HOME
The Info List - Gehenna

Gehenna
Gehenna
(/ɡɪˈhɛnə/; גיא בן הינום‬ Ancient Greek: γέεννα) from the Hebrew
Hebrew
Gehinnom (Rabbinical: גהנום‬/גהנם‬) is a small valley in Jerusalem. In the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, Gehenna
Gehenna
was initially where some of the kings of Judah sacrificed their children by fire.[1] Thereafter it was deemed to be cursed (Jer. 7:31, 19:2-6).[2] In Rabbinic literature and Christian and Islamic scripture, Gehenna
Gehenna
is a destination of the wicked.[3] This is different from the more neutral Sheol/Hades, the abode of the dead, although the King James Version of the Bible
Bible
usually translates both with the Anglo-Saxon word Hell. In the King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible, the term appears 13 times in 11 different verses as Valley of Hinnom, Valley of the son of Hinnom or Valley of the children of Hinnom. The Valley of Hinnom is the modern name for the valley surrounding Jerusalem's Old City, including Mount Zion, from the west and south. It meets and merges with the Kidron Valley, the other principal valley around the Old City, near the southeastern corner of the city.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Archaeology

3 The concept of Gehinnom

3.1 Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible 3.2 Targums 3.3 Rabbinical Judaism 3.4 New Testament

3.4.1 Translations in Christian Bibles

3.5 Quran

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Etymology[edit] English "Gehenna" represents the Greek Ge'enna (γέεννα) found in the New Testament, a phonetic transcription of Aramaic Gēhannā (ܓܗܢܐ),[citation needed] equivalent to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Ge Hinnom, literally "Valley of Hinnom". This was known in the Old Testament
Old Testament
as Gei Ben-Hinnom,[4] literally the "Valley of the son of Hinnom",[5] and in the Talmud
Talmud
as גהנם‬ Gehinnam or גהנום‬ Gehinnom. Citation: In the New American Standard Bible, Joshua 15:8 (see below) notes, "Then the border went up the valley of Ben-Hinnom (גֵּיא בֶן־הִנֹּם‬, Gei ben Hinnom) to the slope of the Jebusite on the south (that is, Jerusalem); and the border went up to the top of the mountain which is before the valley of Hinnom to the west, which is at the end of the valley of Rephaim toward the north." Joshua is describing the boundaries of the tribe of Judah. Keil and Delitzsch
Keil and Delitzsch
note in their Commentary on the Old Testament,[6] "It (the boundary of the tribe of Judah) then went up into the more elevated valley of Ben-Hinnom, on the south side of the Jebusite town, i.e., Jerusalem (see at Jos 10:1), and still farther up to the top of the mountain which rises on the west of the valley of Ben-Hinnom, and at the farthest extremity of the plain of Rephaim towards the north. The valley of Ben-Hinnom, or Ben-Hinnom (the son or sons of Hinnom), on the south side of Mount Zion, a place which was notorious from the time of Ahaz
Ahaz
as the seat of the worship of Moloch
Moloch
(2 Kg 23:10; 2 Ch 28:3; 2 Ch 33:6; Jer 7:31, etc.), is supposed there, but of whom nothing further is known (see Robinson, Pal. i. pp. 402ff.)." This reference in the Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua
is the first mention in the Old Testament of this "Valley of the Sons of Hinnom". This valley, as Keil and Delitzsch
Keil and Delitzsch
note, is "on the south side of the Jebusite town, i.e., Jerusalem." This valley is mentioned five times in the Book of Jeremiah (7:31,32 19:2,6 32:35) as the place in which the people would "burn their sons and daughters in the fire" as part of the worship of Moloch
Moloch
as noted by Keil and Delitzsch.[6] In the Qur'an, Jahannam
Jahannam
(جهنم) is a place of torment for sinners and non-believers, or the Islamic equivalent of Hell.[7] Geography[edit]

