GAZ or Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod (Russian: ГАЗ or
Го́рьковский автомоби́льный заво́д,
lit. 'Gorky Automobile Plant') is a Russian automotive
manufacturer located in Nizhny Novgorod. It started in 1932 as NAZ, a
cooperative enterprise between Ford and the Soviet Union, as a result
of a Five year plan.
GAZ is the core company of
GAZ Group holding, a part of Basic Element
business group. The headquarters of
GAZ Group is located in Nizhny
Russian Machines Corporation is the controlling shareholder
in OAO GAZ.
1.1 Early history
1.2 Postwar period
1.4 Andersson leadership
2 See also
4 External links
See also: Bombing of Gorky in World War II
In May 1929 the
Soviet Union signed an agreement with the Ford Motor
Company. Under its terms, the Soviets agreed to purchase $13
million worth of automobiles and parts, while Ford agreed to give
technical assistance until 1938 to construct an integrated
automobile-manufacturing plant at Nizhny Novgorod. Production started
on 1 January 1932, and the factory and marque was titled Nizhegorodsky
Avtomobilny Zavod, or NAZ, but also displayed the "Ford" sign. GAZ's
first vehicle was the medium-priced Ford Model A, sold as the NAZ-A,
and a light truck, the
Ford Model AA
Ford Model AA (NAZ-AA). NAZ-A production
commenced in 1932 and lasted until 1936, during which time over
100,000 examples were built.
In 1933, the factory's name changed to Gorkovsky Avtomobilny Zavod, or
GAZ, when the city was renamed after Maxim Gorky; similarly, models
were renamed GAZ-A and GAZ-AA. From 1935 to 1956, the official name
was augmented with imeni Molotova (literally, named after Molotov).
The GAZ-A was succeeded by the more modern
GAZ-M1 (based largely on
the four-cylinder version of the Ford Model B), produced from 1936 to
1942. The M letter stands for Molotovets ('of Molotov's fame'), it was
the origin of the car's nickname, M'ka (Эмка).
During the war
Chevrolet G7107 and G7117 (G7107 with
winch) from parts shipped from the USA under Lend Lease.
Experience with the A and the M1 allowed the
GAZ engineers to develop
their own car model independently of Ford. Called the GAZ-11, this
more upscale model entered production in 1942 and remained in limited
wartime production until 1946. The M2's bodyshell entered limited
production in 1941, mounted on a four-wheel drive chassis and sold in
small quantities as the GAZ-61.
GAZ-14, produced 1977-1988
At that time,
GAZ engineers worked to develop an all-new car model to
enter production once hostilities ended. Called the GAZ-M20 Pobeda
(Victory), this affordably-priced sedan with streamlined, fastback
styling, entered production in 1946 and was produced by
1958. (Licensed production under the name Warszawa continued in Polish
FSO until the 1970s). It was the first Soviet car with electric
windshield wipers (rather than mechanical- or vacuum-operated
ones). It also had four-wheel hydraulic brakes. The GAZ-72, a
four-wheel drive version, was produced in low volume.
GAZ also made GAZ-12 ZIM,
GAZ-24 Volga and the luxury cars
GAZ-14 Chaika. The ZIM was the first
GAZ car to feature the
leaping deer hood ornament. The
GAZ-21 made its public debut in
1955, with a three cars on a demonstration drive from Moscow to the
Crimea, two automatic models and a manual. It was launched in 1956
and became a symbol of the whole Soviet epoch. The car offered front
seats able to fold flat and came standard with cigarette lighter
and a radio at a time when most American-built cars did not have a
radio. A small number of Volgas with the 195 hp (145 kW;
198 PS) Chaika engine, automatic transmission, and power steering
were built for the
KGB as the M23, 603 were built in 1962-1970. As
the car's leading engineer Boris Dekhtyar recalled, the new version of
the Volga had improved brake pads and reached a higher top speed of
over 170 km/h; it was well received. The new engine produced 195
h.p. at 4,400 rpm. The production of Chaika started in 1959. Over
the years several modifications of Volga and Chaika were produced.
