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Gdynia
Gdynia
[ˈɡdɨɲa] ( listen) (German: Gdingen, Kashubian: Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship
Pomeranian Voivodeship
of Poland
Poland
and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay
Gdańsk Bay
on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. Located in Kashubia
Kashubia
in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia
Gdynia
is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people. For centuries, Gdynia
Gdynia
remained a small agricultural and fishing village on the Baltic coast. At the beginning of the 20th-century Gdynia
Gdynia
became a seaside resort town and experienced an inflow of tourists. This also triggered an increase in local population. After Poland
Poland
regained its independence in 1918, a decision was made to construct a Polish seaport in Gdynia, between the Free City of Danzig (a semi-autonomous city-state under joint League of Nations
League of Nations
and Polish administration) and German Pomerania, making Gdynia
Gdynia
the primary economic hub of the Polish Corridor. It was then that the town was given a more cosmopolitan character with modernism being the dominant architectural style and emerged as a city in 1926. The rapid development of Gdynia
Gdynia
was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. Although the German troops refrained from deliberate bombing, the newly built port and shipyard were completely destroyed.[1] The population of the city suffered much heavier losses as most of the inhabitants were evicted and expelled. The locals were either displaced to other regions of occupied Poland
Poland
or sent to Nazi concentration camps throughout Europe. After the war, Gdynia
Gdynia
was settled with the former inhabitants of Warsaw
Warsaw
and lost cities such as Lviv
Lviv
and Vilnius
Vilnius
in the Eastern Borderlands. The city was gradually regenerating itself with its shipyard being rebuilt and expanded. In December 1970 the shipyard workers protest against the increase of prices was bloodily repressed. This greatly contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in Gdańsk. Today the port of Gdynia
Gdynia
is a regular stopover on the itinerary of luxurious passenger ships and a new ferry terminal with a civil airport are under realisation. The city won numerous awards in relation to safety, infrastructure, quality of life and a rich variety of tourist attractions. In 2013 Gdynia
Gdynia
was ranked as Poland's best city to live in and topped the rankings in the overarching category of general quality of life.[2] Gdynia
Gdynia
is also highly noted for its access to education. There are prestigious universities such as the Polish Naval Academy located nearby. Gdynia
Gdynia
hosts the Gdynia
Gdynia
Film Festival, the main Polish film festival, and was the venue for the International Random Film Festival
International Random Film Festival
in 2014.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Construction of the seaport 1.2 Construction of the city 1.3 Gdynia
Gdynia
during World War II
World War II
(1939–1945) 1.4 After World War II

2 Geography

2.1 Population and area 2.2 Climate 2.3 Districts 2.4 Sights and tourist attractions

3 Culture

3.1 Cultural references 3.2 Notable people 3.3 Sports

4 Economy and infrastructure

4.1 Transport

4.1.1 Port of Gdynia 4.1.2 Airport 4.1.3 Road transport 4.1.4 Railways

5 Education 6 International relations

6.1 Twin towns — sister cities

7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit]

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City museum

The area of the later city of Gdynia
Gdynia
shared its history with Pomerelia (Eastern Pomerania); in prehistoric times it was the center of Oksywie culture; it was later populated by Slavs
Slavs
with some Baltic Prussian influences.

Late 10th century: Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was united with Poland.[3] During the reign of Mieszko II
Mieszko II
Pomerelia
Pomerelia
seceded from Poland
Poland
and became independent. 1116/1121: Bolesław III reunited Pomerelia
Pomerelia
with Poland.[4] 1209: First mention of Oxhöft (now known as Oksywie, which is now a part of Gdynia). 1227: Pomerelia
Pomerelia
again became an independent Duchy. 1253: First known mention of the name "Gdynia", as a Pomeranian (Kashubian) fishing village. The first church on this part of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
coast was built there. 1294: Pomerelia
Pomerelia
was inherited by the future Polish king Przemysł II, and remained as part of Poland
Poland
until – 1309–1310; The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
conquered Pomerelia
Pomerelia
and added it to Prussia. 1380: The owner of the village which became Gdynia, Peter from Rusocin, gave the village to the Cistercian
Cistercian
Order. 1382: Gdynia
Gdynia
became property of the Cistercian
Cistercian
abbey in Oliva, now Oliwa. 1454: Thirteen Years' War started. 1466: Thirteen Years' War ended. Pomerelia
Pomerelia
became part of Royal Prussia, a newly established province of the Kingdom of Poland,[5] and later of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. 1772: In the First Partition of Poland, Royal Prussia
Prussia
(including Gdynia) was annexed into the Kingdom of Prussia. Gdynia
Gdynia
became known in German as Gdingen, and was expropriated from the Cistercian
Cistercian
Order. 1789: There were only 21 houses in Gdynia. 1870:

The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
became part of the German Empire. The village of Gdingen had some 1,200 inhabitants, and it was not a poor fishing village as it is sometimes described. It was a popular tourist spot with several guest houses, restaurants, cafés, several brick houses and a small harbour with a pier for small trading ships. The first Kashubian mayor of Gdingen was Jan Radtke.

