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The Garonne
Garonne
(French: Garonne, IPA: [ɡaʁɔn]; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Latin: Garumna[1] or Garunna) is a river in southwest France
France
and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres (374 mi). It flows into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at Bordeaux.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Geography

2.1 Sources 2.2 Course 2.3 Towns along the river

3 Main tributaries 4 Navigation 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Etymology[edit] The name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". Geography[edit] Sources[edit]

150º Panorama of the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
from the Beret Plateau, showing the Ruda-Garona and Beret-Garona confluence. In Vielha
Vielha
the Garonne
Garonne
turns westward (out of sight), and after 12 kilometres (7 mi) receives water from the Joèu (Pic Aneto).

The Main Lake of Saboredo and Pic de Saboredo, the head of the Garonne valley.

The water from Barrancs and Escaleta ravines disappears into the ground at Forau de Aigualluts.

The Garonne's headwaters are to be found in the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
in the Spanish Pyrenees, though three different locations have been proposed as the true source: the Uelh deth Garona at Plan de Beret (42°42′34″N 0°56′43″E / 42.709494°N 0.945398°E / 42.709494; 0.945398), the Ratera-Saboredo cirque 42°36′26″N 0°57′56″E / 42.607295°N 0.965424°E / 42.607295; 0.965424), or the slopes of Pic Aneto
Aneto
(Salterillo-Barrancs ravine 42°38′59″N 0°40′06″E / 42.6498°N 0.6683°E / 42.6498; 0.6683 according to the season). The Uelh deth Garona at 1,862 metres (6,109 ft) above sea level has been traditionally considered as the source of the Garonne. From this point a brook (called the Beret-Garona) runs for 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) until the bed of the main upper Garonne
Garonne
valley. The river runs for another 38 kilometres (24 mi) until the French border at Pont de Rei, 40.5 kilometres (25.2 mi) in total. The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the head of the upper Garonne
Garonne
valley, and its upper lake at 2,600 metres (8,500 ft) above sea level is the origin of the Ruda-Garona river, running for 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) until the confluence with the Beret-Garona brook, and another 38 kilometres (24 mi) until the French border at Pont del Rei, 54 kilometres (34 mi) in total. At the confluence, the Ruda-Garona carries 2.6 cubic metres per second (92 cu ft/s) of water.[2][3] The Ratera-Saboredo cirque has been pointed by many researchers as the origin of the Garonne.[4][5][6][6][7] The third thesis holds that the river rises on the slopes of Pic Aneto at 2,300 metres (7,500 ft) above sea level and flows by way of a sinkhole known as the Forau de Aigualluts
Forau de Aigualluts
(42°40′00″N 0°40′01″E / 42.6666°N 0.6669°E / 42.6666; 0.6669) through the limestone of the Tuca Blanca de Pomèro and a resurgence in the Val dera Artiga above the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
in the Spanish Pyrenees.[8] This underground route was suggested by the geologist Ramond de Carbonnières in 1787, but there was no confirmation until 1931, when caver Norbert Casteret
Norbert Casteret
poured fluorescein dye into the flow and noted its emergence a few hours later 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) away at Uelhs deth Joèu ("Jove's eyes" 42°40′51″N 0°42′28″E / 42.68092°N 0.7077°E / 42.68092; 0.7077) in the Artiga de Lin on the other side of the mountain.[9][10][11] From Aigualluts to the confluence with the main river at the bed of the upper Garonne
Garonne
valley at 800 metres (2,600 ft) above sea level, the Joèu has run for 12.4 kilometres (7.7 mi) (16 kilometres more to get to the French border), carrying 2.16 cubic metres per second (76 cu ft/s) of water, while the main river is carrying 17.7 cubic metres per second (630 cu ft/s).[2][3][12] Despite the lack of universal agreement upon definition for determining a stream's source, the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, and the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
agree that a stream's source should be considered as the most distant point (along watercourses from the river mouth) in the drainage basin from which water runs.[13][14][15][16][17] The Ratera-Saboredo cirque is the "most distant point (along watercourses from the river mouth) in the drainage basin from which water runs",[18][19] and the source of the Garonne, according to the United States Geological Survey, the National Geographic Society, and the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
convention upon determining a stream's source. Course[edit] The Garonne
Garonne
follows the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
northwards into France, flowing via Toulouse
Toulouse
and Agen
Agen
towards Bordeaux, where it meets the Gironde estuary. The Gironde
Gironde
flows into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
(Bay of Biscay). Along its course, the Garonne
Garonne
is joined by three other major rivers: the Ariège, the Tarn, and the Lot. Just after Bordeaux, the Garonne meets the Dordogne at the Bec d'Ambès, forming the Gironde
Gironde
estuary, which after approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) empties into the Atlantic Ocean. Other tributaries include the Save and the Gers. The Garonne
Garonne
is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore.[20][21][22] Surfers and jet skiers could ride the tidal bore at least as far as the village of Cambes, 120 kilometres or 75 miles from the Atlantic, and even further upstream to Cadillac, although the tidal bore appears and disappears in response to changes in the channel bathymetry. In 2010 and 2012, some detailed field studies were conducted in the Garonne's Arcins channel between Arcins Island and the right bank close to Lastrene township.[20] A striking feature of the field data sets was the large and rapid fluctuations in turbulent velocities and turbulent stresses during the tidal bore and flood flow.[21][22][23] Towns along the river[edit]

