Gautrain
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Gautrain is an
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Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Sotho language, Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Southern Ndebele language, Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. The name in Sotho-T ...
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South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital cities ...

South Africa
, which links
Johannesburg Johannesburg (, also ; ; and xh, eGoli ), informally known as Jozi, Joburg, or "The City of Gold", is the largest city in , classified as a , and is . According to , the Johannesburg-Pretoria urban area (combined because of strong transpor ...

Johannesburg
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Pretoria Pretoria is one of South Africa’s three Capital city, capital cities, serving as the seat of the executive branch of government, and as the host to all foreign embassies to South Africa. Cape Town is the legislature, legislative capital wher ...

Pretoria
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Ekurhuleni The City of Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality is a Metropolitan municipality (South Africa), metropolitan municipality that forms the local government of the East Rand region of Gauteng Province, Gauteng, South Africa. The municipality itself i ...
and
O.R. Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park ...
. It takes 15 minutes to travel from
Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province, South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the ...
to O.R. Tambo International Airport on the Gautrain and 35 minutes from Pretoria in City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Tshwane to Johannesburg Park Station, Park Station in Johannesburg. The Gautrain has 10 stations. Buses, shuttles and midibus services are available to transport passengers to and from all stations excluding the O.R. Tambo International Airport Station.


Background

The Gautrain is mainly aimed at providing and optimising an integrated, innovative public transport system that enables and promotes the long-term sustainable economic growth of
Gauteng Gauteng ( ; tn, Gauteng; Sotho language, Northern and Southern Sotho: ; zu, eGoli; ts, Gauteng/; Southern Ndebele language, Ndebele, xh, iRhawuti; nr, I-Gauteng; ve, Gauteng) is one of the nine provinces of South Africa. The name in Sotho-T ...
. It is also part of a broader vision to industrialise and modernise the region, including a commitment towards creating and sustaining an integrated culture of public transport use. The Gautrain is implemented as a Public–private partnership, public–private partnership (PPP) in terms of National Treasury (South Africa), Treasury Regulation 16 of the Public Finance Management Act (PFMA). The Gauteng Provincial Government (GPG) is the public partner and the primary promoter of the Project. The Concessionaire is the Bombela Concession Company (Pty) Ltd, which holds a 19½ year concession for the construction, operation and maintenance of the Gautrain. As a PPP, the Gautrain has two main entities responsible for keeping its wheels rolling. These are the GPG through the GMA and the Bombela Concession Company (BCC). BCC is responsible in terms of the Concession Agreement (CA) for the design, build and part-finance of the Gautrain. The concession also includes the operations of the Gautrain and the Concessionaire is responsible for delivering all the services as defined in the CA to specified levels of performance. These include the services related to the train and buses, safety, stations, revenue collection, marketing and passenger communication. The Concessionaire also takes responsibility for the management and maintenance of all the System assets. It does so in accordance with international good practice and its own corporate governance regime. It is a private, Ringfencing, ring-fenced company with three shareholders: *Murray & Roberts is a construction company listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange that operates in Southern Africa, Middle East, Southeast Asia, Australasia and North and South America; * SPG Concessions is a Broad-Based Black Economic Empowerment company represented in all of the Concessionaire sub-contracts; * J&J Group is a South African broad-based investment holding and management company.


Lines in operation

, there are three Gautrain lines in operation.


