HOME
The Info List - Frumka Płotnicka


--- Advertisement ---



Frumka Płotnicka (Pińsk, 1914 – August 3, 1943, Będzin) was a Polish Jewish resistance fighter during World War II; activist of the Jewish Fighting Organization (ŻOB) and member of the Labour Zionist organization Dror. She was one of the organizers of self-defence in the Warsaw Ghetto, and participant in the military preparations for the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. Following the liquidation of the Ghetto, Płotnicka relocated to the Dąbrowa Basin in southern Poland. On the advice of Mordechai Anielewicz, Płotnicka organized a local chapter of ŻOB in Będzin with the active participation of Józef and Bolesław Kożuch as well as Cwi (Tzvi) Brandes, and soon thereafter witnessed the murderous liquidation of both Sosnowiec and Będzin Ghettos by the German authorities.[1][2][4] During the final deportation action of early August 1943, the Jewish Combat Organization in Będzin staged an uprising against the Germans (as in nearby Sosnowiec). The Będzin-Sosnowiec ghetto uprising lasted for several days even though the SS broke through the main line of defence within hours.[4] Frumka Płotnicka died on 3 August 1943 in one of the Będzin bunkers, fighting against the Germans.[1] Posthumously, she received the Order of the Cross of Grunwald from the Polish Committee of National Liberation in April 1945.[5]

Contents

1 Life

1.1 Będzin Ghetto Uprising

2 Awards 3 Footnotes 4 Citations 5 Further reading

Life[edit] Frumka was born in a village near Pińsk during World War I, part of the newly reborn Poland since 1919 after a century of foreign Partitions. She relocated to Warsaw in 1938 to assume a position at the headquarters of the Dror Zionist Youth Movement founded on Polish lands in 1915 in the course of the war with imperial Russia.[6] Following the 1939 invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Frumka undertook underground activities as leader of the HeHalutz youth movement. Using false identities and facial disguise, she travelled across General Government territory between Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland. She witnessed the Holocaust trains departing from train stations to undisclosed death camps during the extermination of the Jews known as the "Final Solution".[7] As a courier ('kashariyot'), she delivered light weapons procured by the Warsaw Ghetto underground, as well as blueprints, drafted by the headquarters, for the manufacture of Molotov cocktails and hand grenades.[2] Among the Jewish communities she visited, Frumka was referred to as "Die Mameh", Yiddish for "Mom". She relayed the reports of murderous liquidation of so many ghettos that she began to call herself a "gravedigger".[7]

Jews would flock around her from all sides. One would ask her if he should return home [in the German zone of occupation], or continue his way eastward to the Soviet-dominated provinces. Another would come in search of a hot meal or a loaf of bread for his wife and children. They called her 'Die Mameh' and indeed she was a devoted mother to them all. — Zivia Lubetkin [7]

Syenite block located at the intersection of Niska and Dubois streets in Warsaw commemorating the life and martyrdom of Frumka Płotnicka

After the Großaktion Warschau in September 1942 Płotnicka was sent from Warsaw to Będzin in occupied south-western Poland by the Jewish Combat Organization (ŻOB) in order to help the self-defence organization there.[6] The seeds of ŻOB were planted in the Warsaw Ghetto only two months earlier, when the German SS headed by Hermann Höfle began the roundups of Jews aimed at deporting 254,000 prisoners to the newly built Treblinka extermination camp.[8] Frumka was the first Jewish courier in the Warsaw Ghetto to smuggle weapons from the Aryan part of the city inside sacks of potatoes.[7] Będzin Ghetto Uprising[edit] In the Będzin Ghetto the Jewish underground cell was formed already in 1941.[1] The ghetto was never surrounded by a wall, even though it was tightly guarded by the German and the Jewish Ghetto Police.[4] In March 1941 there were 25,171 Jews in Będzin; this increased to 27,000 after the ominous expulsion of the Jewish community of Oświęcim, the location of the Auschwitz II Birkenau redevelopment. In May 1942 deportations to Auschwitz began with the first transport of 3,200 Będzin Jews loaded onto Holocaust trains at the Umschlagplatz.[5] On the advice of Mordechai Anielewicz who stayed in Dąbrowa Basin temporarily in mid-1942, Płotnicka, Brandes and the Kożuch brothers, organized a local chapter of ŻOB.[4] On 3 August 1943, during the final deportation action, the partisans launched an uprising which lasted for several days.[9] Płotnicka was killed in a bunker at Podsiadły Street on the same day.[5][note 1] Dedicated to her memory is the engraved Syenite commemorative plaque, located at the intersection of Niska and Dubois streets in Warsaw. The memorial stone is part of an innercity Memory Trail of the Struggle and Martyrdom of the Jews (pl), inaugurated in 1988, extending from the intersection of Zamenhof and Anielewicz streets to the intersection of Dzika and Stawki streets. Płotnicka was registered by Yad Vashem as victim of the Holocaust in 1957.[10] Awards[edit]

