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The French nobility
French nobility
(French: la noblesse) was a privileged social class in France
France
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and the Early Modern period to the revolution in 1790. The nobility was revived in 1805 with limited rights as a titled elite class from the First Empire to the fall of the July Monarchy
July Monarchy
in 1848, when all privileges were abolished for good. Hereditary titles, without privileges, continued to be granted until the Second Empire fell in 1870. They survive among their descendants as a social convention and as part of the legal name of the corresponding individuals. In the political system of pre-Revolutionary France, the nobility made up the Second Estate of the Estates General (with the Catholic clergy comprising the First Estate and the bourgeoisie and peasants in the Third Estate). Although membership in the noble class was mainly inherited, it was not a fully closed order. New individuals were appointed to the nobility by the monarchy, or they could purchase rights and titles, or join by marriage. Sources differ about the actual number of nobles in France, however, proportionally, it was among the smallest noble classes in Europe. For the year 1789, French historian François Bluche gives a figure of 140,000 nobles (9,000 noble families) and states that about 5% of nobles could claim descent from feudal nobility before the 15th century.[1] With a total population of 28 million, this would represent merely 0.5%. Historian Gordon Wright gives a figure of 300,000 nobles (of which 80,000 were from the traditional noblesse d'épée),[2] which agrees with the estimation of historian Jean de Viguerie,[3] or a little over 1%. In terms of land holdings, at the time of the revolution, noble estates comprised about one-fifth of the land.[4]

Contents

1 Privileges 2 Duties 3 Forms of French nobility

3.1 Classes of French nobility

4 Titles, peerage, and orders 5 Economic status 6 Aristocratic codes 7 Power and protest 8 Nobility
Nobility
and the Enlightenment 9 The abolition of privileges during the French Revolution 10 Nobility
Nobility
since the Revolution 11 Symbols

11.1 Ancien Régime 11.2 Napoleonic Empire 11.3 July Monarchy

12 Gallery 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

Privileges[edit]

A signet ring with coat of arms

The French nobility
French nobility
had specific legal and financial rights and prerogatives. The first official list of these prerogatives was established relatively late, under Louis XI after 1440, and included the right to hunt, to wear a sword and, in principle, to possess a seigneurie (land to which certain feudal rights and dues were attached). Nobles were also granted an exemption from paying the taille, except for non-noble lands they might possess in some regions of France. Furthermore, certain ecclesiastic, civic, and military positions were reserved for nobles. These feudal privileges are often termed droits de féodalité dominante. With the exception of a few isolated cases, serfdom had ceased to exist in France
France
by the 15th century. In early modern France, nobles nevertheless maintained a great number of seigneurial privileges over the free peasants that worked lands under their control. They could, for example, levy the cens tax, an annual tax on lands leased or held by vassals. Nobles could also charge banalités for the right to use the lord's mills, ovens, or wine presses. Alternatively, a noble could demand a portion of vassals' harvests in return for permission to farm land he owned. Nobles also maintained certain judicial rights over their vassals, although with the rise of the modern state many of these privileges had passed to state control, leaving rural nobility with only local police functions and judicial control over violation of their seigneurial rights. In the 17th century this seigneurial system was established in France's North American possessions. Duties[edit] However, the nobles also had responsibilities. Nobles were required to honor, serve, and counsel their king. They were often required to render military service (for example, the impôt du sang or "blood tax"). The rank of "noble" was forfeitable: certain activities could cause dérogeance (loss of nobility). Most commercial and manual activities were strictly prohibited, although nobles could profit from their lands by operating mines and forges. Forms of French nobility[edit] The nobility in France
France
was never an entirely closed class. Nobility and hereditary titles were distinct: while all hereditary titleholders were noble, most nobles were untitled, although many assumed titres de courtoisie. Nobility
Nobility
could be granted by the king or, until 1578, acquired by a family which had occupied a government or military post of high enough rank for three generations. Once acquired, nobility was normally hereditary in the legitimate male-line for all male descendants. Wealthy families found ready opportunities to pass into the nobility: although nobility itself could not, legally, be purchased, lands to which noble rights and/or title were attached could be and often were bought by commoners who adopted use of the property's name or title and were henceforth assumed to be noble if they could find a way to be exempted from paying the taille to which only commoners were subject. Moreover, non-nobles who owned noble fiefs were obliged to pay a special tax (franc-fief) on the property to the noble liege-lord. Properly, only those who were already noble could assume a hereditary title attached to a noble fief (i.e. a barony, viscounty, countship, marquisate or dukedom), thereby acquiring a title recognised but not conferred by the French crown. The children of a French nobleman (whether a peer or not), unlike those of a British peer, were not considered commoners but untitled nobles. Inheritance was recognized only in the male line, with a few exceptions (noblesse uterine) in the formerly independent provinces of Champagne, Lorraine and Brittany. The king could grant nobility to individuals, convert land into noble fiefs or, elevate noble fiefs into titled estates. The king could also confer special privileges, such as peerage, on a noble fief. In general, these patents needed to be officially registered with the regional Parlement. In the case of an unwilling Parlement, the land-owner was termed à brevet (as in duc à brevet or duke by certificate). Classes of French nobility[edit] French nobility
French nobility
is generally divided into the following classes:

