Gazeta Wyborcza (Polish pronunciation: [ɡaˈzɛta
vɨˈbɔrtʂa]; meaning Electoral Newspaper in English) is a newspaper
published in Warsaw, Poland. It covers the gamut of political,
international and general news from a liberal perspective.
1 History and profile
2.1 Rywin affair
4 Contributing journalists
6 Web presence
7 See also
9 External links
History and profile
Gazeta Wyborcza was first published on 8 May 1989, under the
rhyming masthead motto, "Nie ma wolności bez Solidarności" ("There's
no freedom without Solidarity"). The founders were Andrzej Wajda,
Aleksander Paszyński and Zbigniew Bujak. Its founding was an
outcome of the
Polish Round Table Agreement
Polish Round Table Agreement between the communist
government of the People's Republic of
Poland and political opponents
centered on the Solidarity movement. It was initially owned by Agora
Cox Communications partially bought the daily. The
company became American Company "Cox Enterprises" in 1993.
The paper was to serve as the voice of Solidarity during the run-up to
semi-free elections held on 4 June 1989 (hence its title). As such, it
was the first legal newspaper published outside the communist
government's control since its founding in the late 1940s.
The paper's editor-in-chief, since its founding, has been Adam
Michnik. He was appointed to the post by Lech Wałęsa. The
paper is published in compact format.
According to the editors, the first edition was small (150,000 copies)
and relatively expensive due to the limited supplies of paper
available from the state. A year and a half later, the daily run had
reached 500,000 copies. In September 1990, during the acrimonious
breakup of the Solidarity camp following the collapse of the communist
government, Wałęsa revoked the paper's right to use the Solidarity
logo on its masthead.
Gazeta Wyborcza has been a fully independent newspaper
which generally supports liberal values. The paper is a multi-section
daily newspaper, and it publishes daily local editions for the
following cities: Warsaw, Białystok, Bydgoszcz, Częstochowa,
Gdańsk, Gorzów Wielkopolski, Katowice, Kraków, Kielce, Lublin,
Łódź, Olsztyn, Opole, Płock, Poznań, Radom, Rzeszów, Szczecin,
Toruń, Wrocław, and Zielona Góra.
Gazeta Wyborcza had a circulation of 432,000 copies during the first
three quarters of 1998. The circulation of the paper was 459,473
copies between January and February 2001. Its circulation was
542,000 copies in 2003, making it the second best selling newspaper in
the country. The 2004 circulation of the paper was 516,000 copies
on weekdays and 686,000 copies on weekends. The average circulation
of the newspaper was peaked at 672,000 and it was the largest-selling
newspaper in Poland, but by 2010, the circulation had declined by more
than half, to 319,000, and Fakt overtook
Gazeta Wyborcza as Poland's
leading newspaper. The decline continued in 2013 when circulation was
down to 190,000 with a commensurate decrease in advertising
Gazeta Wyborcza head office in Warsaw, Czerska Street
Main article: Rywin affair
In 2003, Lew Rywin, a prominent Polish film producer, was accused by
Gazeta Wyborcza of attempted bribery when he allegedly solicited a
bribe of $17.5 million from editor
Adam Michnik in exchange for
amendments to a media bill. The adoption of the bill in its original
form proposed by the government would have prevented Agora S.A. from
buying Polsat, one of Polish private TV stations. This case, called
the Rywin affair, led to the establishment of an investigation
commission by the Polish Parliament. Consequently,
Lew Rywin was
sentenced for attempting to influence the parliamentary legislative
process in a way that would enable a Polish media company to buy a
television station. Furthermore, the controversial draft act was
rejected by the Polish Parliament.
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Gazeta Wyborcza has been criticized for distorted coverage of
controversial issues such as post-communist vetting, Polish-Jewish
relations and the Polish minority in Lithuania. It has also
received criticism for using its influence to whitewash former
communists, particularly General Jaruzelski. After the fall of
communism, the paper was criticized for taking part in an "intensive
propaganda campaign" and particularly for rigorously trying to revamp
Tomasz Bielecki (Brussels)
Martin Mycielski (Brussels)
Bartosz T. Wieliński
Gazeta Praca (classified job advertisements, salary lists, Mondays),
Gazeta Sport (Mondays), Komunikaty (properties classifieds, Tuesdays),
Gazeta Dom (building and furnishing, Wednesdays), Duży Format
(reportages, Thursdays), Gazeta Telewizyjna (TV programmes, Fridays),
Gazeta Co Jest Grane (cinema and theatre repertoires, film and book
reviews, music events, Fridays), Gazeta Turystyka (travelling extra,
Saturdays) and Wysokie Obcasy, Wysokie Obcasy Extra (women's
extra, Saturdays, since April 1999).
The online edition of
Gazeta Wyborcza is one of the sections of the
portal Gazeta.pl. The paid electronic version of the newspaper is an
option. The website wyborcza.pl has been expanded through rankings of
articles which are most frequently read and commented on. It presents
Polish and global history on most notable covers of Gazeta Wyborcza.
Beside analogue sections from the paper edition, the website also
provides a feedback section which allows the readers to contact the
editorial staff and express opinions).
The paper's website links to Gazeta's journalists' blogs, including
the ones by: Ewa Milewicz, Dominika Wielowieyska, Jan Turnau, Bartosz
Węglarczyk and Wojciech Orliński. The number of journalists who
write blogs is constantly increasing.
Michnikowszczyzna. Zapis choroby
List of newspapers in Poland
^ a b c "The press in Poland". BBC. 29 April 2004. Retrieved 10
^ a b Andrzej Adamski. "Press market in
Poland A.D. 2010" (PDF). CeON
Repository. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
^ a b "Poland". Press Reference. Retrieved 6 October 2013.
^ "Polish Dissident Adam Michnik: 'We Are Bastards of Communism'". Der
Spiegel (31). 29 July 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
^ Ryszard Filas; Pawe Paneta (2009). "Media in
Poland and Public
Discourse". In Andrea Czepek et. al. Press Freedom and Pluralism in
Europe. Bristol: Intellect. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
^ Everete E. Dennis; Jon Vanden Heuvel (October 1990). "Emerging
Voices: East European Media in Transition. A Gannett Foundation
Report" (Report). Ganet Foundation. Retrieved 28 November 2014.
^ a b "World Press Trends" (PDF). World Association of Newspapers.
Paris. 2004. Retrieved 15 February 2015.
^ a b "Selected Financial Data" (PDF). Agora Holding. Retrieved 7
^ "Polish national dailies - circulation and sales". OBP. Archived
from the original on 4 March 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
^ Wirtualne Media
^ Radek Sikorski. Lack of solidarity - Poland's political problems.
National Review, 18 October 1993.
^ Voytek Zubek. (1994). The Reassertion of the Left in Post-Communist
Poland. Europe-Asia Studies, 46 (5), p. 818.
^ Jan Puhl (18 February 2010). "'Turbo-Emancipation': Polish Women
Enjoy Post-Communist Success". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 10 November
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