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The Info List - Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger


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World War I
World War I
------------------------- World War II
World War II

AWARDS Knight\'s Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross

OTHER WORK War crimes and crimes against humanity , including establishment of concentration camps, forced labor, and mass murder.

FRIEDRICH-WILHELM KRüGER (8 May 1894 – 10 May 1945) was a Nazi official and high-ranking member of the SA and the SS . Between 1939 and 1943 he was the Higher SS and Police Leader in the General Government in German-occupied Poland and in that capacity he organized and supervised numerous acts of crimes against humanity and had a major responsibility for the Holocaust
Holocaust
. At the end of the war, he committed suicide.

CONTENTS

* 1 Career

* 1.1 Activities in SA and SS * 1.2 Crimes in Poland * 1.3 Later career and suicide

* 2 Awards * 3 See also

* 4 References

* 4.1 Citations * 4.2 Bibliography

CAREER

Krüger was born into a military family in Strassburg
Strassburg
, Alsace-Lorraine
Alsace-Lorraine
, Germany (nowadays in France
France
) in 1894; he left school before graduating to begin a military career as a cadet in military schools in Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
and Gross-Lichterfelde . In June 1914, Krüger was commissioned a second lieutenant in the German Army when World War I
World War I
broke out. During the course of the war, he was wounded three times and awarded the 1st and 2nd class Iron Crosses . In August 1919, he joined the Freikorps
Freikorps
von Lützow , which he left in March 1920. Afterwards he returned to civilian employment and got married.

ACTIVITIES IN SA AND SS

While working at a refuse company, he probably met Kurt Daluege , who was an engineer at the company at that time. He later on became SS commander in Berlin and leader of the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
("order police") or Orpo. The two men soon formed a friendship. In November 1929, Krüger joined the NSDAP
NSDAP
(as member 171,199) ; in February 1931, he also joined the SS (6,123), which he left in April to transfer to the SA. With the help of Daluege, Krüger instantly acquired the SA rank and the power necessary to conduct reforms of the SA Formation East. He was promoted to SA- Gruppenführer
Gruppenführer
in 1932 and joined Ernst Röhm 's personal staff.

In June 1933, Krüger was promoted to SA- Obergruppenführer and appointed chief of the Ausbildungswesen ("training", AW). Cooperating closely with the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
, he used his new position to school the SA's recruits (an estimated 250,000) to become unit leaders. Krüger was not caught in the Night of the Long Knives
Night of the Long Knives
, in which Röhm and many other high-ranking SA members were killed, and it has been speculated that his switch from the SS to the SA was only for pragmatic reasons, especially in the light of Krüger transferring the SA armouries of which he was in charge to the Reichswehr
Reichswehr
as soon as the purge began. Afterwards, Krüger re-entered the SS while still keeping his SA rank. In February 1936, he was appointed inspector of border guard units as well as Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
's personal representative at a variety of formal and informal NSDAP
NSDAP
events.

CRIMES IN POLAND

On 4 October 1939, Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
, appointed him to act as Higher SS and Police Leader (HSSPF East) (Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer) in the part of German-occupied Poland called the General Government . Krüger thus held one of the highest posts in occupied Poland. Among other things he was responsible for: eliminating rebellion in the extermination camps, setting up forced labour camps, the employment of police and SS in the deportations of Jews from Warsaw ghettos, the execution of Aktion Erntefest , the so-called "anti-partisan" fighting in the General Government, and the driving out of over 1,000,000 Polish farmers from the area around Zamość
Zamość
. Disagreements with governor general Hans Frank
Hans Frank
led to his dismissal on 9 November 1943. He was replaced by Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
. The Polish Secret State
Polish Secret State
ordered his death, but an assassination attempt on 20 April 1943 in Kraków failed when two bombs hurled at his car missed the target. Six months later, he wrote in a letter, "I have lost honour and reputation due to my four year struggle in the GG ( General Government ) (Ich habe für meinen vierjährigen Kampf im GG Ehre und Reputation verloren).

