The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic:
Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Ukrainian:
Галицько-Волинське князівство, Russian:
Галицко-Волынское княжество, Polish:
Królestwo Galicji-Wołyn, Slovak: Kráľovstvo Halíčsko-Volinské,
Latin: Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of
Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Ukrainian:
Королівство Русі, Latin: Regnum Russiae) since 1253,
was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day
western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the
Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White
Roman the Great
Roman the Great united the principalities of Halych
Volhynia into a state that existed from 1199 to 1349.
Along with Novgorod and Vladimir-Suzdal, it was one of the three most
important powers to emerge from the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
After the enormous destruction wreaked by the
Mongol invasion of Rus'
in 1239 to 1241, Prince
Danylo Romanovych was forced to pledge
Batu Khan of the
Golden Horde in 1246. He strove to rid
his realm of the
Mongol yoke, however, by a formal orientation to
Western Europe (coronation as a "Rex Rusiae" by a papal legate in
1253) and by trying unsuccessfully to establish military alliances
with other European rulers. The Polish conquest of the kingdom in
1349 ended its vassalage to the Golden Horde.
Volhynia extended between the rivers San and Wieprz
in what is now south-eastern Poland, while eastern territories covered
Pripet Marshes (now in Belarus) and upper
Southern Bug in
modern-day Ukraine. During its time, the kingdom was bordered by Black
Rus', the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Principality of Turov-Pinsk,
the Principality of Kiev, the Golden Horde, the Kingdom of Hungary,
the Kingdom of Poland, the Principality of
Moldova and the Monastic
State of the Teutonic Knights.
1.1 Tribal area
1.2 Rise and apogee
1.3 Decline and fall
2 Historical role
3.1 Temporary division
5 See also
8 Further reading
9 External links
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the area was populated by Slav
people, identified with groups called Buzhans,
Dulebes and Croats. The
southwestern edge of the land was probably part of the Great Moravian
state. In 907, Galician Croats and Dulebs were involved in the
military campaign against Constantinople led by Rus' Prince Oleg of
Novgorod. This is the first significant evidence of the
political affiliation of native tribes. Around 970, the eastern edge
of this territory was probably included into the
Piast dynasty state.
The area was mentioned in 981 (by Nestor), when
Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great of
Kievan Rus' took over on his way into Poland. He founded the city of
Volodimir (Volynskii) and later Christianized the locals. In the 12th
Rurikid Principality of
Halych was formed there by
descendants of Vladimir the Great. It merged at the end of the 12th
century with the neighboring
Principality of Volhynia
Principality of Volhynia into the
principality of Galicia–Volhynia, which existed with some breaks for
a century and a half.
Rise and apogee
Saint Pantaleon Church, Shevchenkove,
Halych Raion, 1194
Volhynia and Galicia had originally been two separate Rurikid
principalities, assigned on a rotating basis to younger members of the
Kievan dynasty. The line of Prince
Roman the Great
Roman the Great of
Volhynia had held the principality of Volhynia, while the
Yaroslav Osmomysl held the Principality of
adopted as Galicia). Galicia–
Volhynia was created following the
death in 1198 or 1199 (and without a recognized heir in the
paternal line) of the last Prince of Galicia, Vladimir II Yaroslavich;
Roman acquired the Principality of Galicia and united his lands into
one state. Roman's successors would mostly use
Halych (Galicia) as the
designation of their combined kingdom. In Roman's time
Galicia–Volhynia's principal cities were
Volodymyr-in-Volhynia. In 1204 he captured Kiev. Roman was allied with
Poland, signed a peace treaty with
Hungary and developed diplomatic
relations with the Byzantine Empire. At the height of his reign he
briefly became the most powerful of the Rus' princes. He married
the niece of the Byzantine emperor Alexios III, for whom Galicia was
the main military ally against the Cumans. The relation with Byzantium
helped to stabilize Galicia's relations with the Russian population of
the Lower Dniester and the Lower Danube.