History

The project was announced in 2000, before South Africa won the rights to host the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The Gauteng Department of Transport obtained environmental authorisation and conducted an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for this purpose. Authorisation was granted on 25 April 2004. On 7 December 2005 the South African government gave the go-ahead for the project, expected to cost more than 24 billion South African Rand, Rand. In February 2006, Finance Minister Trevor Manuel announced the allocation of R7.1 billion from the National Treasury, Fiscus for Gautrain. On 16 February 2006 then Gauteng Premier Mbhazima Shilowa announced that the Gauteng Province had reached commercial close with the Bombela Consortium, the preferred bidder, and that negotiations to reach financial close commenced. In 2006 the Province signed a 20‑year Public-private partnership, PPP contract with the Bombela Concession Company, which included Murray & Roberts, empowerment organisation Strategic Partners Group, Bombardier Transportation, Bombardier, Bouygues, and various minority shareholders. Construction started on 28 September 2006, and investors, developers, small businesses, and entrepreneurs are starting new ventures such as office blocks, shopping malls, entertainment, and residential developments along Gautrain's network. The demand for land as well as property prices in these areas increased dramatically.


Construction

The rail system was built by Bombela Concession Company, a partnership between Bombardier Transportation, Bouygues, Murray & Roberts, the Strategic Partners Group and RATP Group, the J&J Group, and Absa Group, Absa Bank. Initial civil works for the Gautrain started in May 2006 and construction commenced after the signing of the Concession Agreement between the GPG and the Bombela Concession Company on 28 September 2006. The main civils contractor was Murray & Roberts. The project was constructed simultaneously in two phases. The first phase involved the section between
O.R. Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park ...
,
Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province, South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the ...
and Midrand (Gautrain station), Midrand, the second the remainder. The construction of the first phase was scheduled to take 45 months, the second was for 54 months, with completion in 2010 and 2011.
File:South Africa-Gautrain-Construction002.jpg, Viaduct support pilons, Midrand in November 2007 File:South Africa-Gautrain-Construction004.jpg, Viaduct in Spartan in September 2008 File:GautrainTambo3.JPG, Viaduct at
O.R. Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park ...
in April 2009 File:Gautrain-Midrand station-001.jpg, Construction at Midrand (Gautrain station), Midrand station in May 2010


Construction technology

By the end of May 2008, nearly a third of tunnelling was completed, and excavation of the tunnels was completed on 11 September 2009. A mixed-face Earth Pressure Balance Shield Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) was designed and built in Germany by Herrenknecht specifically to cope with complex underground conditions and was the first such machine employed in South Africa. The TBM, named ''Imbokodo'' (meaning "rock"), installs pre-cast concrete tunnel lining segments behind it as it moves forward. It leaves behind a watertight and smooth lining to the 6.8 m (22 ft 4 in) diameter tunnel.


Opening to passenger traffic

The first public passenger trip was made on 3 February 2009 by 150 people on a 3 km (2 mi) test track at the depot. The first part of the System, between Sandton and OR Tambo International Airport, opened to the public on 8 June 2010, in time for the 2010 FIFA World Cup. The route from Rosebank (Gautrain station), Rosebank to Pretoria railway station, Pretoria and Hatfield (Gautrain station), Hatfield commenced operations on 2 August 2011, while the remaining section from Rosebank South to Johannesburg Park Station opened on 7 June 2012, due to higher than anticipated underground water ingress into the railway tunnel. For the first time ever since its opening to the public in 2010, the Gautrain system had been put to halt since 27 March 2020 as part of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, lockdown measures taken by the South African government during the COVID-19 pandemic. Passenger services have started to progressively resume on 4 May 2020.


Specifications

Total route length - (including underground)
Off-peak frequency – 1 train per 20 min
Peak frequency – 1 train per 10 min


Tracks

Although the national railway network in South Africa uses the 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) Cape gauge, Gautrain is built with the more expensive international standard gauge of 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in). According to the Gautrain planning and implementation study, this is done for several reasons, including that broader gauge is safer and more comfortable to passengers. The rolling stock is also easier, quicker and less expensive to obtain than Cape gauge rolling stock, and is also less expensive to maintain, as it is more tolerant of track imperfections than Cape Gauge. The 1435 mm gauge allows for travel at Gautrain's required speed of 160 km/h (99 mph). The overhead line voltage is 25 kV AC railway electrification, 25 kV alternating current (AC) as is standard in many countries. Although increased flexibility could be obtained by keeping the system interoperable with the South African railway system, a strong case exists for keeping Gautrain separate from the existing network. According to the Gautrain planning and implementation study, an interoperable network may impact service delivery, increase the operating cost and tarnish Gautrain's image.


