Friedrich Salomon Krauss (7 October 1859, Požega,
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
– 29 May 1938,
Vienna en, Viennese , iso_code = AT-9 , registration_plate = Vehicle registration plates of Austria, W , postal_code_type = Postal code , postal_code = , timezone ...
Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
) was a
Croatia :* french: link=no, République de Croatie :* hu, Horvát Köztársaság :* it, Repubblica di Croazia :* rue, Републіка Хорватія :* sr, Република Хрватска :* sk, Chorvátska republika :* sl, Republika H ...

Austria Austria (, ; german: Österreich ), officially the Republic of Austria (german: Republik Österreich, links=no, ), is a landlocked Eastern Alps, East Alpine country in the southern part of Central Europe. It is composed of nine States of ...
n Jewish sexologist,
ethnographer Ethnography (from Greek language, Greek ''ethnos'' "folk, people, nation" and ''grapho'' "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures. Ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view o ...
folklorist Folklore studies, also known as folkloristics, and occasionally tradition studies or folk life studies in the United Kingdom, is the branch of anthropology devoted to the study of folklore. This term, along with its synonyms,According to Alan Du ...
, and Slavist.


In 1877–78, Krauss attended the
University of Vienna The University of Vienna (german: link=no, Universität Wien) is a public university A public university or public college is a university or college that is in state ownership or receives significant Government spending, public funds through a ...


One of his first publications was a translation of Artemidoros' of Daldis ''Interpretation of Dreams'' was cited in
Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud ( ; ; born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanaly ...
's book ''
The Interpretation of Dreams ''The Interpretation of Dreams'' (german: Die Traumdeutung) is an 1899 book by Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in which the author introduces his theory of the Unconscious mind, unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, and ...
''. He began his career as a folklorist and ethnologist. In 1884–85, Krauss received funding from the
Crown Prince Rudolf en, Rudolph Francis Charles Joseph , caption = , spouse = , issue = Archduchess Elisabeth Marie , house = House of Habsburg, Habsburg-Lorraine , father = Franz Joseph I of Austria , mother = Empress El ...
to gather folklore and ballads of the Guslar singers in Bosnia, Croatia and Herzegovina. As a result of this field research, he published a two-volume collection of fairytales, ''Sagen und Märchen der Südslaven''. Perhaps his most famous work was the ''Anthropophytia'' (1904–1913), a scholarly yearbook which published folklore of erotic and sexual content. In alliance with the growing psychoanalytic movement, Krauss and his colleagues felt that sexual folklore, which was generally purged from all published collections by scholars, could provide valuable information about a culture and society. He was a correspondent of Freud and used the term
paraphilia Paraphilia (previously known as sexual perversion and sexual deviation) is the experience of intense sexual arousal to atypical objects, situations, fantasies, behaviors, or individuals. There is no scientific consensus for any precise border b ...
to describe certain deviant sexual practices. His research in the field of
sexuality Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves Human sexual activity, sexually. This involves biological, erotic, Physical intimacy, physical, Emotional intimacy, emotional, social, or Spirituality, spiritual feelings and b ...
led to some conflict. In 1913 ''Anthropophytia'' was banned and Krauss was brought to trial in Berlin as a pornographer. He was convicted, which caused him a large financial loss and hurt his reputation. Krauss lived and worked as a writer, private scholar, and translator in Vienna. His translations include '' Rites of All Nations'' by
John Gregory Bourke
John Gregory Bourke

See also

* List of people from Vienna



* Raymond L. Burt: ''F. S. Krauss (1859–1938): Selbstzeugnisse und Materialien zur Bibliographie des Volkskundlers, Literaten und Sexualforschers'' (1990) * Peter Horwath & Miroljub Jokovic: "Friedrich Salomo Krauss (1859–1938)" (Novi Sad 1992) * Krauss, Friedrich Salomo: "Volkserzählungen der Südslaven: Märchen und Sagen, Schwänke, Schnurren und erbauliche Geschichten" Burt, Raymond L. (Hrsg.); Puchner, Walter (Hrsg.) Wien 2002 * Wolfgang Jacobeit u.a. (Hg.): ''Völkische Wissenschaft. Gestalten und Tendenzen der deutschen und österreichischen Volkskunde in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts.'' (Wien 1984)

External links

* * 1859 births 1938 deaths 19th-century Austrian writers 19th-century Hungarian male writers 19th-century scholars 19th-century translators 20th-century Austrian writers 20th-century Hungarian male writers 20th-century scholars 20th-century translators Austrian ethnographers Austrian people of Croatian-Jewish descent Austrian sexologists Austro-Hungarian Jews Austro-Hungarian scientists Croatian Austro-Hungarians Croatian ethnographers Croatian Jews Croatian translators Deaths in Austria Folklorists Hungarian social scientists People from Požega, Croatia Slavists Austrian translators University of Vienna alumni Writers from Vienna Hungarian translators {{Croatia-scientist-stub