In 1205 Roman turned against his Polish allies, leading to a conflict
Leszek the White
Leszek the White and Konrad of Masovia. Roman was subsequently
killed in the
Battle of Zawichost
Battle of Zawichost (1205), and his dominion entered a
period of rebellion and chaos. Thus weakened, Galicia–Volhynia
became an arena of rivalry between
Poland and Hungary. King Andrew II
Hungary styled himself rex Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ,
Latin for "king
of Galicia and Vladimir [in-Volhynia]", a title that later was adopted
in the Habsburg Empire. In a compromise agreement made in 1214 between
Hungary and Poland, the throne of Galicia–
Volhynia was given to
Andrew's son, Coloman of Lodomeria, who had married Leszek the White's
Historical map of Kievan Rus', 1220-1240
In 1221, Mstislav Mstislavich, son of Mstislav Rostislavich, liberated
Volhynia from the Hungarians, but it was Daniel Romanovych
(Daniel I of Galicia or
Danylo Romanovych or Danylo Halytskyi), son of
Roman, who formed a real union of
Volhynia and Galicia. In 1239 and
1242 he captured Kiev, attempting to become the Grand Prince of all
Rus', but he lost the city the first time after a few weeks, the
second after a year. Danylo defeated the Polish and Hungarian forces
in the battle of Yaroslav (Jarosław) and crushed their ally Rostislav
Mikhailovich, son of the prince of Chernigov, in 1245. He also
strengthened his relations with
Batu Khan by traveling to his capital
Saray (Sarai) and acknowledging, at least nominally, the supremacy of
Mongol Golden Horde. After meeting with Batu Khan, Danylo
reorganized his army along
Mongol lines and equipped it with Mongolian
weapons, although Danylo himself maintained the traditional attire of
a Rus' prince. Danylo's alliance with the Mongols was merely tactical;
he pursued a long-term strategy of resistance to the Mongols.
Innocent IV allowed Danylo to be crowned king. Danylo
wanted more than recognition, commenting bitterly that he expected an
army when he received the crown. Although Danylo promised to
promote recognition of the
Pope to his people, his realm continued to
be ecclesiastically independent from Rome. Thus, Danylo was the only
member of the
Rurik dynasty to have been crowned king.[citation
needed] Danylo was crowned by the papal legate Opizo de Mezzano in
Dorohochyn 1253 as the first King of all Rus' (Rex Russiae;
1253–1264). In 1256 Danylo succeeded in driving the Mongols out of
Volhynia, and a year later he defeated their attempts to capture the
Lutsk and Volodymyr-Volynskyi. Upon the approach of a
large army under the Mongolian general
Boroldai in 1260, however,
Danylo was forced to accept their authority and to raze the
fortifications he had built against them.
Under Danylo's reign, Galicia–
Volhynia was one of the most powerful
states in east central Europe. Literature flourished, producing
the Galician–Volhynian Chronicle. Demographic growth was enhanced by
immigration from the west and the south, including Germans and
Armenians. Commerce developed due to trade routes linking the Black
Sea with Poland, Germany, and the Baltic basin. Major cities, which
served as important economic and cultural centers, included Lvov
(where the royal seat would later be moved by Danylo's son),
Vladimir-in-Volhynia, Galich, Kholm (Danylo's capital), Peremyshl,
Drohiczyn, and Terebovlya. Galicia–
Volhynia was important enough
that in 1252 Danylo was able to marry his son Roman to the heiress of
the Austrian Duchy in the vain hope of securing it for his family.
Another son, Shvarn, married a daughter of Mindaugas, Lithuania's
first king, and briefly ruled that land from 1267–1269. At the peak
of its expansion, the Galician–Volhynian state contained not only
south-western Rus' lands, including
Red Rus' and Black Rus', but also
briefly controlled the
Brodnici on the Black Sea.
After Danylo's death in 1264, he was succeeded by his son Lev, who
moved the capital to
Lviv in 1272 and for a time maintained the
strength of Galicia–Volhynia. Unlike his father, who pursued a
Western political course, Lev worked closely with the Mongols, in
particular cultivating a close alliance with the Tatar Khan Nogai.
Together with his
Mongol allies, he invaded Poland. However, although
his troops plundered territory as far west as Racibórz, sending many
captives and much booty back to Galicia, Lev did not ultimately gain
much territory from Poland. Lev also attempted, unsuccessfully, to
establish his family's rule over Lithuania. Soon after his brother
Shvarn ascended to the Lithuanian throne in 1267, he had the former
Vaišvilkas killed. Following Shvarn's loss of the
throne in 1269, Lev entered into conflict with Lithuania. From
1274–76 he fought a war with the new Lithuanian ruler
was defeated, and Lithuania annexed the territory of Black Ruthenia
with its city Navahrudak. In 1279, Lev allied himself with king
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia
Wenceslaus II of Bohemia and invaded Poland, although his attempt to
Kraków in 1280 ended in failure. That same year, Lev defeated
Hungary and annexed part of Transcarpathia, including the city of
Mukachevo. In 1292 he defeated
Poland and added
surrounding areas to the territory of Galicia–Volhynia.