The Garonne
Garonne
at Toulouse.

Aran Valley
Aran Valley
(Spain): Vielha, Bossòst Haute-Garonne
Haute-Garonne
(31): Saint-Gaudens, Muret, Toulouse Tarn-et-Garonne
Tarn-et-Garonne
(82): Castelsarrasin Lot-et-Garonne
Lot-et-Garonne
(47): Agen, Marmande, Aiguillon Gironde
Gironde
(33): Langon, Bordeaux

Main tributaries[edit] Following the flow of the river:

Pique Ourse Neste Salat Volp Arize Louge Ariège Touch Save Gimone Hers-Mort Tarn Arrats Gers Baïse Lot Dropt Ciron Gat mort Devèze Jalle de Blanquefort

Navigation[edit] The Garonne
Garonne
plays an important role in inland shipping. The river not only allows seagoing vessels to reach the port of Bordeaux
Bordeaux
but also forms part of the Canal des Deux Mers, linking the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

Ocean going vessels may navigate as far inland as Bordeaux
Bordeaux
on the Garonne

From the ocean, ships pass through the Gironde estuary
Gironde estuary
up to the mouth of the Garonne
Garonne
(to the right of the Dordogne when sailing upstream). Ships continue on the tidal river Garonne
Garonne
up to the Pont de Pierre (stone bridge) in Bordeaux. Inland vessels continue upstream to Castets-en-Dorthe, where the Canal de Garonne
Garonne
joins the river. Prior to the building of the Canal lateral à la Garonne, between 1838 and 1856, shallow-draught boats used the Garonne
Garonne
itself as far as Toulouse. However, navigation on the upper river was very uncertain, and this stretch of the river is no longer considered navigable. Instead the lateral canal takes boats through 53 locks to the town of Toulouse, where the canal meets the Canal du Midi.[24] See also[edit]

List of rivers of Europe

References[edit]