Noblesse d'épée (nobility of the sword), also known as noblesse de race (" Nobility
Nobility
through breeding"): the hereditary gentry and nobility who originally had to swear oaths of fealty and perform military service for the King in exchange for their titles.

Noblesse uterine (" Nobility
Nobility
of the female line"), was for titles that were matrilineal (held through the mother's line) and could be inherited by female heirs; this was found in some families in the former independent territories of Champagne, Lorraine and Brittany. Noblesse d'extraction (" Nobility
Nobility
of descent"): Nobility
Nobility
of seize-quartiers ("sixteen Quarterings"): having a coat of arms of at least sixteen quarterings (partitions on the field of a composite coat of arms showing each coat of arms the person is entitled to). This means that the person has pure noble or gentle ancestry going back at least four generations (parents [2 "quarterings"], grandparents [4 quarterings], great-grandparents [8 quarterings], and great-great-grandparents [16 quarterings]).

Noblesse de robe
Noblesse de robe
(nobility of the robe): person or family made noble by holding certain official charges, like masters of requests, treasurers, or Presidents of Parlement
Parlement
courts.

Noblesse de chancellerie (nobility of the chancery): commoner made noble by holding certain high offices for the king. Noblesse de cloche ("nobility of the bell") or Noblesse échevinale/Noblesse scabinale (" Nobility
Nobility
of the Aldermen"): person or family made noble by being a mayor (Bourgmestre) or alderman (échevin) or prévôt (Provost, or "municipal functionary") in certain towns (such as Abbeville
Abbeville
and Angers, Angoulême, Bourges, Lyon, Toulouse, Paris, Perpignan, and Poitiers). Some towns and cities received the status temporarily or sporadically, like Cognac, Issoudun, La Rochelle, Lyon, Nantes, Niort, Saint-Jean-d'Angély
Saint-Jean-d'Angély
and Tours. There were only 14 such communities by the beginning of the Revolution. Noblesse militaire (military nobility): person or family made noble by holding military offices, generally after two or three generations.

Nobles sometimes made the following distinctions based on the age of their status:

Noblesse chevaleresque (knightly nobility) or noblesse ancienne ("Old Nobility"): nobility from before the year 1400, who inherited their titles from time immemorial. Noblesse des lettres (nobility through Letters Patent): person made noble by letters patent from after the year 1400.

Commoners
Commoners
were referred to as roturiers. Magistrates and men of law were sometimes called robins. The acquisition of titles of nobility could be done in one generation or gradually over several generations:

Noblesse au premier degré (nobility in the first generation): nobility awarded in the first generation, generally after 20 years of service or by death in one's post. Noblesse graduelle: nobility awarded in the second generation, generally after 20 years of service by both father and son.