In the 1960s
GAZ plant renewed its truck range by launching such
models as GAZ-52, GAZ-53А and GAZ-66. In the 1960s and 1970s, the
plant was overhauled and updated; 1962 saw it fitted with the Soviet
Union's first automated precision shop. In 1994 the plant started
GAZelle light commercial vehicles.
gained popularity in Russia. Currently there are over 300
modifications of these vehicles for various applications.
a huge impetus to development of small and medium businesses in
GAZ plant also launched production of the related Valdai
medium-duty truck and the Sobol (sable) light commercial vehicle.
The plant became AvtoGAZ, with the integration of its various
subcontractors, on 24 August 1971; the same year, it was awarded the
Order of Lenin.
GAZ produced its ten millionth vehicle in March 1981. In the late
GAZ was deemed to be the best managed Russian automotive
GAZ Volga Siber, introduced in 2008
In November 2000
GAZ was acquired in a hostile takeover by SibAl.
In March 2003
GAZ declared that the production of passenger cars was
no longer a priority for the company, and plans to release a new
GAZ-3115 model had been abandoned.
GAZ made a move on the LDV company based in Birmingham,
England, and acquired the van maker from the venture capital group Sun
European Partners in July of that year.
GAZ said that they planned to
market the MAXUS (LDV's new Panel-van that was released in January
2005) into the rest of Europe and Asia.
GAZ proposed to increase
production in the LDV plant in England, while also commencing
production of the MAXUS in a new plant in Russia. However, due to the
recession, the production at the LDV plant was halted and the plant
was sold to a Chinese company called ECO Concept in 2009.
As then DaimlerChrysler modernized its
Sterling Heights Assembly plant
in 2006, the old
Chrysler Sebring /
Dodge Stratus assembly line and
tooling was sold to
GAZ and was shipped to
Nizhny Novgorod in
Russia. To produce the vehicle in Nizhny Novgorod,
GAZ built a
modern production facility with a high degree of automation. GAZ
marketed the vehicle with minor design as the
Volga Siber from 2008
until the end of 2010 when it was phased out due to the economic
GAZ car facility is used for contract manufacturing for
Volkswagen and General Motors.
GAZon Next flatbed truck, produced since 2014
In 2009, Bo Andersson, former Vice-President of General Motors, was
appointed President/CEO of
GAZ Group. That was a turning point in the
company’s development after the crisis period of 2008. Under the
leadership of the foreign management the company renewed its model
range, established cooperation with the leading international
manufacturers and achieved the best financial results in the
company’s history.
GAZ upgraded its model range by launching new
GAZelle-BUSINESS lineup with diesel and petrol engines and LPG
equipment. In 2012
GAZ is starting preproduction of the
new-generation light commercial vehicle GAZelle-Next. The new GAZ
model will be launched into mass production in 2013.
In November 2010 the company decided to end production of the Volga
Siber, its last
GAZ passenger car model, and to discontinue the GAZ
Volga range. In December 2010,
GAZ Group signed a memorandum of
understanding with Daimler on contract manufacturing of Mercedes-Benz
GAZ plant in Nizhny Novgorod. It is expected that
production will start in 2013. In June 2012
GAZ Group and Daimler
announced start of implementation of
Mercedes-Benz Sprinter contract
manufacturing project at
GAZ plant, and plans to organize contract
manufacturing of Mercedes engines at
Yaroslavl Motor Plant
Yaroslavl Motor Plant of GAZ
In February 2011,
General Motors and
GAZ Group signed an agreement on
contract assembly of the new
Chevrolet Aveo car at
GAZ plant in Nizhny
Novgorod. As of December 2012, production was underway with an
expected annual production of 30,000 vehicles.
In June 2011,
Volkswagen Group Rus and
GAZ Group signed a long-term
agreement on contract manufacturing at
GAZ plant with total investment
of €200 million. It is planned to produce Škoda Yeti, the new
Volkswagen Jetta and Škoda Octavia. The total production volume in
the peak years will be about 110,000 vehicles. In November 2011, under
the contract manufacturing agreement,
GAZ started SKD assembly of
Škoda Yeti; full-cycle production started in December 2012.
