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Fritz Klein
Fritz Klein
(24 November 1888 – 13 December 1945) was a German Nazi doctor hanged for his role in atrocities at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp during the Holocaust.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 References 4 Further reading

Early life and education[edit] Klein was born in Feketehalom, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
(now Codlea
Codlea
in central Romania).[1] Klein was considered a Volksdeutscher, or ethnic German. He studied medicine at the University of Budapest
Budapest
and completed his military service in Romania, finishing his studies in Budapest
Budapest
after World War I. He lived as a doctor in Siebenbürgen
Siebenbürgen
(Transylvania).[citation needed] In 1939, as a Romanian citizen he was drafted into the Romanian army, where after the outbreak of the war with the Soviet Union in 1941 he served as paramedic on the eastern front. In May 1943, Romanian dictator Marshal Antonescu, on a demand from Hitler to release ethnic Germans in the Romanian Army, drafted them into the German army. Hence Klein became a soldier in the Waffen-SS, was listed in the SS-Personalhauptamt, and was posted to Yugoslavia.[citation needed] Career[edit] On 15 December 1943, he arrived in Auschwitz concentration camp, where at first he served as a camp doctor in the women’s camp in Birkenau. Subsequently, he worked as a camp doctor in the Gypsy camp. He also participated in numerous selections ("Selektionen") on the ramp. In December 1944 he was transferred to Neuengamme concentration camp, from where he was sent to Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
Bergen-Belsen concentration camp
in January 1945. He remained at the camp with commandant Josef Kramer
Josef Kramer
and assisted in handing it over to British troops. Klein was imprisoned and required to help bury all unburied corpses in mass graves. The British Army Film and Photographic Unit
Army Film and Photographic Unit
Number 5 Unit photographed Klein standing in a mass grave in a well-known 1945 photo.[citation needed] When asked how he reconciled his actions with his ethical obligations as a physician, Klein famously stated:

"My Hippocratic oath
Hippocratic oath
tells me to cut a gangrenous appendix out of the human body. The Jews
Jews
are the gangrenous appendix of mankind. That's why I cut them out."[2]

Klein and 44 other camp staff were tried in the Belsen Trial
Belsen Trial
by a British military court at Lüneburg. The trial lasted several weeks from September to November 1945. During the trial Anita Lasker testified that he took part in selections for the gas chamber.[3] He was sentenced to death and hanged at Hamelin
Hamelin
prison by Albert Pierrepoint on 13 December 1945.[4][5] References[edit]

^ Onciu, Camelia "Bestia in halat alb", monitorulexpres.ro, 15 April 2008; retrieved 15 October 2010. (in Romanian) ^ Brueggemann, Rudy Mad Science And Criminal Medicine
Medicine
Archived 20 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Law reports of trials of war criminals, selected and prepared by the United Nations War Crimes Commission. – Volume II, The Belsen Trial (PDF). London: United Nations War Crimes Commission. 1947. p. 21f.  ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(16 November 1945). 30 Germans guilty of camp murders. New York Times ^ Associated Press
Associated Press
(14 December 1945). 11 Belsen Gang Leaders Hanged for War Crimes, Christian Science Monitor; accessed 7 April 2018.

Further reading[edit]

Lifton, Robert Jay (1986). The Nazi
Nazi
doctors: medical killing and the psychology of genocide. Basic Books.

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The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

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Camps, ghettos and operations

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Operation Reinhard
death camps

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Concentration

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Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

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v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

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By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

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Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"RONA" Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

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Uprisings

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Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

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Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi
Nazi
sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz-Birkenau
Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 4607265 LCCN: no20021021

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