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Fufu
Fufu
(variants of the name include foofoo, fufuo, foufou) is a staple food common in many countries in Africa
Africa
such as Ghana
Ghana
and Nigeria. It is often made in the traditional Ghanaian and Nigerian method by mixing and pounding separate equal portions of cassava and green plantain flour thoroughly with water. It is then adjusted to either increase or decrease the viscosity of the fufu depending on personal gastronomic preferences.[1] Other flours, such as semolina, maize flour or mashed plantains may take the place of cassava flour. Fufu
Fufu
is often served with groundnut soup, palm nut soup or light soup. The traditional method is to boil starchy food crops like cassava, yams or plantains and cocoyams and then pound them into a dough-like consistency. Fufu
Fufu
is eaten with the fingers, and a small ball of it can be dipped into an accompanying soup or sauce. Foods made in this manner are known by different names in different places.

Contents

1 African fufu 2 Caribbean
Caribbean
fufu 3 Origin 4 Preparation 5 Nutrition 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

African fufu[edit] Portuguese traders introduced the cassava to Africa
Africa
from Brazil
Brazil
in the 16th century. In Ghana, fufu also known as fufuo is white and sticky (if plantain is not mixed with the cassava when pounding). The traditional method of eating fufu is to pinch some of the fufu off in one's right hand fingers and form it into an easily ingested round ball. The ball is then dipped in the soup before being eaten. In Côte d'Ivoire, the word “foutou” is also used. Ivorian “foufou” is specifically sweet mashed bananas, whereas the “foutou” is a stronger, heavier pasta made of various staple foods such as yam, cassava, banana, taro or a mix of any of those. In the French-speaking regions of Cameroon, it is called “couscous” (not to be confused with the North African dish couscous).[2] A similar staple in the African Great Lakes
African Great Lakes
region is ugali. It is usually made from maize flour (masa), and is also eaten in Southern Africa. The name ugali is used to refer to the dish in Kenya
Kenya
and Tanzania. Closely related staples are called nshima in Zambia, nsima in Malawi, sadza in Zimbabwe, pap in South Africa, posho in Uganda, luku, fufu, nshima, moteke, semoule, ugali and bugari in the Republic of the Congo and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Republic of the Congo
and phaletšhe in Botswana. Caribbean
Caribbean
fufu[edit] In Caribbean
Caribbean
nations with substantial populations of West African origin, such as Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti
Haiti
and Puerto Rico, plantains, yucca or yams are mashed with other delectable ingredients (fufú nigeriano).[3] In Cuba, the dish retains its original African stem name, termed simply as fufú or with added descriptive extensions like fufú de platano or fufú de platano pintón.[4] On other major islands, fufú goes by the names of mangú in the Dominican Republic and mofongo in Puerto Rico. What distinguishes the Caribbean
Caribbean
"fufú" from its West African relative is a firmer texture with stronger flavors. As it moves away from Cuba, the fufú's core is less a gelatinous dough and more of a consistent mass.[5] Puerto Rican mofongo in keeping with the creolized cuisine traditions of the Caribbean
Caribbean
tends toward a fufú of much higher density and robust seasoning. While keeping a conspicuous African character, mofongo has borrowed from the island's Iberian culinary tradition, to create a dish comprised almost exclusively of fried green plantains, with neither yucca nor maize. Unlike the mushier Caribbean
Caribbean
and West African fufús, mofongo is generally firmer and crustier.

Nigerian food fufu being sold on the street Lagos

To prepare mofongo, green plantains are deep-fried once unlike twice fried tostones. Next, they are mashed in a 'pilon' ( mortar ) with chopped garlic, salt, black pepper and olive oil. The resulting mash is then pressed and rounded into a hollowed crusty orb. Meat, traditionally chicharrón, is then stuffed into the chunky ball of fried green plantains. A few recipes call for a meat or vegetable salsa criolla" (related to American Creole sauce) poured on top of the hot sphere. In the trendier "mofongo relleno," typical of western Puerto Rico, seafood is all over, inside and outside. Traditional mofongo, as previously cited, comes seasoned and stuffed with meat and bathed in a chicken broth soup.[6] Because of its elaborate process of preparation and its sundry ingredients, poet and blogger Arose N Daghetto called the mofongo a type of "fufú paella" and branded it as "the big daddy of fufús."[7] The vegetable or fufú sauce in the Anglo- Caribbean
Caribbean
is not fried first. Plantain is not used as much, as it is used in so many dishes. Fufu
Fufu
is usually part of, or added to, a soupy sauce or on the side with a soupy dish. In Antigua, fufu is served as part of the national dish but is called fungi/fungee and is made using cornmeal and okra. Similarly, in Barbados
Barbados
it serves as part of the national dish and is called cou cou and uses cornmeal or, less commonly, breadfruit instead, like several other English Caribbean
Caribbean
islands. In Haiti
Haiti
it is called tum tum and Foofoo. It is mostly made of breadfruit but can be made of plantain or yams and is usually served with an okra based stew or soup. Origin[edit] Fufu
Fufu
is believed to originate in what is modern-day Ghana,[8] by the Asante, the Akuapem, the Guans, the Akyem, the Bono and the Fante peoples of the Akan ethnic group of Ghana
Ghana
and Ivory Coast. Today, it also features in Togolese cuisine
Togolese cuisine
Guinean cuisine, Cameroonian cuisine, as well as Nigerian cuisine. Fufu’s prevalence in the West African subregion has been noted in literature produced by authors from that area. It is mentioned in Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, for example. Preparation[edit] In Ghana, pieces of boiled cassava or other tubers are pounded together in a giant wooden mortar using a wooden pestle. In between blows from the pestle, the mixture is turned by hand and water gradually added till it becomes slurry and sticky. The mixture is then formed into a ball or a rounded slab and served. With the invention of the fufu machine preparation has become much less labour-intensive.

Préparing fufu in Togo

Wooden pestle and mortar for pounding fufu

Fufu machine
Fufu machine
used by a food vendor

Nutrition[edit] Nutritionally, 100 g dry weight fufu contains 2 g of protein, 0.1 g of fat and 84 g of carbohydrate. There are 267 kcal of food energy in a 100 g serving made up with water.[9] It is very low in cholesterol. It is very rich in potassium, and it is commonly prescribed by doctors for people who have low level of potassium in their blood. See also[edit]

Food portal

African cuisine List of African dishes List of maize dishes Akpu Attiéké Bazeen Congolese cuisine Cornmeal Couscous Eba Grits Mămăliga Mangú Mashed potato Mofongo Nshima Poi Polenta Ugali

References[edit]

Footnotes

Notes

^ Nweke, Felix I. "THE CASSAVA TRANSFORMATION IN AFRICA". United Nations. Retrieved 10 June 2014.  ^ DeLancey, Mark W., and Mark Dike DeLancey (2000). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Cameroon, 3rd ed. Lanham, Maryland: The Scarecrow Press, p. 134. ^ Wheatley, Christopher (1997). Metodos para agregar valor a raices y tuberculos alimenticios: manual para el desarrollo de productos. CIAT. p. 17. ISBN 9589439896.  ^ Rabade Roque, Raquel (2011). The Cuban Kitchen. NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 151. ISBN 0307595439.  ^ Martinez, Daisy (2013). Daisy Cooks!: Latin Flavors That Will Rock Your World. Hachette Books.  ^ Food and Identity in the Caribbean, Hanna Garth, Ed. 2013 Bloomsbury Press. ^ Daghetto, Arose N. (2011). "Say Whaaat??– Fufu
Fufu
and Mofongo!". Article. Literature Voodoo-- Quite Storm Enterprises. Retrieved December 17, 2015.  ^ Siciliano-Rosen, L. "Fufu." Encyclopedia Britannica.https://www.britannica.com/topic/fufu ^ "How many calories are in Golden Tropics Cocoyam Fufu
Fufu
Flour". slimkicker.com. SlimKicker. 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2014. 

External links[edit]

"Ghana's cooks take to fast fufu". BBC News. 2006-05-29. Retrieved August 5, 2008.  Microwavable instant fufu. Dangers of consuming under-processed fufu. All Nigerian recipes

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