1919: Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
and the start of the dismemberment of eastern Germany. 1920: Gdingen (now named Gdynia), along with other parts of former West Prussia, became a part of the new Republic of Poland; simultaneously, the city of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
and surrounding area was declared a free city and put under the League of Nations, though Poland
Poland
was given economic liberties and requisitioned for matters of foreign representation.

Construction of the seaport[edit] The decision to build a major seaport at Gdynia
Gdynia
village was made by the Polish government in winter 1920,[6] in the midst of the Polish–Soviet War
Polish–Soviet War
(1919–1920).[7] The authorities and seaport workers of the Free City of Gdańsk
Gdańsk
felt Poland's economic rights in the city were being misappropriated to help fight the war. German dockworkers went on strike, refusing to unload shipments of military supplies sent from the West to aid the Polish army,[7] and Poland realized the need for a port city it was in complete control of, economically and politically. Construction of Gdynia
Gdynia
seaport started in 1921[7] but, because of financial difficulties, it was conducted slowly and with interruptions. It was accelerated after the Sejm
Sejm
(Polish parliament) passed the Gdynia
Gdynia
Seaport
Seaport
Construction Act on 23 September 1922. By 1923 a 550-metre pier, 175 metres (574 feet) of a wooden tide breaker, and a small harbour had been constructed. Ceremonial inauguration of Gdynia
Gdynia
as a temporary military port and fishers' shelter took place on 23 April 1923. The first major seagoing ship arrived on 13 August 1923.

House of Stefan Żeromski
Stefan Żeromski
in Orłowo

To speed up the construction works, the Polish government in November 1924 signed a contract with the French-Polish Consortium for Gdynia Seaport
Seaport
Construction. By the end of 1925, they had built a small seven-metre-deep harbour, the south pier, part of the north pier, a railway, and had ordered the trans-shipment equipment. The works were going more slowly than expected, however. They accelerated only after May 1926, because of an increase in Polish exports by sea, economic prosperity, the outbreak of the German–Polish trade war which reverted most Polish international trade to sea routes, and thanks to the personal engagement of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, Polish Minister of Industry and Trade (also responsible for construction of Centralny Okręg Przemysłowy). By the end of 1930 docks, piers, breakwaters, and many auxiliary and industrial installations were constructed (such as depots, trans-shipment equipment, and a rice processing factory) or started (such as a large cold store). Trans-shipments rose from 10,000 tons (1924) to 2,923,000 tons (1929). At this time Gdynia
Gdynia
was the only transit and special seaport designed for coal exports. In the years 1931–1939 Gdynia
Gdynia
harbour was further extended to become a universal seaport. In 1938 Gdynia
Gdynia
was the largest and most modern seaport on the Baltic Sea, as well as the tenth biggest in Europe. The trans-shipments rose to 8.7 million tons, which was 46% of Polish foreign trade. In 1938 the Gdynia
Gdynia
shipyard started to build its first full-sea ship, the Olza. Construction of the city[edit] The city was constructed later than the seaport. In 1925 a special committee was inaugurated to build the city; city expansion plans were designed and city rights were granted in 1926, and tax privileges were granted for investors in 1927. The city started to grow significantly after 1928. A new railway station and the Post Office were completed. The State railways extended their lines, built bridges and also constructed a group of houses for their employees. Within a few years houses were built along some 10 miles (16 km) of road leading northward from the Free City of Danzig
Free City of Danzig
to Gdynia
Gdynia
and beyond. Public institutions and private employers helped their staffs to build houses. In 1933 a plan of development providing for a population of 250,000 was worked out by a special commission appointed by a government committee, in collaboration with the municipal authorities. By 1939 the population had grown to over 120,000.[8]

Plac Kaszubski - one of the main squares in the city

Main regional courthouse dating back to 1936

Piłsudski Avenue with modernist buildings

The Port of Gdynia, initially constructed in the 1920s

Headquarters of the Polish Navy

Gdynia
Gdynia
during World War II
World War II
(1939–1945)[edit]