Valley of Hinnom 1948

Tombs in the Valley of Hinnom

The exact location of the Valley of Hinnom is disputed. Older commentaries give the location as below the southern wall of ancient Jerusalem, stretching from the foot of Mount Zion
Mount Zion
eastward past the Tyropoeon to the Kidron Valley. However the Tyropoeon Valley
Tyropoeon Valley
is usually no longer associated with the Valley of Hinnom because during the period of Ahaz
Ahaz
and Manasseh, the Tyropoeon lay within the city walls and child sacrifice would have been practiced outside the walls of the city. Smith (1907),[8] Dalman (1930),[9] Bailey (1986)[10] and Watson (1992)[11] identify the Wadi ar-Rababi, which fits the data of Joshua that Hinnom valley ran east to west and lay outside the city walls. According to Joshua, the valley began at En-rogel. If the modern Bir Ayyub is En-rogel, then Wadi ar-Rababi, which begins there, is Hinnom.[12] Archaeology[edit] Main article: Tophet Child sacrifice
Child sacrifice
at other Tophets contemporary with the Bible
Bible
accounts (700–600 BC) of the reigns of Ahaz
Ahaz
and Manasseh have been established, such as the bones of children sacrificed at the Tophet to the goddess Tank in Phoenician Carthage,[13] and also child sacrifice in ancient Syria-Palestine.[14] Scholars such as Mosca (1975) have concluded that the sacrifice recorded in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, such as Jeremiah's comment that the worshippers of Baal
Baal
had "filled this place with the blood of innocents", is literal,[15][16] while Mark Smith has stated that in the seventh century child sacrifice was a Judean practice performed in the name of Yahweh. [17] Yet, the biblical words in the Book of Jeremiah describe events taking place in the seventh century in the place of Ben-hinnom: “Because they [the Israelites] have forsaken Me and have made this an alien place and have burned sacrifices in it to other gods, that neither they nor their forefathers nor the kings of Judah had ever known, and because they have filled this place with the blood of the innocent and have built the high places of Baal
Baal
to burn their sons in the fire as burnt offerings to Baal, a thing which I never commanded or spoke of, nor did it ever enter My mind; therefore, behold, days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when this place will no longer be called Topheth or the valley of Ben-hinnom, but rather the valley of Slaughter". [18] J. Day, Heider, and Mosca believe that the Molech
Molech
cult took place in the valley of Hinnom at the Topheth.[19] No archaeological evidence such as mass children's graves has been found; however, it has been suggested that such a find may be compromised by the heavy population history of the Jerusalem area compared to the Tophet found in Tunisia.[20] The site would also have been disrupted by the actions of Josiah
Josiah
"And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech." (2 Kings 23). A minority of scholars have attempted to argue that the Bible
Bible
does not portray actual child sacrifice, but only dedication to the god by fire; however, they are judged to have been "convincingly disproved" (Hay, 2011).[21] The concept of Gehinnom[edit] Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible[edit] The oldest historical reference to the valley is found in Joshua 15:8, 18:16 which describe tribal boundaries. The next chronological reference to the valley is at the time of King Ahaz
Ahaz
of Judah who sacrificed his sons there according to 2 Chron. 28:3. Since Hezekiah, his legitimate son by the daughter of the High Priest, succeeded him as king, this, if literal, is assumed to mean children by unrecorded pagan wives or concubines. The same is recorded of Ahaz' grandson Manasseh in 33:6. There remains debate about whether the phrase "cause his children to pass through the fire" meant a religious ceremony or literally child sacrifice.

Valley of Hinnom, 2007.

