FRIEDRICH JECKELN (2 February 1895 – 3 February 1946) was a
high-ranking official in the SS of
* 5 References
* 5.1 Citations * 5.2 Bibliography
* 6 External links
THE NAZI PARTY AND SS
Jeckeln served in
World War I
Jeckeln was known to be ruthless and brutal. Political opponents, especially members of the KPD, SPD and the unions, were pursued relentlessly until their death. Together with party member Friedrich Alpers , Jeckeln was primarily responsible for the Rieseberg murders in the summer of 1933. From 1941 to 1945 he also served as the commander of SS-Oberabschnitt Ostland which was a titular paper command of the Allgemeine-SS .
WORLD WAR II MASS MURDERER
After the Second World War began, Jeckeln was called up to active duty in the Waffen-SS . As was the practice in the SS, Jeckeln took a lower rank from his Allgemeine-SS position and served as an officer in Regiment 2 of the Totenkopf Division . In 1941, however, his front line service was terminated and he was transferred by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to serve as Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF) of Eastern Russia. In this role Jeckeln assumed direction and control of all SS- Einsatzgruppen mass killings and anti-partisan operations in his district.
Jeckeln developed his own methods to kill large numbers of people, which became known as the "Jeckeln System". Jeckeln had staff which specialised in each separate part of the process. As applied in the Rumbula massacre on 30 November and 8 December 1941, Jeckeln's system worked as follows:
* The Security Service (SD) men rousted the people out of their
houses in the
This system was called "sardine packing" (Sardinenpackung). It was reported that even some of the experienced Einsatzgruppen killers were horrified by its cruelty. At Rumbula, Jeckeln watched on both days of the massacre as 25,000 people were killed before him. Jeckeln proved to be an effective killer who cared nothing about murdering huge numbers of unarmed and even naked men, women, children and the elderly. One of the three survivors of the Rumbala massacre, Frida Michelson , escaped by pretending to be dead as the victims heaped shoes (later salvaged by Jeckeln's men) upon her:
A mountain of footwear was pressing down on me. My body was numb from cold and immobility. However, I was fully conscious now. The snow under me had melted from the heat of my body. ... Quiet for a while. Then from the direction of the trench a child's cry: 'Mama! Mama! Mamaa!'. A few shots. Quiet. Killed.
By the end of August 1941, while commanding the Kommandostab SS First Brigade in the Western Ukraine, Jeckeln had personally supervised the murder of more than 44,000 human beings, the largest total of Jews murdered that month. The combined killing events constitutes one of the largest death tolls during the "holocaust by bullets."
On 27 January 1942 Jeckeln was awarded the War Merit Cross with Swords for killing 25,000 at Rumbula "on orders from the highest level." In February 1945, now a General der Waffen-SS und Polizei, Jeckeln was appointed to command the SS-Freiwilligen-Gebirgs-Korps and also served as Commander of Replacement Troops and Higher SS and Police Leader in Southwest Germany.
TRIAL AND CONVICTION
Jeckeln (left, standing), at his trial in Riga, 1946
Jeckeln was taken prisoner by Soviet troops near
I have to take full responsibility for what happened in the borders of Ostland, within SS, SD and the Gestapo. Thereby increases much my fault. My fate is in the hands of the High Court, and so I ask only to pay attention to mitigating circumstances. I will accept a sentence in full repentance and I will consider as worthy punishment.
Jeckeln and the other defendants were found guilty, sentenced to
death and hanged at
SUMMARY OF CAREER
Friedrich Jeckeln's awards and SS dates of rank are as follows.
Clasp to the Iron Cross
* ^ Ezergailis 1996, pp. 239–270. * ^ Michelson, Frida, I Survived Rumbula, p. 93 * ^ Fleming 1984, pp. 99–100. * ^ Service record of Friedrich Jeckeln, National Archives and Records Administration (College Park, MD), Record Group 242, SS Officer Personnel Files. Microfilm Publication A3343, Series SSO * ^ Carruthers B., SS Terror in the East : Einsatzgruppen, The Depths of Evil, Pen & Sword Publishing (2014) * ^ Thomas 1997, p. 327. * ^ Patzwall & Scherzer 2001, p. 209. * ^ A B Scherzer 2007, p. 419.
* Ezergailis, Andrew (1996).
The Holocaust in