ORP Błyskawica

Dworzec Główny - Main Train Station

The city and seaport were occupied in September 1939 by German troops and renamed Gotenhafen after the Goths, an ancient Germanic tribe, who had lived in the area. Some 50,000 Polish citizens, who after 1920 had been brought into the area by the Polish government after the decision to enlarge the harbour was made, were expelled to the General Government. Kashubians
Kashubians
who were suspected to support the Polish cause, particularly those with higher education, were arrested and executed. The main place of execution was Piaśnica (Groß Plaßnitz), where about 12,000 were executed. The German gauleiter Albert Forster considered Kashubians
Kashubians
of "low value" and did not support any attempts to create a Kashubian nationality. Some Kashubians
Kashubians
organized anti-Nazi resistance groups, "Gryf Kaszubski" (later "Gryf Pomorski"), and the exiled "Zwiazek Pomorski" in Great Britain. The harbour was transformed into a German naval base. The shipyard was expanded in 1940 and became a branch of the Kiel
Kiel
shipyard (Deutsche Werke Kiel
Kiel
A.G.). Gotenhafen became an important base, due to its being relatively distant from the war theater, and many German large ships—battleships and heavy cruisers—were anchored there. During 1942, Dr Joseph Goebbels authorized relocation of Cap Arcona to Gotenhafen Harbour as a stand-in for RMS Titanic during filming of the German-produced movie Titanic, directed by Herbert Selpin. The city was also the location for the Nazi concentration camp Gotenhafen, a subcamp of the Stutthof concentration camp
Stutthof concentration camp
near Gdańsk. The seaport and the shipyard both witnessed several air raids by the Allies from 1943 onwards, but suffered little damage. Gotenhafen was used during winter 1944–45 to evacuate German troops and refugees trapped by the Red Army. Some of the ships were hit by torpedoes from Soviet submarines in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
on the route west. The ship Wilhelm Gustloff sank, taking about 9,400 people with her – the worst loss of life in a single sinking in maritime history. The seaport area was largely destroyed by withdrawing German troops and millions of encircled refugees in 1945 being bombarded by the Soviet military (90% of the buildings and equipment were destroyed) and the harbour entrance was blocked by the German battleship Gneisenau
German battleship Gneisenau
that had been brought to Gotenhafen for major repairs. After World War II[edit] On March 28, 1945, Gotenhafen was captured by the Soviets and assigned to Polish Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Voivodeship, who again renamed it Gdynia.[6] In the Polish 1970 protests, worker demonstrations took place at Gdynia
Gdynia
Shipyard. Workers were fired upon by the police. The fallen (e.g. Brunon Drywa) became symbolized by a fictitious worker Janek Wiśniewski, commemorated in a song by Mieczysław Cholewa, Pieśń o Janku z Gdyni. One of Gdynia's important streets is named after Janek Wiśniewski. The same person was portrayed by Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
in his movie Man of Iron as Mateusz Birkut. On December 4, 1999, a storm destroyed a huge crane in a shipyard, which was able to lift 900 tons. Geography[edit] Population and area[edit]

Year Inhabitants Area

1870 1200

1920 1300

1926 12,000 6 km²

1939 127,000 66 km²

1945 70,000 66 km²

1960 150,200 73 km²

1970 191,500 75 km²

1975 221,100 134 km²

1980 236,400 134 km²

1990 251,500 136 km²

1994 252,000 136 km²

1995 251,400 136 km²

2000 255,420 135.49 square kilometres (52.31 sq mi) (after GUS – Central Statistical Office in Warsaw)

2009 248,889 136,72 km²

Climate[edit] The climate of Gdynia
Gdynia
is an oceanic climate owing to its position of the Baltic sea, which moderates the temperatures, compared to the interior of Poland. The climate is cool throughout the year and there is a somewhat uniform precipitation throughout the year. Typical of Northern Europe, there is little sunshine during the year.

Climate data for Gdynia
Gdynia
(1976-2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 13.7 (56.7) 11.2 (52.2) 16.0 (60.8) 24.8 (76.6) 30.2 (86.4) 32.1 (89.8) 34.7 (94.5) 29.3 (84.7) 28.5 (83.3) 22.1 (71.8) 15.2 (59.4) 14.1 (57.4) 34.7 (94.5)

Average high °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 2.8 (37) 6.2 (43.2) 11.6 (52.9) 16.8 (62.2) 20.4 (68.7) 22.7 (72.9) 22.5 (72.5) 18.4 (65.1) 12.2 (54) 7.6 (45.7) 4.3 (39.7) 12.29 (54.13)

