The Yahwist As Historian in Genesis. New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 0-664-22179-3.  Walsh, Jerome T. (2001). Style and Structure in Biblical Hebrew Narrative. Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780814658970.  Waltke, Bruce (1991). "The Literary Genre of Genesis, Chapter One" (PDF). Crux. Westminster Theological Seminary. 27:4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2014.  Walton, John H. (2006). Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible. Baker Academic. ISBN 0-8010-2750-0.  Walton, John H. (2003). "Creation". In T. Desmond Alexander, David Weston Baker. Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830817818.  Walton, John H. (2001). Genesis. Zondervan. ISBN 978-0-310-86620-6.  Walton, John H.; Matthews, Victor H.; Chavalas, Mark W. (2000). "Genesis". The IVP Bible
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Background Commentary: Old Testament. InterVarsity Press. ISBN 9780830814190.  Wenham, Gordon (2003a). Exploring the Old Testament: A Guide to the Pentateuch. Exploring the Bible
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Series. 1. IVP Academic. p. 223.  Wenham, Gordon (2003b). "Genesis". In Dunn, James Douglas Grant; Rogerson, J. John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.  Wenham, Gordon (1987). Genesis 1–15. 1 and 2. Texas: Word Books. ISBN 0-8499-0200-2.  Whybray, R.N (2001). "Genesis". In John Barton. Oxford Bible Commentary. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198755005.  Wood, Ralpth C (1990). "Genre, Concept of". In Watson E. Mills (General Editor). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. ISBN 9780865543737.  Wright, J. Edward (2002). The Early History of Heaven. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195348491.  Wylen, Stephen M. (2005). "Chapter 6 Midrash". The Seventy Faces of Torah: The Jewish way of Reading the Sacred Scriptures. Paulist Press. p. 256. ISBN 0-8091-4179-5. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Creation according to Genesis.

Biblical texts

Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (Hebrew-English text, translated according to the JPS 1917 Edition) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 (Hebrew-English text, with Rashi's commentary. The translation is the authoritative Judaica Press version, edited by Rabbi A.J. Rosenberg.) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New American Bible) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (King James Version) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (Revised Standard Version) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New Living Translation) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New American Standard Bible) Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New International Version (UK))

Mesopotamian texts

"Enuma Elish", at Encyclopedia of the Orient Summary of Enuma Elish with links to full text. ETCSL—Text and translation of the Eridu Genesis (alternate site) (The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature, Oxford) "Epic of Gilgamesh" (summary) British Museum: Cuneiform tablet from Sippar with the story of Atra-Hasis

Related links

Human Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).

v t e

Adam
Adam
and Eve

Source

Genesis creation narrative
Genesis creation narrative
in the Book
Book
of Genesis Adam Eve

Offspring

Cain and Abel Aclima Seth Awan Azura

Television

"Probe 7, Over and Out" (1963)

Film

Mama's Affair
Mama's Affair
(1921) Good Morning, Eve!
Good Morning, Eve!
(1934) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1937) The Original Sin (1948) The Private Lives of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1960) El pecado de Adán y Eva
El pecado de Adán y Eva
(1969) La Biblia en pasta
La Biblia en pasta
(1984) The Annunciation (1984) Adipapam
Adipapam
(1988) Adam
Adam
(1992) Man's Best Friend (1998) Babs (2000) The Last Eve
Eve
(2005) Year One (2009) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(2011) Adam
Adam
and Dog (2011) Tropico (2013)

Plays

Le Jeu d' Adam
Adam
(12th century) The Broken Jug
The Broken Jug
(1808) The Tragedy of Man
The Tragedy of Man
(1861) The Creation of the World and Other Business
The Creation of the World and Other Business
(1972)

Musicals

The Apple Tree
The Apple Tree
(1966) Dude (1972) Up from Paradise
Up from Paradise
(1973) Children of Eden
Children of Eden
(1991)

Compositions

The Creation (1798)

structure

La mort d' Adam
Adam
(1809) Ève
Ève
(1875) Genesis Suite
Genesis Suite
(1945) Lilith (2001)

Literature

Apocalypse of Adam Book
Book
of Moses Book
Book
of Abraham Books of Adam Book
Book
of the Penitence of Adam Cave of Treasures "El y Ella" Genesis A
Genesis A
and Genesis B Harrowing of Hell Life of Adam
Adam
and Eve Testament of Adam Testimony of Truth
Testimony of Truth
(3rd century) Conflict of Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
with Satan (6th century) "Old Saxon Genesis" (9th century) " Adam
Adam
lay ybounden" (15th century) Paradise Lost
Paradise Lost
(1667) Le Dernier Homme
Le Dernier Homme
(1805) Extracts from Adam's Diary
Extracts from Adam's Diary
(1904) Eve's Diary
Eve's Diary
(1905) The Book
Book
of Genesis (2009)

Art

Bernward Doors
Bernward Doors
(1015) Tapestry of Creation
Tapestry of Creation
(11th century) Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
(1425) Vienna Diptych
Vienna Diptych
(15th century) The Last Judgment (1482) The Garden of Earthly Delights
The Garden of Earthly Delights
(1504) Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1507) Paradise and Hell
Paradise and Hell
(1510) The Creation of Adam
Adam
(1512) The Haywain Triptych
The Haywain Triptych
(1516) Eve, the Serpent and Death
Eve, the Serpent and Death
(1510s or 1520s) Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1528) The Fall of Man (1550) Maps of ancient Israel The Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
with the Fall of Man (1617) The Fall of Man (1628) The Four Seasons (1660s) The Koren Picture- Bible
Bible
(1692–1696) The First Mourning
The First Mourning
(1888) Eve
Eve
(1931) Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1932) The Serpent Chooses Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1958) Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(1992)

Songs

"Dese Bones G'wine Rise Again" "Adam-ondi-Ahman" (1835) "Forbidden Fruit" (1915) "The Garden of Eden" (1956) "Let's Give Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
Another Chance" (1970) "Man Gave Names to All the Animals" (1979)

Albums

The Cainian Chronicle
The Cainian Chronicle
(1996) Visions of Eden
Visions of Eden
(2006)

Other cultures

Adam– God
God
doctrine Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
(LDS Church) Adam
Adam
in Islam Adam
Adam
in rabbinic literature Al-A'raf Book
Book
of Moses Endowment Manu (Hinduism) Mashya and Mashyana Serpent seed Tree of Jiva and Atman Tree of life
Tree of life
(Quran) Our Lady of Endor Coven

Geography

Adam-ondi-Ahman Tomb of Eve

Biology

Mitochondrial Eve Y-chromosomal Adam The Real Eve

Story within a story

Doraemon: Nobita's Diary of the Creation of the World Island of Love The Visitors

Games

Demon: The Fallen (2002)

Related theology

Fall of man Original sin Garden of Eden Tree of the knowledge of good and evil Serpents in the Bible Forbidden fruit

Apple Fig leaf

Figs in the Bible Adam's ale Adamic language Rosh Hashanah Camael Shamsiel Tree of life Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

Other

Pre-Adamite Generations of Adam Cave of the Patriarchs "In-A-Gadda-Da-Leela" "Simpsons Bible
Bible
Stories" Second Time Lucky Adam
Adam
and Eve
Eve
cylinder seal Timeline of Genesis patriarchs Genealogies of Genesis Carnal knowledge Legend of the Rood

Ystorya Adaf

Snakes for the Divine Ransom theory of atonement

Bible
Bible
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Creationism
Creationism
portal Evolutionary biology portal Islam portal Ju

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