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The Furongian is the fourth and final series of the Cambrian. It lasted from 497 to 485.4 million years ago. It succeeds the still unnamed 3rd series of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and precedes the Lower Ordovician Tremadocian stage. It is subdivided into three stages: the Paibian, Jiangshanian and the unnamed 10th stage of the Cambrian.[1]

Contents

1 Naming 2 Definition 3 Subdivisions 4 Biostratigraphy 5 References

Naming[edit] The Furongian was also known as the "Series 4" of the Cambrian
Cambrian
and replaced the older term "Upper Cambrian" and equivalent to the local term "Hunanian". The name "Furongian" was ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in 2003. Furong (芙蓉) means "lotus" in Mandarin and refers to Hunan
Hunan
which is known as the "lotus state".[2] Definition[edit] The lower boundary is defined in the same way as the GSSP
GSSP
of the Paibian stage. Both begin with the first appearance of the trilobite Glyptagnostus reticulatus
Glyptagnostus reticulatus
around 497 million years ago.[3] The upper boundary is the lower boundary and GSSP
GSSP
of the Tremadocian stage which is the first appearance of the conodont Iapetognathus fluctivagus around 485.4 million years ago.[4] Subdivisions[edit] The following table shows the subdivisions of the Furongian series/epoch:[1]

Epoch Stage Age (mya)

Lower Ordovician

Floian 477.7

Tremadocian 485.4

Furongian

Stage 10 489.5

Jiangshanian 494

Paibian 497

Series 3

Guzhangian 500.5

Drumian 504.5

Stage 5 509

Biostratigraphy[edit] The base of two of three stages of the Furongian are defined as the first appearance of a trilobite. The base of the Paibian is the first appearance of Glyptagnostus reticulatus
Glyptagnostus reticulatus
and the base of the Jiangshanian is the first appearance of Agnostotes orientalis.[2][5] The still unnamed Cambrian
Cambrian
Stage 10 might be defined as the first appearance of Lotagnostus americanus or the conodont Eoconodontus notchpeakensis.[6] The Furongian can be divided into a number of trilobite zones:

Series Stage Trilobite
Trilobite
zone Trilobite
Trilobite
GSSP

Furongian Stage 10 Saukia zone (upper part), Eurekia apopsis zone, Tangshanaspis Zone, Parakoldinioidiazone, Symphysurina zone[6] Lotagnostus americanus (undecided)

Jiangshanian Ellipsocephaloides zone, Saukia zone (lower part)[6] Agnostotes orientalis

Paibian ? (?) Glyptagnostus reticulatus

Cedaria

References[edit]

^ a b " GSSP
GSSP
Table - Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era". Geologic Timescale Foundation. Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ a b Peng, Shanchi; Babcock, Loren; Robison, Richard; Lin, Huanling; Rees, Margaret; Saltzman, Matthew (30 November 2004). "Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Furongian Series and Paibian Stage (Cambrian)" (PDF). Lethaia. 37 (4): 365–379. doi:10.1080/00241160410002081. Retrieved 14 September 2012.  ^ " GSSP
GSSP
for the Paibian". Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ " GSSP
GSSP
for the Cambrian
Cambrian
- Ordovician
Ordovician
Boundary". Retrieved 17 November 2012.  ^ " GSSP
GSSP
for Jiangshanian". Retrieved 12 November 2012.  ^ a b c Landing, E.; Westrop, S.R.; Adrain, J.M. (19 September 2011). "The Lawsonian Stage - the Eoconodontus notchpeakensis FAD and HERB carbon isotope excursion define a globally correlatable terminal Cambrian
Cambrian
stage". Bulletin of Geosciences: 621–640. doi:10.3140/bull.geosci.1251. 

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Geologic history of Earth

Cenozoic
Cenozoic
era¹ (present–66.0 Mya)

Quaternary
Quaternary
(present–2.588 Mya)

Holocene
Holocene
(present–11.784 kya) Pleistocene
Pleistocene
(11.784 kya–2.588 Mya)

Neogene
Neogene
(2.588–23.03 Mya)

Pliocene
Pliocene
(2.588–5.333 Mya) Miocene
Miocene
(5.333–23.03 Mya)

Paleogene (23.03–66.0 Mya)

Oligocene
Oligocene
(23.03–33.9 Mya) Eocene
Eocene
(33.9–56.0 Mya) Paleocene
Paleocene
(56.0–66.0 Mya)

Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era¹ (66.0–251.902 Mya)

Cretaceous
Cretaceous
(66.0–145.0 Mya)

Late (66.0–100.5 Mya) Early (100.5–145.0 Mya)

Jurassic
Jurassic
(145.0–201.3 Mya)

Late (145.0–163.5 Mya) Middle (163.5–174.1 Mya) Early (174.1–201.3 Mya)

Triassic
Triassic
(201.3–251.902 Mya)

Late (201.3–237 Mya) Middle (237–247.2 Mya) Early (247.2–251.902 Mya)

Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era¹ (251.902–541.0 Mya)

Permian
Permian
(251.902–298.9 Mya)

Lopingian
Lopingian
(251.902–259.8 Mya) Guadalupian
Guadalupian
(259.8–272.3 Mya) Cisuralian
Cisuralian
(272.3–298.9 Mya)

Carboniferous
Carboniferous
(298.9–358.9 Mya)

Pennsylvanian (298.9–323.2 Mya) Mississippian (323.2–358.9 Mya)

Devonian
Devonian
(358.9–419.2 Mya)

Late (358.9–382.7 Mya) Middle (382.7–393.3 Mya) Early (393.3–419.2 Mya)

Silurian
Silurian
(419.2–443.8 Mya)

Pridoli (419.2–423.0 Mya) Ludlow (423.0–427.4 Mya) Wenlock (427.4–433.4 Mya) Llandovery (433.4–443.8 Mya)

Ordovician
Ordovician
(443.8–485.4 Mya)

Late (443.8–458.4 Mya) Middle (458.4–470.0 Mya) Early (470.0–485.4 Mya)

Cambrian
Cambrian
(485.4–541.0 Mya)

Furongian (485.4–497 Mya) Series 3 (497–509 Mya) Series 2 (509–521 Mya) Terreneuvian
Terreneuvian
(521–541.0 Mya)

Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eon² (541.0 Mya–2.5 Gya)

Neoproterozoic era (541.0 Mya–1 Gya)

Ediacaran
Ediacaran
(541.0-~635 Mya) Cryogenian (~635-~720 Mya) Tonian (~720 Mya-1 Gya)

Mesoproterozoic era (1–1.6 Gya)

Stenian (1-1.2 Gya) Ectasian (1.2-1.4 Gya) Calymmian (1.4-1.6 Gya)

Paleoproterozoic era (1.6–2.5 Gya)

Statherian (1.6-1.8 Gya) Orosirian
Orosirian
(1.8-2.05 Gya) Rhyacian (2.05-2.3 Gya) Siderian
Siderian
(2.3-2.5 Gya)

Archean
Archean
eon² (2.5–4 Gya)

Eras

Neoarchean (2.5–2.8 Gya) Mesoarchean (2.8–3.2 Gya) Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
(3.2–3.6 Gya) Eoarchean
Eoarchean
(3.6–4 Gya)

Hadean
Hadean
eon² (4–4.6 Gya)

 

 

kya = thousands years ago. Mya = millions years ago. Gya = billions years ago.¹ = Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon. ² = Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon. Source: (2017/02). International Commission on Stratigraphy. Retrieved 13 July 2015. Divisions of Geologic Time—Major Chronostratigraphic and Geochronologic Units USGS Retrieved 10 March 2013.

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