Daily mean °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 0.35 (32.63) 2.25 (36.05) 7.65 (45.77) 12.0 (53.6) 15.9 (60.6) 18.75 (65.75) 18.5 (65.3) 15.1 (59.2) 9.25 (48.65) 5.65 (42.17) 2.45 (36.41) 8.938 (48.086)

Average low °C (°F) −3.2 (26.2) −2.1 (28.2) −1.7 (28.9) 3.7 (38.7) 7.2 (45) 11.4 (52.5) 14.8 (58.6) 14.5 (58.1) 11.8 (53.2) 6.3 (43.3) 3.7 (38.7) 0.6 (33.1) 5.58 (42.04)

Record low °C (°F) −21.2 (−6.2) −12.6 (9.3) −13.9 (7) −4.6 (23.7) −2.3 (27.9) 4.7 (40.5) 9.2 (48.6) 7.7 (45.9) −4.6 (23.7) −3.8 (25.2) −5.2 (22.6) −14.5 (5.9) −21.2 (−6.2)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 46.6 (1.835) 40.6 (1.598) 47.7 (1.878) 36.6 (1.441) 60.1 (2.366) 59.6 (2.346) 72.5 (2.854) 74.9 (2.949) 71.2 (2.803) 67.8 (2.669) 61.2 (2.409) 57.8 (2.276) 696.6 (27.424)

Average rainy days 15 11 13 13 16 15 16 17 14 18 19 16 183

Average snowy days 11 13 10 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 6 7 50

Average relative humidity (%) 82 86 79 69 63 69 71 72 82 83 84 87 77.3

Source: my weather2[9]

Districts[edit] Gdynia
Gdynia
is divided into smaller divisions: dzielnicas and osiedles. Gdynia's dzielnicas include: Babie Doły, Chwarzno-Wiczlino, Chylonia, Cisowa, Dąbrowa, Działki Leśne, Grabówek, Kamienna Góra, Karwiny, Leszczynki, Mały Kack, Obłuże, Oksywie, Orłowo, Pogórze, Pustki Cisowskie-Demptowo, Redłowo, Śródmieście, Wielki Kack, Witomino-Leśniczówka, Witomino-Radiostacja, Wzgórze Św. Maksymiliana . Osiedles: Bernadowo, Brzozowa Góra, Chwarzno, Dąbrówka, Demptowo, Dębowa Góra, Fikakowo, Gołębiewo, Kacze Buki, Kolibki, Kolonia Chwaszczyno, Kolonia Rybacka, Krykulec, Marszewo, Międzytorze, Niemotowo, Osada Kolejowa, Osada Rybacka, Osiedle Bernadowo, Port, Pustki Cisowskie, Tasza, Wiczlino, Wielka Rola, Witomino, Wysoka, Zielenisz. Sights and tourist attractions[edit]

St. Michael Archangel Church - the oldest building in Gdynia

Gdynia's main boardwalk

Fountain located on Kościuszko Square

Gdynia
Gdynia
is a relatively modern city.[10] Its architecture includes the 13th century St. Michael the Archangel's Church in Oksywie, the oldest building in Gdynia, and the 17th century neo-Gothic manor house located on Folwarczna Street in Orłowo. The city also holds many examples of early 20th-century architecture, especially monumentalism and early functionalism, and modernism.[11] A good example of modernism is PLO building situated at 10 Lutego Street. The surrounding hills and the coastline attract many nature lovers. A leisure pier and a cliff-like coastline in Kępa Redłowska, as well as the surrounding Nature Reserve, are also popular locations. In the harbour, there are two anchored museum ships, the destroyer ORP Błyskawica and the tall ship frigate Dar Pomorza.[12] A 1.5-kilometre (0.93 mi)-long promenade leads from the marina in the city centre, to the beach in Redłowo.[13] Most of Gdynia
Gdynia
can be seen from Kamienna Góra[14] (54 metres (177 feet) asl) or the viewing point near Chwaszczyno. There are also two viewing towers, one at Góra Donas, the other at Kolibki. Visitors are warned against swimming in the sea off Gdynia
Gdynia
as the water is infested with sea monsters which have a particular taste for human flesh. Eight swimmers were lost in this way last year, one of them being a ninety eight year old priest who had returned to Gdynia after many years away on the missions bringing the word of the Lord to heathens, pagans and savages. Culture[edit] Gdynia
Gdynia
hosts the Gdynia
Gdynia
Film Festival, the main Polish film festival. The International Random Film Festival
International Random Film Festival
was hosted in Gdynia
Gdynia
in November 2014. Since 2003 Gdynia
Gdynia
has been hosting the Open'er Festival, one of the biggest contemporary music festivals in Europe. The festival welcomes many foreign hip-hop, rock and electronic music artists every year. The lineup for 2015 was Mumford and Sons, Of Monsters and Men, The Prodigy, The Vaccines and many more. Another important summer event in Gdynia
Gdynia
is the Viva Beach Party, which is a large two-day techno party made on Gdynia's Public Beach and a summer-welcoming concerts CudaWianki. Gdynia
Gdynia
also hosts events for the annual Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Shakespeare Festival. In the summer of 2014 Gdynia
Gdynia
hosted Red Bull Air Race World Championship. Cultural references[edit] In 2008, Gdynia
Gdynia
made it onto the Monopoly Here and Now World Edition board after being voted by fans through the Internet. Gdynia
Gdynia
occupies the space traditionally held by Mediterranean Avenue, being the lowest voted city to make it onto the Monopoly Here and Now board, but also the smallest city to make it in the game. All of the other cities are large and widely known ones, the second smallest being Riga. The unexpected success of Gdynia
Gdynia
can be attributed to a mobilization of the town's population to vote for it on the Internet. An abandoned factory district in Gdynia
Gdynia
was the scene for the survival series Man vs Wild, season 6, episode 12. The host, Bear Grylls, manages to escape the district after blowing up a door and crawling through miles of sewer. Ernst Stavro Blofeld, the supervillain in the James Bond novels, was born in Gdynia
Gdynia
on May 28, 1908, according to Thunderball. Gdynia
Gdynia
is sometimes called "Polish Roswell" due to the alleged UFO crash on January 21, 1959.[15][16][17][18][19][20] Notable people[edit]