The Book of Isaiah
Book of Isaiah
does not mention Gehenna
Gehenna
by name, but the "burning place" 30:33 in which the Assyrian army is to be destroyed, may be read "Topheth", and the final verse of Isaiah which concerns of those that have rebelled against God, Isaiah 66:24. In the reign of Josiah
Josiah
a call came from Jeremiah to destroy the shrines in Topheth and to end the practice Jeremiah 7:31-32, 32:35. It is recorded that Josiah
Josiah
destroyed the shrine of Molech
Molech
on Topheth to prevent anyone sacrificing children there in 2 Kings 23:10. Despite Josiah's ending of the practice, Jeremiah also included a prophecy that Jerusalem itself would be made like Gehenna
Gehenna
and Topheth (19:2-6, 19:11-14). A final purely geographical reference is found in Neh. 11:30 to the exiles returning from Babylon camping from Beersheba
Beersheba
to Hinnom. Targums[edit] The ancient Aramaic paraphrase-translations of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible
Bible
known as Targums supply the term "Gehinnom" frequently to verses touching upon resurrection, judgment, and the fate of the wicked. This may also include addition of the phrase "second death", as in the final chapter of the Book of Isaiah, where the Hebrew
Hebrew
version does not mention either Gehinnom or the Second Death, whereas the Targums add both. In this the Targums are parallel to the Gospel of Mark
Gospel of Mark
addition of "Gehenna" to the quotation of the Isaiah verses describing the corpses "where their worm does not die".[22] Rabbinical Judaism[edit] The picture of Gehenna
Gehenna
as the place of punishment or destruction of the wicked occurs frequently in the Mishnah
Mishnah
in Kiddushin 4.14, Avot 1.5; 5.19, 20, Tosefta
Tosefta
t. Bereshith 6.15, and Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
b.Rosh Hashanah 16b:7a; b. Bereshith 28b. Gehenna
Gehenna
is considered a Purgatory-like place where the wicked go to suffer until they have atoned for their sins. It is stated that the maximum amount of time a sinner can spend in Gehenna
Gehenna
is one year. There are also four people who do not get a share in Olam Ha-Ba.[23] Those people are Doeg the Edomite, Ahitophel, Balaam, and Gehazi. Due to Jewish religious tradition regarding the bloodiness of its history[clarification needed], Gehenna
Gehenna
became a metonym for "Hell" or any similar place of punishment in the afterlife. The traditional explanation that a burning rubbish heap in the Valley of Hinnom south of Jerusalem gave rise to the idea of a fiery Gehenna of judgment is attributed to Rabbi David Kimhi's commentary on Psalm 27:13 (ca. 1200 AD). He maintained that in this loathsome valley fires were kept burning perpetually to consume the filth and cadavers thrown into it. However, Hermann Strack
Hermann Strack
and Paul Billerbeck state that there is neither archaeological nor literary evidence in support of this claim, in either the earlier intertestamental or the later rabbinic sources.[24] Also, Lloyd R. Bailey's "Gehenna: The Topography of Hell"[25] from 1986 holds a similar view. There is evidence however that the southwest shoulder of this valley (Ketef Hinnom) was a burial location with numerous burial chambers that were reused by generations of families from as early as the seventh until the fifth century BC. The use of this area for tombs continued into the first centuries BC and AD. By 70 AD, the area was not only a burial site but also a place for cremation of the dead with the arrival of the Tenth Roman Legion, who were the only group known to practice cremation in this region.[26] In time it became deemed to be accursed and an image of the place of destruction in Jewish folklore.[27][28] Eventually the Hebrew
Hebrew
term Gehinnom[29] became a figurative name for the place of spiritual purification for the wicked dead in Judaism. According to most Jewish sources, the period of purification or punishment is limited to only 12 months and every Sabbath day is excluded from punishment.[30] After this the soul will ascend to Olam Ha-Ba (the world to come), be destroyed, or continue to exist in a state of consciousness of remorse.[31] New Testament[edit] In the synoptic Gospels Jesus uses the word Gehenna
Gehenna
to describe the opposite to life in the Kingdom (Mark 9:43-48). It is used 11 times in these accounts.[32] In certain usage, it is a place where both soul (Greek: ψυχή) and body could be destroyed (Matthew 10:28) in "unquenchable fire" (Mark 9:43).[33]