Decline and fall
After Lev's death in 1301, a period of decline ensued. Lev was
succeeded by his son Yuri I, who ruled for only seven years. Although
his reign was largely peaceful and Galicia–
economically, Yuri I lost
Lublin to the Poles in 1302 and
Transcarpathia to the Hungarians. From 1308 until 1323
Volhynia was jointly ruled by Yuri I's sons Andrew and Lev
II, who proclaimed themselves to be the kings of Galicia and Volhynia.
The brothers forged alliances with King Władysław I of
Teutonic Order against the Lithuanians and the Mongols, but the
Kingdom was still tributary to the Mongols and joined the Mongol
military expeditions of
Uzbeg Khan and his successor, Janibeg Khan.
The brothers died together in 1323, in battle, fighting against the
Mongols, and left no heirs.
After the extinction of the
Rurikid dynasty in Galicia–
Volhynia passed into the control of the Lithuanian prince
Liubartas, while the boyars took control over Galicia. They invited
the Polish prince Boleslaw Yuri II, a grandson of Yuri I, to assume
the Galician throne. Boleslaw converted to Orthodoxy and assumed the
name Yuri II. Nevertheless, suspecting him of harboring Catholic
feelings, the boyars poisoned him in 1340 and elected one of their
own, Dmitry Detko, to lead the Galician state. In Winter 1341 Tatars,
Ruthenians led by Detko, and Lithuanians led by
Liubartas were able to
defeat the Poles, although they were not so successful in Summer 1341.
Finally, Detko was forced to accept Polish overlordship, as a starost
of Halych. After Detko's death, Poland's King Casimir III mounted a
successful invasion, capturing and annexing Galicia in 1349.
Volhynia ceased to exist as an independent state.
Danylo's dynasty attempted to gain support from
Pope Benedict XII and
broader European powers for an alliance against the Mongols, but
ultimately proved unable to compete with the rising powers of the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland. Only
in 1349, after the occupation of Galicia–
Volhynia by an allied
Polish-Hungarian force, was the Kingdom of Galicia–
conquered and incorporated in Poland. This ended the vassalage of
Volhynia Rus' to the Golden Horde.
See also: Galicia–
From 1340 to 1392 the civil war in the region transitioned into a
power struggle between Lithuania, Poland, and Hungary. The first stage
of conflict led to the signing of a treaty in 1344 that secured the
Principality of Peremyshl for the Crown of Poland, while the rest of
the territory belonged to a member of the Gediminis family, Liubartas.
Eventually by the mid-14th century, the Kingdom of
Poland and the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania divided up the region between them: King
Casimir III took Galicia and Western Volhynia, while the sister state
Volhynia together with
Kiev came under Lithuanian control,
After 1352 most of the
Ruthenian Voivodeship belonged to the Crown of
the Polish Kingdom, where it remained also after the Union of Lublin
Poland and Lithuania. The present-day town of
situated 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) away from the ancient capital of
Galicia, on the spot where the river port of the old town was located,
and where King
Liubartas of Galicia–
Volhynia constructed a wooden
castle in 1367.
By the treaty of the Union of
Lublin of 1569, all of the former
principality of Galicia–
Volhynia became part of Poland. In 1772,
Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary)
revived the old Hungarian claims to the Kingdom of Galicia and
Lodomeria (Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ), using them to justify the
participation of Austria in the partitions of Poland.
The Galician-Volhynian Chronicle reflected the political programme of
the Romanovich dynasty ruling Galicia–Volhynia. Galicia–Volhynia
competed with other successor states of
Kievan Rus' (notably
Vladimir-Suzdal) to claim the Kievan inheritance. According to the
Galician–Volhynian Chronicle, Galicia–Volhynia's King Daniil was
the last ruler of
Kiev preceding the Mongolian invasion and thus
Galicia–Volhynia's rulers were the only legitimate successors to the
Kievan throne. Until the end of Galician-Volhynian state, its
rulers advanced claims upon "all the land of Rus'." The seal of King
Yuri I contained the
Latin inscription domini georgi regis rusie.
In contrast to their consistent secular or political claims to the
Kievan inheritance, Galicia's rulers were not concerned by religious
succession. This differentiated them from their rivals in
Vladimir-Suzdal, who sought to, and attained, control over the Kievan
Church. Rather than contest Vladimir-Suzal's dominance of the Kievan
Church, Galicia-Volhynia's rulers merely asked for and obtained a
separate Church from Byzantium.
Volhynia also differed from the northern and eastern
principalities of the former
Kievan Rus' in terms of its relationship
with its western neighbors. King Danylo was alternatively an ally or a
rival with neighboring Slavic
Poland and partially Slavic Hungary.