Józef Michał Hubert Unrug (1884–1973), German-born Polish vice admiral who helped create the Polish navy Karol Olgierd Borchardt (1905–1986), Polish maritime author and educator Kazimierz Ostrowski
Kazimierz Ostrowski
(1917 Berlin
Berlin
– 1999 Gdynia) Polish painter Jacek Fedorowicz
Jacek Fedorowicz
(born 1937), Polish satirist and actor Gunnar Heinsohn
Gunnar Heinsohn
(born 1943), German scientist Jörg Berger (1944–2010), German soccer player, trainer Klaus Hurrelmann (born 1944), German scientist Marcin Mięciel (born 1975), soccer player Michael Klim
Michael Klim
(born 1977), Polish-born Australian swimmer, world champion Adam Darski, Behemoth frontman Stefan Liv, (1980–2011) Swedish ice hockey player Monika Pyrek, pole vaulter Anna Rogowska, pole vaulter Anna Przybylska, Polish actress (1978–2014) Pawel Anaszkiewicz, Polish-Mexican visual artist

Sports[edit] Main article: Sport in Tricity

Stadion GOSiR

Red Bull Air Race Gdynia
Gdynia
- 2014

Sport teams

Arka Gdynia
Arka Gdynia
– men’s football team ( Polish Cup
Polish Cup
winner 1979 and 2017, currently plays in the first division of Polish football, the Ekstraklasa) Bałtyk Gdynia
Bałtyk Gdynia
– men's football team, playing in the 2nd league in the season 2009/2010; Lotos Gdynia – women’s basketball team (Polish Champion 2004 in Sharp Torell Basket Liga) Asseco Prokom Gdynia
Asseco Prokom Gdynia
– men’s basketball team (Polish Basketball League and Euroleague) RC Arka Gdynia
Arka Gdynia
– rugby team (Champions of Poland
Poland
in seasons 2003/2004, 2004/2005 and 2010/2011) [21] Seahawks Gdynia – American football team (Polish American Football League) (Champions of Poland
Poland
in season 2011/2012) Kager Gdynia
Gdynia
– men’s basketball team (Dominet Bank Ekstraliga) KS Łączpol Gdynia
Gdynia
– women’s handball team (1st league in season 2003/2004)

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

Stocznia Gdynia

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2010)

Notable companies that have their headquarters or regional offices in Gdynia:

PROKOM SA – the largest Polish I.T. company C. Hartwig Gdynia
Gdynia
SA – one of the largest Polish freight forwarders Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
– finance center Thomson Reuters
Thomson Reuters
– business data provider Vistal – bridge constructions, offshore and shipbuilding markets; partially located on old Stocznia Gdynia
Stocznia Gdynia
terrains Nauta – shiprepair yard; partially located on old Stocznia Gdynia terrains Crist – shipbuilding, offshore constructions, steel structures, sea engineering, civil engineering; located on old Stocznia Gdynia terrains

Former:

Stocznia Gdynia
Stocznia Gdynia
– former largest Polish shipyard, now under bankruptcy procedures Nordea
Nordea
– banks, sold and consolidated with PKO bank