Matthew 5:22: "....whoever shall say, 'You fool,' shall be guilty enough to go into Gehenna." Matthew 5:29: "....it is better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to be thrown into Gehenna." Matthew 5:30: "....better for you that one of the parts of your body perish, than for your whole body to go into Gehenna." Matthew 10:28: "....rather fear Him who is able to destroy both soul [Greek: ψυχή] and body in Gehenna." Matthew 18:9: "It is better for you to enter life with one eye, than with two eyes to be thrown into the Gehenna...." Matthew 23:15: "Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites, because you... make one proselyte...twice as much a child of Gehenna
Gehenna
as yourselves." Matthew 23:33, to the Pharisees: "You serpents, you brood of vipers, how shall you to escape the sentence of Gehenna?" Mark 9:43: "It is better for you to enter life crippled, than having your two hands, to go into Gehenna
Gehenna
into the unquenchable fire." Mark 9:45: "It is better for you to enter life lame, than having your two feet, to be cast into Gehenna." Mark 9:47: "It is better for you to enter the Kingdom of God
Kingdom of God
with one eye, than having two eyes, to be cast into Gehenna." Luke 12:5: "....fear the One who, after He has killed has authority to cast into Gehenna; yes, I tell you, fear Him."

James is the only other writer to use the word Gehenna
Gehenna
in the New Testament:[34]

James 3:6: "And the tongue is a fire,...and sets on fire the course of our life, and is set on fire by Gehenna."

Translations in Christian Bibles[edit] The New Testament
New Testament
also refers to Hades
Hades
as a place distinct from Gehenna. Unlike Gehenna, Hades
Hades
typically conveys neither fire nor punishment but forgetfulness. The Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
describes Hades being cast into the lake of fire (Revelation 20:14). The King James Version is the only English translation in modern use to translate Sheol, Hades, Tartarus
Tartarus
(Gr. ταρταρώσας, Root: ταρταρόω tartaroō), and Gehenna
Gehenna
as Hell. In the New Testament, the New International Version, New Living Translation, New American Standard Bible
Bible
(among others) all reserve the term "hell" for the translation of Gehenna
Gehenna
or Tartarus
Tartarus
(see above), transliterating Hades
Hades
as a term directly from the equivalent Greek term.[35] Treatment of Gehenna
Gehenna
in Christianity
Christianity
is significantly affected by whether the distinction in Hebrew
Hebrew
and Greek between Gehenna
Gehenna
and Hades was maintained: Translations with a distinction:

The 4th century Ulfilas
Ulfilas
(Wulfila) or Gothic Bible
Bible
is the first Bible to use Hell's Proto-Germanic form Halja, and maintains a distinction between Hades
Hades
and Gehenna. However, unlike later translations, Halja (Matt 11:23) is reserved for Hades,[36] and Gehenna
Gehenna
is transliterated to Gaiainnan (Matt 5:30), which surprisingly is the opposite to modern translations that translate Gehenna
Gehenna
into Hell
Hell
and leave Hades untranslated (see below). The late 4th-century Latin Vulgate
Vulgate
transliterates the Greek γέεννα "gehenna" with "gehennæ" (e.g. Matt 5:22) while using "infernus" ("coming from below, of the underworld") to translate ᾅδης (Hades]). The 19th century Young's Literal Translation
Young's Literal Translation
tries to be as literal a translation as possible and does not use the word Hell
Hell
at all, keeping the words Hades
Hades
and Gehenna
Gehenna
untranslated.[37] The 19th-century Arabic Van Dyck distinguishes Gehenna
Gehenna
from Sheol. The 20th century New International Version, New Living Translation
New Living Translation
and New American Standard Bible
Bible
reserve the term "Hell" only for when Gehenna
Gehenna
or Tartarus
Tartarus
is used. All translate Sheol
Sheol
and Hades
Hades
in a different fashion. The exception to this is the New International Version's translation in Luke 16:23, which is its singular rendering of Hades
Hades
as Hell. In texts in Greek, and consistently in the Eastern Orthodox Church, the distinctions present in the originals were often maintained. The Russian Synodal Bible
Bible
(and one translation by the Old Church Slavonic) also maintain the distinction. In modern Russian, the concept of Hell (Ад) is directly derived from Hades
Hades
(Аид), separate and independent of Gehenna. Fire imagery is attributed primarily to Gehenna, which is most commonly mentioned as Gehenna
Gehenna
the Fiery (Геенна огненная), and appears to be synonymous to the Lake of Fire. The New World Translation, used by Jehovah's Witnesses, maintains a distinction between Gehenna
Gehenna
and Hades
Hades
by transliterating Gehenna, and by rendering "Hades" (or "Sheol") as "the Grave". The word "hell" is not used in the New American Bible,[38] except in a footnote in the book of Job translating an alternative passage from the Vulgate, in which the word corresponds to Jerome's "inferos," itself a translation of "sheol." "Gehenna" is untranslated, "Hades" either untranslated or rendered "netherworld," and "sheol" rendered "nether world."