Order of the Cross of Grunwald from the Polish Committee of National Liberation on 19 April 1945.[5]

Footnotes[edit]

^ On 22 June 1943 Zivia Lubetkin and Yitzhak Zuckerman from Warsaw sent a message to the Polish government-in-exile in London about the ghetto extermination action in Będzin where Frumka Płotnicka and Dawid Kozłowski were the contact persons. The Polish leadership instructed the Home Army (AK) to provide more weapons for them, in a message of 27 July 1943. The message from Britain to Stanisław Jankowski from Cichociemni was deciphered in Warsaw one week later. Płotnicka was killed a day earlier, on 3 August 1943.[9]

Citations[edit]

^ a b c d Stanisław Bubin & Aleksandra Namysło (28 July 2006). "Rozmowa z dr Aleksandrą Namysło, historykiem z Oddziału Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej w Katowicach" [Interview with Aleksandra Namysło, historian from the Katowice chapter of the Institute of National Remembrance] (in Polish). Dziennik Zachodni. On the 63 anniversary of the liquidation of the Jewish ghettos in Będzin and Sosnowiec, 1 August 1943. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b c Aharon Brandes (1959) [1945]. "The demise of the Jews in Western Poland". In the Bunkers. A Memorial to the Jewish Community of Będzin (in Hebrew and Yiddish). Translated by Lance Ackerfeld. pp. 364–365 – via Jewishgen.org.  ^ Wolf Zeev Rabinowitsch (ed.). "In the Revolt". Chapter II of Pinsk Historical Volume: History of the Jews of Pinsk 1506–1941 (in translation). CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c d Cyryl Skibiński (August 23, 2013). "The Bedzin Ghetto. We remember". The Jewish Historical Institute. Sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. Retrieved 20 January 2016.  ^ a b c d Martyna Sypniewska, Adam Marczewski, Zofia Sochańska, Adam Dylewski (ed.). "Jewish history of Będzin". Virtual Shtetl. pages 8–9 of 10. Retrieved 18 January 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ a b Yad Vashem. "Plotnicka, Frumka" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center. The International School for Holocaust Studies.  ^ a b c d Sheryl Ochayon. "Female Couriers During the Holocaust: Frumka Plotnicka, one of the pioneer underground leaders in Poland". Education & E-Learning. Yad Vashem, The International School for Holocaust Studies. Retrieved March 16, 2016. Zivia Lubetkin, In the Days of Destruction and Revolt, Israel: The Ghetto Fighter's House, 1981, p. 43. Also in: Antek (Yitzhak) Zuckerman, A Surplus of Memory: Chronicle of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, p. 156.  ^ Gunnar S. Paulsson (2002). Secret city: the hidden Jews of Warsaw, 1940–1945. Yale University Press. p. 73 – via Google Books.  ^ a b Michael Fleming (2014). Auschwitz, the Allies and Censorship of the Holocaust. Cambridge University Press. p. 184.  ^ Wydział Kultury (2016). "Pomniki – Miejsca żydowskie" [Monuments to Jewish martyrdom]. Warsaw: Urząd Dzielnicy Śródmieście m.st. Warszawy. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013 – via Internet Archive. Frumka Płotnicka. 

Further reading[edit]

Frumka Płotnicka: biodata. 2011 Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów (in Polish) Gedeon (2004–07), Martyrologia Getta Warszawskiego Izrael.badacz.org via Internet Archive (in Polish) Cyryl Skibiński (August 23, 2013) The Bedzin Ghetto. We remember. Jewish Historical Institute. Sponsored by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage.

v t e

The Holocaust in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen (SS) Ordnungspolizei (Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft (Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police (Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions (Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten (Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial (Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 73706255 LCCN: nr91001988 ISNI: 0

.

Time at 25413636.483333, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25413636.483333 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25414985.983333 = task['next-exec'];
25413545.983333 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25423626 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986 = task['next-exec'];
25413546 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986.016667 = task['next-exec'];
25413546.016667 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25414986.033333 = task['next-exec'];
25413546.033333 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25413636.483333 Time.