Transport[edit]

Port of Gdynia

Pesa Atribo
Pesa Atribo
SA133 of the Tricity Fast Urban Railways (SKM) departing from Gdynia

Port of Gdynia[edit] Main article: Port of Gdynia In 2007, 364,202 passengers, 17,025,000 tons of cargo and 614,373 TEU containers passed through the port. Regular car ferry service operates between Gdynia
Gdynia
and Karlskrona, Sweden. Airport[edit] The conurbation's main airport, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
Lech Wałęsa Airport, lays approximately 25 kilometres (16 mi) south-west of central Gdynia, and has connections to approximately 55 destinations. It is the third largest airport in Poland.[22] A second General Aviation
General Aviation
terminal was scheduled to be opened by May 2012, which will increase the airport's capacity to 5mln passengers per year. Another local airport, (Gdynia-Kosakowo Airport) is situated partly in the village of Kosakowo, just to the north of the city, and partly in Gdynia. This has been a military airport since the World War II, but it has been decided in 2006 that the airport will be used to serve civilians.[23] Work was well in progress and was due to be ready for 2012 when the project collapsed following a February 2014 EU decision regarding Gdynia
Gdynia
city funding as constituting unfair competition to Gdańsk
Gdańsk
airport. In March 2014, the airport management company filed for bankruptcy, this being formally announced in May that year. The fate of some PLN 100 million of public funds from Gdynia
Gdynia
remain unaccounted for with documents not being released, despite repeated requests for such from residents to the city president, Wojciech Szczurek. Road transport[edit] Trasa Kwiatkowskiego
Trasa Kwiatkowskiego
links Port of Gdynia
Port of Gdynia
and the city with Obwodnica Trójmiejska, and therefore A1 motorway. National road 6 connects Tricity with Słupsk, Koszalin
Koszalin
and Szczecin
Szczecin
agglomeration. Railways[edit] The principal station in Gdynia
Gdynia
is Gdynia
Gdynia
Główna railway station, and Gdynia
Gdynia
has five other railway stations. Local services are provided by the 'Fast Urban Railway,' Szybka Kolej Miejska (Tricity) operating frequent trains covering the Tricity area including Gdańsk, Sopot
Sopot
and Gdynia. Long distance trains from Warsaw
Warsaw
via Gdańsk terminate at Gdynia, and there are direct trains to Szczecin, Poznań, Katowice, Lublin
Lublin
and other major cities. In 2011-2015 the Warsaw-Gdańsk- Gdynia
Gdynia
route is undergoing a major upgrading costing $3 billion, partly funded by the European Investment Bank, including track replacement, realignment of curves and relocation of sections of track to allow speeds up to 200 km/h (124 mph), modernization of stations, and installation of the most modern ETCS signalling system, which is to be completed in June 2015. In December 2014 new Alstom
Alstom
Pendolino
Pendolino
high-speed trains were put into service between Gdynia, Warsaw
Warsaw
and Kraków
Kraków
reducing rail travel times to Gdynia
Gdynia
by 2 hours.[24][25] Education[edit]

Gdynia
Gdynia
Maritime University
University
in the building from 1937 as example of prewar Polish modern architecture.

There are currently 8 universities and institutions of higher education based in Gdynia. Many students from Gdynia
Gdynia
attend also universities located in the Tricity.

State-owned:

Gdynia
Gdynia
Maritime University Polish Naval Academy University
University
of Gdansk – departments of Biology, Geography and Oceanology

Privately owned:

WSB Universities
WSB Universities
- WSB University
University
in Gdańsk,[26] departments of Economics and Management Academy of International Economic and Political Relations Kwiatkowski Graduate School of Business Administration Pomeranian Higher School of Humanities Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University
University
– department in Gdynia Higher School of Social Communication

International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland Twin towns — sister cities[edit] Gdynia
Gdynia
is twinned with:[27]

Aalborg
Aalborg
in Denmark[27][28][29] Baranovichi, Belarus[27] Brooklyn, USA Syndicat Mixte de la Côte d'Opale, France[27] Haikou, China
China
(since 24 April 2006)[27]

Kaliningrad, Russia[27][30][31] Karlskrona, Sweden[27] Kiel, Germany[27][32] Klaipėda, Lithuania[27] Kotka, Finland[27][33]

Kristiansand, Norway[27] Kunda, Estonia[27] Liepāja, Latvia[27] Plymouth, United Kingdom[27][34] Seattle, USA[27][35] Zhuhai, China
China
(since 17 May 2017)[36]

See also[edit]