Translations without a distinction:

The late 10th century Wessex Gospels and the 14th century Wycliffe Bible
Bible
render both the Latin inferno and gehenna as Hell]. The 16th century Tyndale
Tyndale
and later translators had access to the Greek, but Tyndale
Tyndale
translated both Gehenna
Gehenna
and Hades
Hades
as same English word, Hell. The 17th century King James Version
King James Version
of the Bible
Bible
is the only English translation in modern use to translate Sheol, Hades, and Gehenna
Gehenna
as Hell.

Many modern Christians understand Gehenna
Gehenna
to be a place of eternal punishment called hell.[39] Annihilationists understand Gehenna
Gehenna
to be a place where sinners are eventually utterly destroyed, not tormented with literal pain forever. Quran[edit] The name given to Hell
Hell
in Islam, Jahannam, directly derives from Gehenna.[40] The Quran
Quran
contains 77 references to Gehenna
Gehenna
(جهنم), but no references to Hades
Hades
(هيدز). See also[edit]

Araf (Islam) Heaven in Judaism Heaven in Christianity Jewish eschatology Hell
Hell
in popular culture

Gehenna
Gehenna
(other) Gehenna
Gehenna
(comics) Gehenna
Gehenna
(Dungeons & Dragons) game Gehenna (World of Darkness) game

Christian views on hell Outer darkness, New Testament
New Testament
term Purgatory Spirits in prison, New Testament
New Testament
term Spirit world (Latter Day Saints), Spirit prison Tzoah Rotachat, boiling excrement, rabbinical term

References[edit]