Network

The rail network is 80 kilometres long and is connected to other forms of public transport like taxis, buses and the Metrorail (South Africa), Metrorail public train system. Commuters can also use several Gautrain buses and midibuses to destinations within a 15 kilometre radius. Travelling at up to 160 kilometres per hour, Gautrain takes 35 minutes to travel between Johannesburg and Pretoria. From Sandton to the O.R. Tambo International Airport takes 15 minutes, and provision has been made for air passengers to remotely check in at Sandton Station in future. Fares on the Johannesburg/Pretoria route vary according to the peak, shoulder peak and off-peak times, depending on distance. The fare on the Gautrain Bus Link for a rail user varies from is R9 during peak and R2 during off-peak times; for the midibuses, the fare is a standard R10 per trip. The method of payment on Gautrain buses uses the same personalized electronic ticket as for train travel, requiring a minimum balance of R20.00 for boarding a bus. To board the midibuses, tickets are bought at the midibus counter at the station. Special discounts apply on the purchase of weekly and monthly passes as well as the use of the train during off-peak periods. Tickets can only be purchased at stations and selected retail outlets and not on any bus. Commuters can now use contactless bank cards to tag in and out of the Gautrain Stations.


Stations

Security cameras are operational and security guards patrol all the stations and parking areas. Only passengers who have an electronic ticket have access to Gautrain's stations and the parking areas. Motorists can travel to the stations and leave their cars at the safe parking bays that are next to the train stations. Parking at the stations costs R24 a day for a rail user, however if a passenger does not remove their vehicle within an hour after arriving at the station, they will be charged R100. Car rental offices are also planned at stations. Ten stations are in operation: * Hatfield, Pretoria, Hatfield (at grade) * Pretoria railway station, Pretoria (at grade) * Centurion, Gauteng, Centurion (elevated) * Midrand (Gautrain station), Midrand (at grade) * Marlboro (Gautrain station), Marlboro (at grade) *
Sandton Sandton is an affluent area in the Gauteng Province, South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over Demographics of South Africa, 59 million people, it is the ...
(underground) * Rosebank (Gautrain station), Rosebank (underground) * Johannesburg Park Station, Park Station (underground) * Rhodesfield (Gautrain station), Rhodesfield (elevated) *
O.R. Tambo International Airport O. R. Tambo International Airport is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park ...
(elevated) Various South African and international engineering disciplines and engineering firms collaborated in the design of the system as a whole. Midrand, Centurion and Pretoria stations were designed by Terry Farrell (architect), Terry Farrell of England. Each platform is 160 metres in length. Marlboro, Rhodesfield and OR Tambo International Airport Station's internal fitout and platform envelope were designed by Jaco Groenewald and GAJV team. The OR Tambo International Airport Station envelope was designed by Izi Martinez during the OR Tambo International Airport upgrade. Rosebank and Johannesburg Park stations were designed by Atkins - Urban Edge architects joint venture.


Ticketing

A cash-free ticketing system and the use of reloadable smart cards, the Gautrain Card makes travelling on the Gautrain quick and convenient. Passengers can buy their Gautrain Cards at any Gautrain Station as well as approved service outlets. Europay, Mastercard and Visa Inc, Visa contactless cards are also usable on Gautrain.