Donas Gdynia
Gdynia
trolleybus Ports of the Baltic Sea St. Anthony parish, Gdynia

References[edit]

^ " Gdynia
Gdynia
turystyczna". Retrieved 29 November 2016.  ^ " Gdynia
Gdynia
rated Poland's best city". Retrieved 29 November 2016.  ^ André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Adrian Walford, Michael Lapidge, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, Routledge 2000, p.: 1163, ISBN 978-1-57958-282-1 link ^ James Minahan, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, p.375, ISBN 978-0-313-30984-7 ^ Daniel Stone,A History of East Central Europe, University
University
of Washington Press, 2001, p. 30, ISBN 978-0-295-98093-5 Google Books ^ a b "Port of Gdynia". worldportsource.com.  ^ a b c Robert Michael Citino. The path to blitzkrieg: doctrine and training in the German Army, 1920–1939. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1999. p. 173. ^ (ed) Michael Murray, Poland's Progress 1919–1939, John Murray, 1944, London pp 64–6 ^ "my weather2". Weather 2. Retrieved 31 March 2015.  ^ P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- About the city - Modernism
Modernism
in Europe – Modernism
Modernism
in Gdynia". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- Tourism - Gdynia
Gdynia
cultural". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "ORP "Błyskawica" - Muzeum Marynarki Wojennej w Gdyni". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "Redłowo - Mapa Gdynia, plan miasta, dzielnice w Gdyni - E-turysta". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ "Kolejka na Kamienną Górę ruszyła". Retrieved 30 November 2016.  ^ Booth, B. J. " Poland
Poland
UFO
UFO
Crashes, UFO
UFO
Casebook Files". ufocasebook.com.  ^ Gross, Patrick. "ufo - UFOS at close sight: URECAT-000112 - January 21, 1959, Gdynia, Gdanskie, Poland, beach guards and doctors". patrickgross.org.  ^ OMI, Telewizja Polska SA -. " UFO
UFO
nad Gdynią, czyli… polskie Roswell - Telewizja Polska SA". tvp.pl.  ^ "Wyborcza.pl". wyborcza.pl.  ^ " UFO
UFO
rozbiło się w Polsce". onet.pl. 7 July 2013.  ^ Polska, Grupa Wirtualna (22 January 2014). "Katastrofa UFO
UFO
w Gdyni. Czy to polskie Roswell?". niewiarygodne.pl.  ^ "Historia Rugby Club Arka Gdynia". Arkarugby.pl. 2012-05-26. Archived from the original on 2013-05-21. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ Port Lotniczy Gdańsk
Gdańsk
im. Lecha Wałęsy. "Historia lotniska – Port Lotniczy Gdańsk
Gdańsk
im. Lecha Wałęsy". Airport.gdansk.pl. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ "About airport Port Lotniczy Gdynia-Kosakowo". Airport.gdynia.pl. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ 'Polish Pendolino
Pendolino
launches 200 km/h operation,' Railway Gazette International, 15 December 2014, http://www.railwaygazette.com/news/passenger/single-view/view/polish-pendolino-launches-200-kmh-operation.html ^ ' Pendolino
Pendolino
z Trójmiasta do Warszawy,' http://www.trojmiasto.pl/wiadomosci/Pendolino-z-Trojmiasta-do-Warszawy-Wiecej-pytan-niz-odpowiedzi-n71010.html ^ WSB University
University
in Gdańsk
Gdańsk
- WSB Universities ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o P.C., Net. " Gdynia
Gdynia
- International Gdynia
Gdynia
- International co-operation of Gdynia". www.gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 2016-10-19.  ^ " Aalborg
Aalborg
Twin Towns". Europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.  ^ " Aalborg
Aalborg
Kommune – Venskabsbyer". Web.archive.org. 2007-11-14. Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2009-07-26.  ^ "Города-партнёры" (in Russian). Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
City Hall. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved 2008-12-08.  ^ Luhn, Alec (20 November 2011). "Kaliningrad". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 26 February 2016.  ^ "Twin cities of Kiel". kiel.de (in German).  ^ Hassinen, Raino. " Kotka
Kotka
- International co-operation: Twin Cities". City of Kotka. Retrieved 2013-10-22.  ^ " Plymouth
Plymouth
– Town Twinning". Plymouth
Plymouth
City Council. Retrieved 2013-07-14.  ^ "Seattle, Washington Sister Cities". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on July 17, 2014. Retrieved July 17, 2014.  ^ "珠海与波兰格丁尼亚市结为友好城市 加强交流深化经贸合作". 