GAZ Group achieved the highest results in the history of the
company in terms of net profit, net profit margin, and revenue per
employee. In 2011 the revenue of the company increased by 37%, EBITDA
– by 49%, and net profit – by 4 times. The company’s revenue in
2011 was $4.1 billion, the company earned $264 million of net profit.
In 2011, Bo Andersson received Automotive Executive of the Year Award
at the International Automotive Forum organized by the Adam Smith
Institute, and was named a Eurostar of automotive industry in the
emerging market category by the Automotive News Europe Magazine for
achievements in model range renewal, establishment of cooperation
GAZ Group and leading international automakers, and positive
financial results of the company in 2010.
Automobile model numbering system in the
Soviet Union and Russia
History of Ford Motor Company
^ "Top Management". Gazglobal.com. Archived from the original on 21
June 2017. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ "ПАО ГАЗ — ОТЧЕТНОСТЬ ПО МСФО". Gazgroup.ru.
Archived from the original on 12 June 2017. Retrieved 8 July
^ a b c Odin, L.C. World in Motion 1939 - The whole of the year's
automobile production. Belvedere Publishing, 2015. ASIN: B00ZLN91ZG.
^ Thompson, p. 52
^ Thompson, p. 53
^ Thompson, p. 68
^ a b Thompson, p. 61
^ Thompson, p. 62
^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC:
McFarland & Coy, 2008), passim.
^ Thompson, pp.120-121
^ Б. А. Дехтяр. "Хвостовые" автомобили
ГАЗ. // Биржа плюс Авто. №36. 13.09.2001. С. 38
Archived 23 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Легковой автомобиль ГАЗ-23.
Инструкция по уходу. Издание второе.
Горький. 1967. С. 114 Archived 3 January 2014 at the Wayback
^ Thompson, p.120
^ Thompson, Andy. Cars of the
Soviet Union (Haynes Publishing,
Somerset, UK, 2008), p.120.
^ Thompson, p.242
^ "Mir on earth". The Economist. 21 August 1997. Archived from the
original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
^ Ireland, R. Duane; Hoskisson, Robert; Hitt, Michael (2005).
Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts and Cases. Cengage Learning.
pp. 143–145. ISBN 032428246X. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
^ Емельянова, Екатерина; Идиатуллин,
Шамиль; Трифонов, Владислав (13 May 2003).
"Время менять автомобиль". Газета
"Коммерсантъ". p. 20. Archived from the original on 30
July 2013. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ Ruddick, Graham (15 October 2009). "LDV Vans bought by China's Qu
Li". London: The Telegraph, 15 October 2009. Archived from the
original on 27 February 2010.
GAZ to buy Sebring/Stratus assembly line from Chrysler".
Just-Auto, 18 April 2006. Archived from the original on 27 September
GAZ Group has started serial production of upgraded
GAZelle-Business" (Press release).
GAZ Group. 25 February 2010.
Archived from the original on 25 September 2011.
^ "Q&A: Bo Andersson Joined
GAZ to Flee Detroit Stardom".
Retrieved 8 July 2017.
^ "Russia: Daimler,
GAZ sign Sprinter assembly MoU". Automotive World,
24 December 2010. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012.
^ "GM to assemble Chevrolets at Russia's
GAZ plant". Reuters, 1
February 2011. 1 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24
^ Andrew E. Kramer (25 December 2012). "Russia's Desire for Cars
Grows, and Foreign Makers Take Notice". The New York Times. Archived
from the original on 26 December 2012. Retrieved 26 December
^ "Skoda Yeti Now Assembled at
GAZ Full Cycle". wroom.ru. 6 December
2012. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 31
Wikimedia Commons has media related to GAZ.
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Official site of the plant
GAZ official website (in English)
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GAZ automotive history (in Russian)(in English)
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1 the company is no longer in the automotive manufacturing business
2 joint ventures
GAZ, a subsidiary of
GAZ Group, car timeline, 1930–1959 — next »
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GAZ Group, car timeline,
GAZ М21 Volga
GAZ M13 Chaika
Coordinates: 56°14′47.20″N 43°53′23.58″E /
56.2464444°N 43.8898833°E / 56.2