Rolling stock

The Bombardier Electrostar, a model of train common in South East England, was selected for the system. Fifteen cars were manufactured and were assembled by Bombardier's Derby Litchurch Lane Works in England, with the remaining cars assembled by the Union Carriage & Wagon in South Africa using structural components made in England. Gautrain has 24 trains, each made up with four cars: 19 trains service the commuter network and five the airport link; the latter consists of forward rail cars specially adapted for the airport link; with storage area for luggage and more luxurious seating. On 8 July 2008 the first train was handed over to the Gauteng Premier, Mbhazima Shilowa, in a ceremony in Derby. The last was delivered in December 2010. There are currently plans for the acquisition of additional trains. In 2019, Gautrain investigated purchasing some second-hand Electrostars from England. The project entails the development of new depot facilities and the upgrading of the existing Gautrain signaling system. The additional train project is expected to have a significant and positive socio-economic impact in the Province as the Gauteng Provincial Government will insist on at least 65 percent local content by the successful bidder.


Criticism

Much of the criticism is that money is being spent on the rich at the expense of the poor. Critics contend that it does not serve any of the townships of Gauteng where the transport problem is severe and where the majority of the people live. However, supporters maintain that the train was never meant to be an alternative to mass public transport; instead, it was intended to reduce pressure on Johannesburg's overloaded highway system. Figures released by the Gauteng provincial government in 2003 indicated that the project would do little to relieve traffic on the over-used Ben Schoeman Freeway, Ben Schoeman Highway (one of the major motivations for the project), as traffic volumes would be higher when the Gautrain was completed and operating at full capacity in 2010. Leftist political groupings like the SACP and labour movements like COSATU branded the Gautrain as a ''train for the rich'' and called on government not to proceed with the project. A national parliamentary oversight body, the Transport Portfolio Committee, held public hearings in November 2005 and subsequently advised Cabinet to scrap or postpone the project. However, National Cabinet decided on 7 December 2005 to financially support Gautrain.


Ridership

Critics have questioned ridership estimates, stating that government officials almost always overestimate ridership to gain political approval for projects, and cite numerous international examples where similar projects operate at massive losses or were aborted. However, by October 2010, passenger numbers were in line with previous predictions, and growing. Within 100 days of opening the first phase of the system for the public, 1 million passengers were recorded. As of February 2013, passenger volume was around 40 000 per day by train and 12 000 by bus. This is lower than expected in terms of passenger numbers, but this is partially offset by a longer average trip length (50 km vs the expected 30 km). Peak volumes are higher than expected, though, which can be addressed by adding more coaches during peak times, and reducing the headway between trains from 12 to 10 minutes ahead of the intended 2015 schedule. Tolling on Gauteng highways is also expected to lead to higher passenger numbers.


Alternative transportation projects

Critics pointed out that the project would use the majority of available national and provincial transport funds in a context where massive amounts were needed to deal with widespread traffic congestion and commuter transport problems nationally and in the province. The existing railway system in the province, under national rather than provincial control, which serves the majority of the population, was severely underfunded and large-scale and violent public unrest caused by inadequate and old trains had manifested in the province. Critics alleged that options like rapid bus transit could achieve similar levels of service at a fraction of the costs, however, the estimated 62,000 daily riders requires a capacity unfeasible by BRT. These matters were never submitted to a public debate as the project was designed and launched within the confines of the Gauteng Government bureaucracy.