LATER CAREER AND SUICIDE

From November 1943 until April 1944 Krüger served with the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division Prinz Eugen in Nazi-occupied Yugoslavia. While ostensibly engaged in anti-partisan actions in Yugoslavia, this unit became notorious for committing atrocities against the civilian population.

Later from June to August Krüger took over the command over the 6th SS Mountain Division Nord in northern Finland. From August 1944 until February 1945 Krüger was commanding general of the V SS Mountain Corps . In February 1945 he was Himmler's representative at the German southeast front and in April and May 1945 he was commander of a combat unit of the Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo) at Army Group South
Army Group South
(known as Army Group Ostmark after 1 May 1945). At the end of the war Krüger committed suicide in Upper Austria
Upper Austria
.

AWARDS

* Iron Cross
Iron Cross
of 1914 1st Class (17 February 1915) * Knight's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern
House Order of Hohenzollern
with Swords (25 April 1918) * War Merit Cross
War Merit Cross
2nd and 1st Class with Swords (20 April 1942) * Clasp to the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
(1939) 2nd Class (2 August 1943) & 1st Class (15 May 1944)

* ^ Döring 2001, p. 600. * ^ Birn 1986, p. 72. * ^ Bundesarchiv Freiburg, MSG/2/13583, Kriegstagebuch der Leutnant Fried.-Wilh. Krüger * ^ Thompson 2000, p. 324. * ^ Friedmann 1995, p. 2. * ^ Thilo Vogelsang, “Der Chef des Ausbildungswesens (Chef AW)”, in : Gutachten des Institus für Zeitgeschichte, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart, 1966, page 154 * ^ Wulf 1961, pp. 225–238. * ^ Thompson 1967, p. 260. * ^ Thompson 2000, p. 320. * ^ Casagrande 2003, p. 270. * ^ Lester 2005, pp. 11–12. * ^ A B C D Thomas & Wegmann 1993, p. 462. * ^ Scherzer 2007, p. 478.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Birn, Ruth Bettina (1986). Die höheren SS- und Polizeiführer. Himmlers Vertreter im Reich und in den besetzten Gebieten. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf. ISBN 978-3-7700-0710-3 . * Casagrande, Thomas (2003). Die Volksdeutsche SS-Division 'Prinz Eugen'. Die Banater Schwaben und die National-sozialistischen Kriegsverbrechen. Campus Verlag. ISBN 978-3-593-37234-1 . * Döring, Martin (2001). "Parlamentarischer Arm der Bewegung", Die Nationalsozialisten im Reichstag der Weimarer Republik, Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf. ISBN 978-3-7700-5237-0 . * Friedmann, Tuviah (1995) Der Höhere SS- und Polizeiführer im Generalgouvernement, SS-Obergruppenführer
SS-Obergruppenführer
Krüger. Haifa, Israel: . OCLC
OCLC
33053235 * Lester, David (2005). "Who Committed Suicide?". Suicide and the Holocaust. Nova Publishers. ISBN 978-1-59454-427-9 . Retrieved 17 June 2009. * Scherzer, Veit (2007). Die Ritterkreuzträger 1939–1945 Die Inhaber des Ritterkreuzes des Eisernen Kreuzes 1939 von Heer, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Volkssturm sowie mit Deutschland verbündeter Streitkräfte nach den Unterlagen des Bundesarchives (in German). Jena, Germany: Scherzers Militaer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-938845-17-2 . * Thomas, Franz; Wegmann, Günter (1993). Die Ritterkreuzträger der Deutschen Wehrmacht 1939–1945 Teil VI: Die Gebirgstruppe Band 1: A–K (in German). Osnabrück, Germany: Biblio-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-7648-2430-3 . * Thompson, Larry V. (1967). Nazi Administrative Conflict. The Struggle for Executive Power in the General Government of Poland 1939–1943, Dissertation, University of Wisconsin. OCLC
OCLC
3417584 * Thompson, Larry V. (2000). "Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger. Höherer SS- und Polizeiführer Ost", in : Ronald Smelser , Enrico Syring (Hg.), Die SS : Elite unter dem Totenkopf. Paderborn. ISBN 978-3-506-78562-6 . * Wulf, Josef (1961). Das dritte Reich und seine Vollstrecker. Die Liquidation von 500 000 Juden im Ghetto Warschau, Arani Verlags GmbH, Berlin. OCLC
OCLC
3466841