According to historian George Vernadsky, Galicia–Volhynia, Poland
Hungary belonged to the same psychological and cultural world. The
Roman Catholic Church was seen as a neighbor and there was much
intermarriage between the princely houses of Galicia and those of
neighboring Catholic countries. In contrast, the Westerners faced by
Alexander, prince of Novgorod, were the Teutonic Knights, and the
northeastern Rus' experience of the West was that of hostile crusaders
rather than peers.
Volhynia coat of arms
Halych coat of arms
Peremyshl coat of arms
Belz coat of arms
The principality was divided into several appanage duchies and lands.
Principality of Halych
Principality of Peremyshl
Principality of Zvenyhorod
Principality of Trebovlia
Principality of Volhynia
Principality of Lutsk
Principality of Dorohobuzh
Principality of Peresopnytsia
Principality of Belz
Land of Berestia
Black Ruthenia, a fief of
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania after a treaty
Daniel of Galicia
Daniel of Galicia and Vaišvilkas
Principality of Kiev
Principality of Kiev (1230–1240)
Principality of Turow (1230s)
Zakarpattia (1280–1320) ???
2nd half of the 13th century – 1st half of the 14th century
Borders of lands
Royal seal of George I of
Halych (1301–1308) "S[igillum] Domini
Georgi Regis Rusie", "S[igillum] Domini Georgi Ducis Ladimerie".
Prinz Władysław II Opolczyk Governor of Galicia 1372–1378
1199–1205 Roman the Great
1205–1214 political crisis
1205–1206 Euphrosine Angelina (daughter of Isaac II Angelos) as a
regent for Daniel of Galicia
1206–1211 children of Igor Svyatoslavich
1210 Rostislav II of
Kiev (short stint)
1211–1212 Mstislav the Mute as a regent for Daniel of Galicia
1212–1214 Uprising led by a boyar Volodyslav Kormylchych
1214–1232 Hungarian occupation, sons of Andrew II of Hungary
1214–1220 Coloman, son of Andrew (King of Galicia and Lodomeria)
1220 Uprising led by Mstislav the Prosperous
1220–1232 Andrew, son of Andrew
1232–1235 Daniel of Galicia
1235–1238 children of Michael of Chernigov
1238–1264 Daniel of Galicia
1264–1269 Dual power descendants of Daniel
1264–1300 Lev I of Galicia
1300–1308 Yuri I of Galicia
1308–1323 Dual power descendants of Yuri
1308–1323 Lev II of Galicia
1308–1323 Andrew of Galicia
1323–1349 political crisis, de facto ruled by a boyar Dmytro Dedko
1323–1325 Galicia: Volodymyr I of Galicia, Volhynia: Liubartas
1325–1340 Yuri II Boleslav (united as compromise)
1340 occupation of Galicia by Casimir III the Great, start of war
1349 Galicia occupied by
Poland and Hungary,
Volhynia - Lithuania
Part of a series on the
History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Mongol invasion of Rus'
Principality of Moldavia
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Early modern history
Kingdom of Galicia
Ukraine during World War I
Ukraine after the Revolution
Ukrainian Civil War
Ukrainian People's Republic
West Ukrainian People's Republic
Directorate of Ukraine
Communist Party of Ukraine
Ukraine in World War II
Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists
Ukraine gas disputes
Russian military intervention (2014-)
War in Donbass
Topics by history
Name of Ukraine
Christianity in Ukraine
Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
List of Ukrainian rulers
Mongol invasion of Rus'
List of early East Slavic states
List of rulers of Galicia and Volhynia
^ It is also called Galich-Volhyn, Galicia–Volynia, Galicia–Volyn,
and Galich–Volyn, Halych–Volhyn, Halych–Volhynia, or
^ Principality of Galicia-Volhynia.
^ a b Michael B. Zdan - The Dependence of Halych-Volyn' Rus' on the
Golden Horde, The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 35, No. 85
(Jun., 1957), p. 522
Oleg of Novgorod
Oleg of Novgorod History of Russia". historyofrussia.org.
^ Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. —
^ Dimnik, Martin (2003). The Dynasty of Chernigov - 1146-1246.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. (Chronological table
of events) xxviii. ISBN 978-0-521-03981-9.
^ Charles Cawley (2008-05-19). "Russia, Rurikids – Chapter 3:
Princes of Galich B. Princes of Galich 1144-1199". Medieval Lands.
Foundation of Medieval Genealogy. Retrieved 2009-12-26.
^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine, Roman Mstyslavych
^ Alexander V. Maiorov, The Alliance between Byzantium and Rus’
Before the Conquest of Constantinople by the Crusaders in 1204,Russian
History, Volume 42, Issue 3, pages 272 – 303. Publication
Year : 2015
^ Vernadsky, George. (1970). The Mongols and Russia. A History of
Russia, Vol. III. New Haven: Yale University Press pp. 144-149.