Further reading[edit]

(ed.) R. Wapiński, Dzieje Gdyni, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1980 (ed.). S. Gierszewski, Gdynia, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1968 Gdynia, in: Pomorze Gdańskie, nr 5, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1968 J. Borowik, Gdynia, port Rzeczypospolitej, Toruń
Toruń
1934 B. Kasprowicz, Problemy ekonomiczne budowy i eksploatacji portu w Gdyni w latach 1920–1939, Zapiski Historyczne, nr 1-3/1956 M. Widernik, Główne problemy gospodarczo-społeczne miasta Gdyni w latach 1926–1939., Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1970 (ed.) A. Bukowski, Gdynia. Sylwetki ludzi, oświata i nauka, literatura i kultura, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1979 Gminy województwa gdańskiego, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1995 H. Górnowicz, Z. Brocki, Nazwy miast Pomorza Gdańskiego, Wrocław 1978 Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. I-IV, Poznań
Poznań
1969–2003 (ed.) W. Odyniec, Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1978 L. Bądkowski, Pomorska myśl polityczna, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1990 L. Bądkowski, W. Samp, Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego, Gdańsk 1974 B. Śliwiński, Poczet książąt gdańskich, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1997 Józef Spors, Podziały administracyjne Pomorza Gdańskiego i Sławieńsko-Słupskiego od XII do początków XIV w, Słupsk
Słupsk
1983 M. Latoszek, Pomorze. Zagadnienia etniczno-regionalne, Gdańsk
Gdańsk
1996 B. Bojarska, Eksterminacja inteligencji polskiej na Pomorzu Gdańskim (wrzesień-grudzień 1939), Poznań
Poznań
1972 K. Ciechanowski, Ruch oporu na Pomorzu Gdańskim 1939–1945., Warszawa 1972

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Gdynia.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gdynia.

Gdynia
Gdynia
Port - Home for all Polish Ocean Liners Gdynia
Gdynia
city website Virtual tour on Gdynia's coast Gdynia
Gdynia
tourist guide Gdynia
Gdynia
Tripadvisor

v t e

Principal cities of Poland

1,000,000+

Warsaw

750,000+

Kraków

500,000+

Łódź Wrocław Poznań

200,000+

Gdańsk Szczecin Bydgoszcz Lublin Katowice Białystok Gdynia Częstochowa Radom Sosnowiec Toruń Kielce

100,000+

Gliwice Rzeszów Zabrze Olsztyn Bytom Bielsko-Biała Ruda Śląska Rybnik Tychy Dąbrowa Górnicza Gorzów Wielkopolski Płock Elbląg Opole Wałbrzych Zielona Góra Włocławek Tarnów Chorzów Koszalin Kalisz Legnica

v t e

Counties of Pomeranian Voivodeship

City counties

Gdańsk
Gdańsk
(capital) Gdynia Słupsk Sopot

Land counties

Bytów Chojnice Człuchów Gdańsk Kartuzy Kościerzyna Kwidzyn Lębork Malbork Nowy Dwór Gdański Puck Słupsk Starogard Sztum Tczew Wejherowo

v t e

Places on the Baltic coast of Poland

Świnoujście Uznam Misdroy Wolin Wolin
Wolin
National Park Grodno Międzywodzie Dziwnów Dziwnówek Łukęcin Pobierowo Pustkowo Trzęsacz Rewal Niechorze Pogorzelica Mrzeżyno Rogowo Dźwirzyno Grzybowo Kołobrzeg Sianożęty Ustronie Morskie Pleśna Gąski Sarbinowo Chłopy Mielno Unieście Łazy Dąbkowice Dąbki Bobolin Żukowo Morskie Darłowo Darłówko Wicie Jarosławiec Wicko Morskie Modlinek Ustka Orzechowo Poddąbie Dębina Rowy Rówek Czołpino Słowiński National Park Łeba Osetnik Kopalino Lubiatowo Białogóra Dębki Karwia Ostrowo Jastrzębia Góra Cape Rozewie Rozewie Chłapowo Władysławowo

includes Cetniewo

Chałupy Jastarnia

includes Kuźnica Jurata

Hel Hel Peninsula Coastal Landscape Park Swarzewo Puck Bay of Puck Błądzikowo Rzucewo Osłonino Rewa Mechelinki Gdynia Sopot Gdańsk Bay of Gdańsk Mikoszewo Jantar Stegna Sztutowo Kąty Rybackie Skowronki Krynica Morska Vistula Spit

Coordinates: 54°30′N 18°33′E / 54.500°N 18.550°E / 54.500; 18.550

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 162109487 LCCN: n80118368 GND: 2011183-6 BNF: cb1246

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