^ Watson E. Mills; Roger Aubrey Bullard (1990). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible. Mercer University Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-86554-373-7.  ^ Jewish Encyclopedia: Gehenna: "The place where children were sacrificed to the god Moloch
Moloch
was originally in the "valley of the son of Hinnom," to the south of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, passim; II Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. ii. 23; vii. 31-32; xix. 6, 13-14). For this reason the valley was deemed to be accursed, and "Gehenna" therefore soon became a figurative equivalent for "hell."" ^ Catholic Encyclopedia: Hell: "However, in the New Testament
New Testament
the term Gehenna
Gehenna
is used more frequently in preference to hades, as a name for the place of punishment of the damned. ... held in abomination by the Jews, who, accordingly, used the name of this valley to designate the abode of the damned (Targ. Jon., Gen., iii, 24; Henoch, c. xxvi). And Christ adopted this usage of the term." Jewish Encyclopedia: Gehenna: Sin and Merit: "It is frequently said that certain sins will lead man into Gehenna. The name "Gehenna" itself is explained to mean that unchastity will lead to Gehenna
Gehenna
(; 'Er. 19a); so also will adultery, idolatry, pride, mockery, hypocrisy, anger, etc. (Soṭah 4b, 41b; Ta'an. 5a; B. B. 10b, 78b; 'Ab. Zarah 18b; Ned. 22a)." ^ "2 Chronicles 28:3 (NIV)".  ^ "2 Chronicles 28:3 (ESV)".  ^ a b Joshua 15, in Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch (1857-78), Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament. ^ Cyril Glassé, translated Huston Smith The new encyclopedia of Islam 2003 p175 "Hell. The place of torment where the damned undergo suffering most often described as fire, a fire whose fuel is stones and men. Names of hell used in the Koran are An-Nar ("the fire"), Jahannam
Jahannam
("Gehenna"), .." ^ Smith, G. A. 1907. Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. London. ^ Dalman, G. 1930. Jerusalem und sein Gelande. Schriften des Deutschen Palastina-Instituts 4 ^ Bailey, L. R. 1986. Gehenna: The Topography of Hell. BA 49: 187 ^ Watson, Duane F. Hinnom. In Freedman, David Noel, ed., The Anchor Bible
Bible
Dictionary, New York Doubleday 1997, 1992. ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia: E-J - 1982 ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley International Standard Bible
Bible
Encyclopedia: Q-Z -1995 p259 "Stager and Wolff have convincingly demonstrated that child sacrifice was practiced in Phoenecian Carthage
Carthage
(Biblical Archaeology Review, 10 [1984], 30–51). At the sanctuary called Tophet, children were sacrificed to the goddess Tank and her .." ^ Hays 2011 "..(Lev 18:21-27; Deut 12:31; 2 Kgs 16:3; 21:2), and there is indeed evidence for child sacrifice in ancient Syria-Palestine." [Footnote:] "Day, Molech, 18, esp. n. 11. See also A. R. W. Green, The Role of Human Sacrifice in the Ancient Near East (SBLDS 1; Missoula, Mont.: Scholars Press, 1975)." ^ P. Mosca, 'Child Sacrifice in Canaanite and Israelite Religion: A Study on Mulk and "pa' (PhD dissertation. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1975) ^ Susan Niditch War in the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence 1995 p 48 "An ancient Near Eastern parallel for the cult of Molech
Molech
is provided by Punic epigraphic and archaeological evidence (Heider:203) ^ http://www.patheos.com/blogs/faithpromotingrumor/2010/01/child-sacrifice-a-traditional-religious-practice-in-ancient-israel/ ^ http://biblehub.com/context/jeremiah/19-4.htm ^ (J. Day:83; Heider:405; Mosca: 220, 228), ... Many no doubt did as Heider allows (269, 272, 406) though J. Day denies it (85). ... Heider and Mosca conclude, in fact, that a form of child sacrifice was a part of state-sponsored ritual until the reform of the ..." ^ Richard S. Hess, Gordon J. Wenham Zion, City of Our God. 1999, p 182 "The sacrifices of children and the cult of Molech
Molech
are associated with no other place than the Hinnom Valley. ... of Jerusalem, the Jebusites (brackets mine).40 As yet, no trace has been located through archaeological search in Ben- Hinnom or in the Kidron Valley. ... Carthage
Carthage
was found in an area of Tunis that has had little occupation on the site to eradicate the evidence left of a cult of child sacrifice there." ^ Christopher B. Hays Death in the Iron Age II & in First Isaiah 2011 p 181 "Efforts to show that the Bible
Bible
does not portray actual child sacrifice in the Molek cult, but rather dedication to the god by fire, have been convincingly disproved. Child sacrifice
Child sacrifice
is well attested in the ancient world, especially in times of crisis." ^ McNamara, Targums and Testament, ISBN 978-0716506195 ^ Babylonian Talmud. Sanhedrin (7) Ch. 11 "Chelek" ^ Hermann L. Strack and Paul Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud
Talmud
and Midrasch, 5 vols. [Munich: Beck, 1922-56], 4:2:1030 ^ Lloyd R. Bailey, "Gehenna: The Topography of Hell," Biblical Archeologist 49 [1986]: 189 ^ Gabriel Barkay, "The Riches of Ketef Hinnom." Biblical Archaeological Review 35:4-5 (2005): 22–35, 122–26. ^ "The place where children were sacrificed to the god Moloch
Moloch
was originally in the "valley of the son of Hinnom," to the south of Jerusalem (Josh. xv. 8, passim; II Kings xxiii. 10; Jer. ii. 23; vii. 31-32; xix. 6, 13-14). For this reason the valley was deemed to be accursed, and "Gehenna" therefore soon became a figurative equivalent for 'hell'." GEHENNA - Jewish Encyclopedia By : Kaufmann Kohler, Ludwig Blau; web-sourced: 02-11-2010. ^ "gehenna." Easton's 1897 Bible
Bible
Dictionary. 27 Aug. 2009. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/gehenna>. ^ "Gehinnom is the Hebrew
Hebrew
name; Gehenna
Gehenna
is Yiddish." Gehinnom - Judaism
Judaism
101 websourced 02-10-2010. ^ "The place of spiritual punishment and/or purification for the wicked dead in Judaism
Judaism
is not referred to as Hell, but as Gehinnom or She'ol." HELL - Judaism
Judaism
101 websourced 02-10-2010. ^ [1] ^ Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for geenna (Strong's 1067)". ^ "G5590 - psychē - Strong's Greek Lexicon (NKJV)". Retrieved 9 November 2017.  ^ "G1067 - geenna - Strong's Greek Lexicon (KJV)". Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "Translations for 2Pe 2:4". Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ Murdoch & Read (2004) Early Germanic literature and culture’’, p. 160. [2] ^ "YLT Search Results for "hell"". Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ "BibleGateway - : hell [search] -- New American Bible
Bible
(Revised Edition) (NABRE), 4th Edition". Retrieved 10 November 2017.  ^ Metzger & Coogan (1993) Oxford Companion to the Bible’’, p. 243. ^ Richard P. Taylor -Death and the afterlife: a cultural encyclopedia 2000 "JAHANNAM From the Hebrew
Hebrew
ge-hinnom, which refers to a valley outside Jerusalem, Jahannam
Jahannam
is the Islamic word for hell."