^ John Joseph Saunders. (2001). The history of the
Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, p101
^ a b Vernadsky, George. (1970). The Mongols and Russia. A History of
Russia, Vol. III. New Haven: Yale University Press pg. 157.
^ a b "Daniel Romanovich" Archived 2007-08-24 at the Wayback Machine..
Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 23
^ Zdan, Michael B. "The Dependence of Halych-Volyn' Rus' on the Golden
Horde." The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 35, No. 85 (June,
1957), p. 521-522
^ a b c
Jarosław Pelenski. In P. Potichnyj (ed.) (1992).
Russia in their historical encounter. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian
Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, University of Alberta. pp.8-15
Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto
Press. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
Острозький (Хлєбниковський) список
Галицько-Волинський Літопис. Переклад
Список городів руських дальніх і
Ілюстрації з "Chronicon Pictum"
Перелік джерел за "Крип'якевич І.
Галицько-волинське князівство. Київ,
Болеслав-Юрий II, князь всей Малой Руси:
Сборник материалов и
исследований. — Санкт-Петербург,
Андрияшев А. М. Очерки истории
Волынской земли до конца XIV ст. Киев,
Галицкий исторический сборник, 1854,
Греков Б. Д. Древнейшие судьбы
славянства в Прикарпатских. областях
// Вестник АН СССР. 1940. № 11-12.
Греков Б. Д. Крестьяне на Руси. —
Иванов П. А., Исторические судьбы
Волынской земли с древнейших времен
до конца XIV века, Одесса, 1895.
Крип'якевич І. Галицько-волинське
князівство. Київ, 1984.
Коваленко В. Чернігів і Галич у ХІІ —
ХІІІ ст. // Галичина та Волинь у добу
Середньовіччя. — Львів, 2001. — С.154-165.
Котляр М. Ф. Данило
Галицький. — Київ, 1979.
Материалы для истории и этнографии
края. — Волынския губернския
Пашуто В. Т., Очерки по истории
Галицко-ВольІнской Руси. — Москва,
Руссов С. Волынские записки
сочинінные Степаном Руссовым в
Житомире. — Санкт-Петербург, 1809.
Шабульдо Ф. М. Земли Юго-Западной Руси
в составе Великого княжества
Литовского. Киев, "Наукова думка",
1987.[permanent dead link]
Bielowski A. Halickowlodzimierskie księstwo. — Biblioteka
Ossolińskich., t. 4.
Bielowski A. Królewstwo Galicji (o starem księstwie
Halickiem). — Biblioteka Ossolińskich, 1860, t. 1
Gebhard L. A. Geschichte des Konigreiches Galizien, Lodomerien und
Rotreussen. — Pest, 1778;
Engel J. Ch. Geschichte von Halitsch und Vlodimir. — Wien,
Harasiewicz M. Berichtigung der Umrisse zu einer Geschichte der
Ruthenen. — Wien, 1835.
Harasiewicz M. Annales ecclesiae Ruthenae. — Leopoli, 1862.
Hoppe L A. Geschichte des Konigreiches Galizien und
Lodomerien. — Wien, 1792.
Lewicki A. Ruthenische Teilfürstentümer. — In:
Österreichische Monarchie im Wort und Bild Galizien. Wien, 1894.
Siarczyński F. Dzieje księstwa niegdyś Przemyślskiego. —
Czasopism naukowy Biblioteki im. Ossolińskich, 1828, N 2/3;
Siarczyński F. Dzieje niegdyś księstwa Belzkiego i miasta
Belza. — Czasopism naukowy Biblioteki im. Ossolińskich, 1829,
Stecki J. T. Wołyń pod względem statystycznym, historycznym i
archeologicznym. — Lwów, 1864
Zubrzycki D. Rys do historii narodu ruskiego w Galicji i hierarchii
cerkiewnej w temże królewstwie. — Lwów, 1837.
Zubrzycki D. Kronika miasta Lwowa. — Lwów, 1844.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Halych-Volhynia.
Довідник з історії України. За ред. І.
Підкови та Р. Шуста. — Київ: Генеза, 1993.
Ісаєвич Я. Князь і король Данило та
його спадкоємці // Дзеркало тижня. 2001,
Володимир-Волинський у «Галереї
Борис Яценко, «Слово о полку Ігоревім»
та його доба («Slovo o polku Ihorevim» ta joho doba)
Волинська земля у складі
(Volynśka zemľa u skladi Halyćko-Volynśkoho kńazivstva)
За що боролись (Za ščo borolyś)
East Slavic principalities of the pre-