^ Smith, William (1850). A new classical dictionary of Greek and Roman biography, mythology, and geography. London: John Murray. p. 492. OCLC 223027795.  ^ a b "3". oph.chebro.es. Archived from the original on 2012-03-14.  ^ a b [1] ^ Salvador Rivas-Martínez (member of the Spanish Royal Academy of Sciences); Manuel Costa (Professor of the Universitat de Valencia) (1998). "Datos sobre la vegetación y bioclima del Valle de Arán". Acta Bot. Barcinon. 45: 473–499.  ^ Soler i Santaló; La Vall d'Aran. Guía monográfica de la comarca; pág. 12. Barcelona, 1916. ^ a b Faura i Sans (M.); Sobre hidrología subterránea en los Pirineos Centrales de Aragón y Cataluña. Bol. de la Real Soc. de Hist. Nat, vom. XVI, pgs. 353-354. Madrid, 1916. ^ Boletín del Centro Excursionista de Cataluña ^ Reynolds, Kev (2001). Walks and Climbs in the Pyrenees. Milnthorpe, England: Cicerone Press. p. 208. ISBN 1-85284-328-4.  ^ Casteret, Norbert (1939). Ten Years Under the Earth. Mussey, Barrows (trans). London: J. M. Dent.  ^ Mapa topogràfic de Catalunya 1:100 000 (Map) (1st ed.). Institut Cartogràfic de Catalunya. § 1: Pirineu occidental.  ^ Lambert, Roger (1996). "A propos de la Garonne
Garonne
Supérieure". Géographie du cycle de l'eau (in French). Toulouse: Presses Universitaires du Mirail. p. 351. ISBN 978-2-85816-273-4. prouvant péremptoirement que la Garonne
Garonne
a sa vrai source et la plus importante dans les Monts Maudits, sur le versant Sud des Pyrénées ('proving conclusively that the Garonne
Garonne
has its true source, and the most important, in the Monts Maudits, on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees')  ^ [2] ^ "Largest Rivers in the United States" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 24 October 2009.  ^ National Geographic News @ nationalgeographic.com ^ The True Utmost Reaches of the Missouri ^ "IBGE - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". Archived from the original on 2008-09-28.  ^ Quest for the Missouri River
River
Source, John LaRandeau, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers ^ Instituto Geográfico Nacional; Ministerio de FOmento. "Visor cartográfico del Instituto Geográfico Nacional". Instituto Geográfico Nacional de España. Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ s - Géoportail, le portail des territoires et des citoyens. "IGN France
France
Cartes Topographie". Retrieved 10 November 2012.  ^ a b Chanson, H., Lubin, P., Simon, B., and Reungoat, D. (2010). Turbulence and Sediment Processes in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne River: First Observations. Hydraulic Model Report No. CH79/10, School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 97 pages. ISBN 978-1-74272-010-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Simon, B., Lubin, P., Reungoat, D., Chanson, H. (2011). Turbulence Measurements in the Garonne
Garonne
River
River
Tidal Bore: First Observations. Proc. 34th IAHR World Congress, Brisbane, Australia, 26 June-1 July, Engineers Australia Publication, Eric Valentine, Colin Apelt, James Ball, Hubert Chanson, Ron Cox, Rob Ettema, George Kuczera, Martin Lambert, Bruce Melville and Jane Sargison Editors. pp. 1141–1148. ISBN 978-0-85825-868-6. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b Chanson, Hubert; Reungoat, David; Simon, Bruno; Lubin, Pierre (December 2011). "High-frequency turbulence and suspended sediment concentration measurements in the Garonne
Garonne
River
River
tidal bore". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 95 (2-3): 298–306. Bibcode:2011ECSS...95..298C. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2011.09.012.  ^ Reungoat, D., Chanson, H., Caplain, B. (2012). "Field Measurements in the Tidal Bore of the Garonne
Garonne
River
River
at Arcins (June 2012)". Hydraulic Model Report No. CH89/12, School of Civil Engineering, the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 121 pages. ISBN 9781742720616. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Rolt, L. T. C. (1973). From Sea to Sea: An Illustrated History of the Canal du Midi. Grenoble, France: Euromapping. pp. 19–40. ISBN 978-2-910185-02-2. 

External links[edit]

Garonne
Garonne
and Gironde estuary
Gironde estuary
detailed information on places, ports and moorings on the canal, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, Imray Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals (French waterways website section History and real-time water heights of Garonne
Garonne
river and main tributaries

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244096008 GND: 408667

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