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Valley of Hinom.

Short guide to today's Valley of Hinnom, with biblical story Columbia Encyclopedia on the Valley of Hinnom Biblical Proper Names on the Valley of Hinnom Gehenna
Gehenna
from the 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia The Jewish view of Hell
Hell
on chabad.org Olam Ha-Ba: The Afterlife
Afterlife
Judaism
Judaism
101 What Is Gehenna? Ariela Pelaia, About religion, about.com What is Gehenna
Gehenna
Like?: Rabbinic Descriptions of Gehenna
Gehenna
Ariela Pelaia, About religion, about.com A Christian Universalist perspective from Tentmaker.org A Christian Conditionalist perspective on Gehenna
Gehenna
from Afterlife.co.nz

v t e

Underworlds

Aztec mythology

Mictlan

Buddhism

Naraka

Chinese mythology

Diyu

Persian mythology

Duzakh

Christianity

Lake of fire Outer darkness Purgatory Limbo Hades Hell Christian views on Hell

Ancient Egyptian religion

Duat

Germanic and Norse paganism

Hel(heim) Náströnd Niflheim Niflhel

Greek and Roman mythology

Asphodel Meadows Elysium Erebus Fortunate Isles Hades Orcus Tartarus

Hinduism

Naraka Patala

Islam

Barzakh Jahannam

Irish mythology

Tech Duinn Tír na nÓg

Jainism

Naraka

Judaism

Abaddon Azazel Dudael Gehenna Sheol Tehom Tophet Tzoah Rotachat

Maya mythology

Xibalba

Mesopotamian mythology

Irkalla

Slavic mythology

Nav

Shinto

Yomi

Sumerian mythology

Kur

Turkic-Mongolian

Erlik

Welsh mythology