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The Holocaust
Holocaust

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Holocaust
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CONCENTRATION

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EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Bełżec * Chełmno * Jasenovac * Majdanek * Maly Trostenets * Sajmište * Slana * Sobibór * Treblinka

TRANSIT

* BE * Breendonk * Mechelen * FR * Gurs * Drancy * IT * Bolzano * Risiera di San Sabba * NL * Amersfoort * Westerbork

METHODS

* Einsatzgruppen * Gas van
Gas van
* Gas chamber
Gas chamber
* Extermination through labour * Human medical experimentation

NAZI UNITS

* SS-Totenkopfverbände
SS-Totenkopfverbände
* Concentration Camps Inspectorate
Concentration Camps Inspectorate
* Politische Abteilung * Sanitätswesen

VICTIMS

JEWS

ROUNDUPS

* FR * Izieu * Marseille * Vel\' d\'Hiv

POGROMS

* Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
* Bucharest * Dorohoi * Iaşi * Jedwabne * Kaunas * Lviv * Odessa * Tykocin * Wąsosz

GHETTOS

POLAND

* Białystok * Kraków * Łódź * Lublin * Lwów * Warsaw

ELSEWHERE

* Budapest * Kovno * Minsk * Riga * Vilna

"FINAL SOLUTION "

* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
* Operation Reinhard * Holocaust
Holocaust
trains * Extermination camps

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Babi Yar * Bydgoszcz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Ninth Fort * Piaśnica * Ponary * Rumbula * Erntefest

RESISTANCE

* Jewish partisans
Jewish partisans

* Ghetto uprisings

* Warsaw * Białystok * Częstochowa

END OF WORLD WAR II

* Death marches * Wola * Bricha
Bricha
* Displaced persons

* Holocaust
Holocaust
denial

* trivialization

OTHERS

* Romani people (gypsies) * Poles * Soviet POWs * Slavs in Eastern Europe * Homosexuals * People with disabilities * Serbs * Freemasons * Jehovah\'s Witnesses * Black people

RESPONSIBILITY

ORGANIZATIONS

* Nazi Party
Nazi Party
* Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) * Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) * Sicherheitsdienst (SD) * Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
* Wehrmacht

UNITS

* Einsatzgruppen * Police Regiments * Orpo Police Battalions

COLLABORATORS

* Ypatingasis būrys * Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Trawnikis * Nederlandsche SS * Special
Special
Brigades

INDIVIDUALS

* Major perpetrators * Nazi ideologues

* Early elements * Aftermath * Remembrance

EARLY ELEMENTS

* Nazi racial policy * Nazi eugenics
Nazi eugenics
* Nuremberg Laws
Nuremberg Laws
* Haavara Agreement
Haavara Agreement
* Madagascar Plan * Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

AFTERMATH

* Nuremberg trials
Nuremberg trials
* Denazification
Denazification

* Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors

* Survivor guilt

* Reparations

REMEMBRANCE

* Days of remembrance * Memorials and museums

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust
Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France
France
Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Bronna Góra * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau
Sonderaktion Krakau
* Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kielce * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Siedlce * Sambor * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Tarnopol * Wilno * Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw * Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
* Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe
Wilhelm Koppe
* Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert
Erwin Lambert
* Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
* Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths
Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler
* Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman
Miles Lerman
* Alexander Pechersky
Alexander Pechersky
* Witold Pilecki
Witold Pilecki
* Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota
Roza Robota
* Szmul Zygielbojm
Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album
Höcker Album
* Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report
Katzmann Report
* Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber
Gas chamber
* Gas van
Gas van
* Holocaust
Holocaust
train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B
Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha