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FRUMKA PłOTNICKA ( Pińsk , 1914 – August 3, 1943, Będzin
Będzin
) was a Polish Jewish resistance fighter during World War II; activist of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ŻOB) and member of the Labour Zionist organization Dror . She was one of the organizers of self-defence in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
, and participant in the military preparations for the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising . Following the liquidation of the Ghetto, Płotnicka relocated to the Dąbrowa Basin in southern Poland. On the advice of Mordechai Anielewicz , Płotnicka organized a local chapter of ŻOB in Będzin
Będzin
with the active participation of Józef and Bolesław Kożuch as well as Cwi (Tzvi) Brandes, and soon thereafter witnessed the murderous liquidation of both Sosnowiec and Będzin Ghettos by the German authorities.

During the final deportation action of early August 1943, the Jewish Combat Organization in Będzin
Będzin
staged an uprising against the Germans (as in nearby Sosnowiec). The Będzin-Sosnowiec ghetto uprising lasted for several days even though the SS broke through the main line of defence within hours. Frumka Płotnicka
Frumka Płotnicka
died on 3 August 1943 in one of the Będzin
Będzin
bunkers, fighting against the Germans. Posthumously, she received the Order of the Cross of Grunwald from the Polish Committee of National Liberation in April 1945.

CONTENTS

* 1 Life

* 1.1 Będzin Ghetto Uprising

* 2 Awards * 3 Footnotes * 4 Citations * 5 Further reading

LIFE

Frumka Płotnicka
Frumka Płotnicka

Frumka was born in a village near Pińsk during World War I, part of the newly reborn Poland since 1919 (after a century of foreign Partitions ). She relocated to Warsaw
Warsaw
in 1938 to assume a position at the headquarters of the Dror Zionist Youth Movement founded on Polish lands in 1915 in the course of the war with imperial Russia.

Following the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union, Frumka undertook underground activities as leader of the HeHalutz
HeHalutz
youth movement. Using false identities and facial disguise, she travelled across General Government territory between Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland . She witnessed the Holocaust trains departing from train stations to undisclosed death camps during the extermination of the Jews known as the " Final Solution ". As a courier ('kashariyot'), she delivered light weapons procured by the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
underground, as well as blueprints, drafted by the headquarters, for the manufacture of Molotov cocktails and hand grenades . Among the Jewish communities she visited, Frumka was referred to as "Die Mameh", Yiddish for "Mom". She relayed the reports of murderous liquidation of so many ghettos that she began to call herself a "gravedigger".

Jews would flock around her from all sides. One would ask her if he should return home , or continue his way eastward to the Soviet-dominated provinces . Another would come in search of a hot meal or a loaf of bread for his wife and children. They called her 'Die Mameh' and indeed she was a devoted mother to them all. — Zivia Lubetkin Syenite
Syenite
block located at the intersection of Niska and Dubois streets in Warsaw
Warsaw
commemorating the life and martyrdom of Frumka Płotnicka
Frumka Płotnicka

After the Großaktion Warschau in September 1942 Płotnicka was sent from Warsaw
Warsaw
to Będzin
Będzin
in occupied south-western Poland by the Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) in order to help the self-defence organization there. The seeds of ŻOB were planted in the Warsaw Ghetto only two months earlier, when the German SS headed by Hermann Höfle began the roundups of Jews aimed at deporting 254,000 prisoners to the newly built Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
. Frumka was the first Jewish courier in the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
to smuggle weapons from the Aryan part of the city inside sacks of potatoes.

BęDZIN GHETTO UPRISING

In the Będzin Ghetto the Jewish underground cell was formed already in 1941. The ghetto was never surrounded by a wall, even though it was tightly guarded by the German and the Jewish Ghetto Police . In March 1941 there were 25,171 Jews in Będzin; this increased to 27,000 after the ominous expulsion of the Jewish community of Oświęcim , the location of the Auschwitz II Birkenau redevelopment. In May 1942 deportations to Auschwitz began with the first transport of 3,200 Będzin
Będzin
Jews loaded onto Holocaust trains at the Umschlagplatz . On the advice of Mordechai Anielewicz who stayed in Dąbrowa Basin temporarily in mid-1942, Płotnicka, Brandes and the Kożuch brothers, organized a local chapter of ŻOB. On 3 August 1943, during the final deportation action, the partisans launched an uprising which lasted for several days. Płotnicka was killed in a bunker at Podsiadły Street on the same day.

Dedicated to her memory is the engraved Syenite
Syenite
commemorative plaque, located at the intersection of Niska and Dubois streets in Warsaw. The memorial stone is part of an innercity Memory Trail of the Struggle and Martyrdom of the Jews (pl), inaugurated in 1988, extending from the intersection of Zamenhof and Anielewicz streets to the intersection of Dzika and Stawki streets. Płotnicka was registered by Yad Vashem as victim of the Holocaust in 1957.

AWARDS

* Order of the Cross of Grunwald from the Polish Committee of National Liberation on 19 April 1945.

FOOTNOTES

* ^ On 22 June 1943 Zivia Lubetkin and Yitzhak Zuckerman from Warsaw
Warsaw
sent a message to the Polish government-in-exile in London about the ghetto extermination action in Będzin
Będzin
where Frumka Płotnicka and Dawid Kozłowski were the contact persons. The Polish leadership instructed the Home Army (AK) to provide more weapons for them, in a message of 27 July 1943. Płotnicka was killed one week later, on 3 August 1943. The message from Britain to Stanisław Jankowski from Cichociemni was deciphered in Warsaw
Warsaw
the very next day, wrote Michael Fleming

CITATIONS

* ^ Wolf Zeev Rabinowitsch (ed.). "In the Revolt". Chapter II of Pinsk Historical Volume: History of the Jews of Pinsk 1506–1941 (in translation). CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B C Stanisław Bubin & Aleksandra Namysło (28 July 2006). "Rozmowa z dr Aleksandrą Namysło, historykiem z Oddziału Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w Katowicach" (in Polish). Dziennik Zachodni . On the 63 anniversary of the liquidation of the Jewish ghettos in Będzin and Sosnowiec, 1 August 1943. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ A B Aharon Brandes (1959) . "The demise of the Jews in Western Poland". In the Bunkers. A Memorial to the Jewish Community of Będzin (in Hebrew and Yiddish). Translated by Lance Ackerfeld. pp. 364–365 – via Jewishgen.org. * ^ A B C D Cyryl Skibiński (August 23, 2013). "The Bedzin Ghetto. We remember". The Jewish Historical Institute . Sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage . Retrieved 20 January 2016.

* ^ A B C D Martyna Sypniewska, Adam Marczewski, Zofia Sochańska, Adam Dylewski (ed.). "Jewish history of Będzin". Virtual Shtetl . pages 8–9 of 10. Retrieved 18 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ A B Yad Vashem. "Plotnicka, Frumka" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center . The International School for Holocaust Studies . * ^ A B C D Sheryl Ochayon. "Female Couriers During the Holocaust: Frumka Plotnicka, one of the pioneer underground leaders in Poland". Education & E-Learning. Yad Vashem, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved March 16, 2016. Zivia Lubetkin , In the Days of Destruction and Revolt, Israel: The Ghetto Fighter's House, 1981, p. 43. Also in: Antek (Yitzhak) Zuckerman , A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising, Berkeley: University of California Press , 1993, p. 156. * ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson (2002). Secret city: the hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945. Yale University Press . p. 73 – via Google Books. * ^ A B Michael Fleming (2014). Auschwitz, the Allies and Censorship of the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. p. 184. * ^ Wydział Kultury (2016). "Pomniki – Miejsca żydowskie" . Warsaw: Urząd Dzielnicy Śródmieście m.st. Warszawy. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013 – via Internet Archive. Frumka Płotnicka.

FURTHER READING

* Frumka Płotnicka: biodata. 2011 Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów (in Polish) * Gedeon (2004–07), Martyrologia Getta Warszawskiego Izrael.badacz.org via Internet Archive (in Polish) * Cyryl Skibiński (August 23, 2013) The Bedzin Ghetto. We remember. Jewish Historical Institute . Sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage .

* v * t * e

The Holocaust in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw
Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942)

* Będzin
Będzin
* Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Wilno * Warsaw
Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw
Warsaw
* Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler
Josef Bühler
* Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank * Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert * Ernst Lerch * Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter * Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange * Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein
Fritz Klein
* Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths
Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel
Margot Dreschel
* Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski
Hotel Polski
* WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando * Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler
* Paweł Frenkiel
Paweł Frenkiel
* Henryk Iwański
Henryk Iwański
* Itzhak Katzenelson
Itzhak Katzenelson
* Michał Klepfisz
Michał Klepfisz
* Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman
* Alexander Pechersky
Alexander Pechersky
* Witold Pilecki
Witold Pilecki
* Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
* Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw
Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album
Höcker Album
* Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
* Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report
Vrba–Wetzler report
* Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha * Kielce pogrom * Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials
Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum
Majdanek State Museum
* Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living
March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust * Garden of the Righteous

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 73706255 * LCCN : nr91001988 * ISNI : 0000 0000 4753 7818

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