Environmental issues

The environmental benefits of the project are also disputed and the environmental impact assessment (EIA) revealed that Gautrain would at best be environmentally neutral. South Africa uses coal-based electricity generation and the electricity required for Gautrain would come from outside the Gauteng region. The pollution associated with the generation of this electricity would therefore effectively be exported to the Mpumalanga region, an area already under severe strain from air pollution. According to th
Gautrain's website
the Gautrain has half the carbon footprint versus a motor vehicle. In November 2005 Dunkeld community in Johannesburg decided to contest the alignment in its suburb. Legal action launched by the Muckleneuk / Lukasrand Property Owners and Residents Association (MLPORA) in 2004 (Case No. 28192/04) and an urgent application launched by MLPORA in 2006 went before the High Court of South Africa on 1 August 2006. MLPORA ''inter alia'' opposed the original environmental authorisation granted and the legality of the procedures being followed to approve variant alignments proposed by Bombela. In Pretoria the Gautrain skirts the inner city and cuts through the city's second oldest suburb (Muckleneuk) and high-density residential areas and the middle of the city's educational precinct on its way to Hatfield. The alignment as proposed would result in the prevention of the future development of the cities' education precinct, an urban district with the potential to become a space of national significance. Legal action was also brought by AECI in January 2006 which had not yet gone before court. Approximately 10% of the route traverses AECI-owned land. A dispute with the Centurion Association for a Reasonable Environment (WeCARE) was settled in favour of WeCARE in March 2006. Further legal challenges were expected. Critics question the growth and job creation benefits that the project will bring. The EIA for the project determined that it is a poorly performing public sector investment project. The project sponsors have been silent on the social benefits that could be gained from alternative public sector investment programmes. On 29 January 2006 the draft environmental reports on possible variant routes were released for public comment, without prior warning, with 30 days to comment on them. The variant alignment proposals are primarily cost-cutting measures proposed by the concessionaire, Bombela. Acceptance of these proposals will lower overall project costs and raise their profits. The released draft EIA reports were compiled by experts without public participation and are being fast tracked through the system by the Gauteng Government. Environmental management plans (EMPs) have already been compiled for these route variants. In law EMPs are meant to mitigate environmental impacts identified in consultation with affected parties. The decision to approve the released EIAs and EMPs vests with the sphere of government that is bringing the project application, namely the Gauteng Government. The process followed raised serious questions regarding the audi alteram principle and the protection of the environmental rights of the public. The thirty-day window is, critics believe, not enough time to make a comprehensive response to the highly technical draft environmental reports. The proposed route variants were in Hatfield, Pretoria, Hatfield, Centurion, South Africa, Centurion, Salvokop, Marlboro, Gauteng, Marlboro and Sandton.


Cost

The project is the largest and costliest transport infrastructure project ever proposed by the provincial government but was never discussed in the Gauteng Provincial Legislature or submitted to any significant public debate before it was approved and put out to tender. Initial cost estimates came in at some R3.5 - 4 billion in 2000 when the project was announced by Premier Shilowa. This figure was revised upwards to R 7 billion for the purposes of the EIA process in 2003 and was finally revealed as being R20 billion (US$3.7 billion) in 2005, after the successful bidder for the project was announced and a contract came into existence. National and provincial government will contribute R20 billion in equal proportions and Bombela will contribute the balance of direct project costs. Loan funding will constitute a large part of these amounts but the financing costs involved have not been stated. The sunk costs for the project will be more than R20 billion. In March 2008, Jeremy Cronin, chairman of the National Assembly of South Africa, National Assembly's transport portfolio committee and deputy secretary-general of the South African Communist Party, SACP, complained that the cost had apparently quietly crept up to R35 billion. Cronin has long opposed the project and told the SA Parliament's lower house during a budget debate that his information was that the project's cost was escalating “quietly and below the radar screen”, though MPs “were told, hand on heart, here in Parliament just a few years ago, what the written-in-stone absolute upper limit was [R20 billion]". The Gautrain management agency CEO, Jack van der Merwe, has subsequently denied this, stating that the project is a fixed-price, fixed-scope and fixed-period contract, and that the price will only increase if the consumer price index increased above the South African Reserve Bank, South African Reserve Bank's prediction, if the Gauteng Province were in breach of contract, or if the project's scope were to change.


Cost Estimates and Timeline


Notes and references


External links


Official Gautrain WebsiteGautrain Environmental Impact AssessmentGautrain Variant EIA investigations 2005/6Official Bombardier website
{{Urban rail transit in Africa Gautrain, Transport operators of South Africa Rapid transit in South Africa RATP Group Transport in Johannesburg Transport in Pretoria Railway companies of South Africa Railway lines opened in 2010 Standard gauge railways in South Africa Regional rail South African brands 2010 establishments in South Africa