The noblesse de lettres became, starting in the reign of Francis I, a handy method for the court to raise revenues; non-nobles possessing noble fiefs would pay a year's worth of revenues from their fiefs to acquire nobility. In 1598, Henry IV undid a number of these anoblissments, but eventually resumed the practice. The noblesse de cloche dates from 1372 (for the city of Poitiers) and was found only in certain cities with legal and judicial freedoms; by the Revolution these cities were only a handful. The noblesse de chancellerie first appeared during the reign of Charles VIII at the end of the 15th century. To hold the office of chancellor required (with few exceptions) noble status, so non-nobles given the position were raised to the nobility, generally after 20 years of service. Non-nobles paid enormous sums to hold these positions, but this form of nobility was often derided as savonnette à villain ("soap for serfs"). The noblesse de robe existed by longstanding tradition. In 1600 it gained legal status. High positions in regional parlements, tax boards (chambres des comptes), and other important financial and official state offices (usually bought at high price) conferred nobility, generally in two generations, although membership in the Parlements of Paris, Dauphiné, Besançon
Besançon
and Flanders, as well as on the tax boards of Paris, Dole and Grenoble
Grenoble
elevated an official to nobility in one generation. These state offices could be lost by a family at the unexpected death of the office holder. In an attempt to gain more tax revenues, the king's financial advisor, financier Charles Paulet, instituted the Paulette in 1604. This was a yearly tax of 1/60th of the price of the office that insured hereditary transmission. This annual tax solidified the hereditary acquisition of public office in France, and by the middle of the 17th century the majority of office holders were already noble from long possession of thereof. Henry IV began to enforce the law against usurpation of titles of nobility, and in 1666–1674 Louis XIV mandated a massive program of verification of hereditary titles. Oral testimony maintaining that parents and grandparents had been born noble and lived as such were no longer accepted: written proofs (marriage contracts, land documents) proving noble rank since 1560 were required to substantiate noble status. Many families were put back on the lists of the taille and/or forced to pay fines for usurping noble titles. Titles, peerage, and orders[edit] There were two kinds of titles used by French nobles: some were personal ranks and others were linked to the fiefs owned, called fiefs de dignité. During the ancien régime, there was no distinction of rank by title (except for the title of duke, which was often associated with the strictly regulated privileges of the peerage, including precedence above other titled nobles). The hierarchy within the French nobility below peers was initially based on seniority; a count whose family had been noble since the 14th century was higher-ranked than a marquis whose title only dated to the 15th century. Precedence at the royal court was based on the family's ancienneté, its alliances (marriages), its hommages (dignities and offices held) and, lastly, its illustrations (record of deeds and achievements).

Titles:

Duc: possessor of a duchy (duché—a feudal property, not an independent principality) and recognition as duke by the king. Prince: possessor of a lordship styled a principality (principauté); most such titles were held by family tradition and were treated by the court as titres de courtoisie—often borne by the eldest sons of the more important duke-peers. This title of prince is not to be confused with the rank of prince, borne by the princes du sang, the princes légitimés or the princes étrangers whose high precedence derived from their kinship to actual rulers. Marquis: possessor of a marquessate (marquisat), but often assumed by a noble family as a titre de courtoisie Comte: possessor of a county (comté) or self-assumed. Vicomte: possessor of a viscounty (vicomté) or self-assumed. Baron: possessor of a barony (baronnie) or self-assumed. Vidame: a rare title, always with the name of a diocese, as their origin was as the commander of a bishop's forces. The Vidame
Vidame
de Chartres is the best known.

Ranks:

Fils de France: son of a king or dauphin. Petit-fils de France: grandson of a king in the male line. Prince
Prince
du Sang ("prince of the blood"): a remote, legitimate male-line descendant of a king of France.[5] Peer of France
Peer of France
was technically a dignity of the Crown (as, e.g., marshal of France), but became in fact the highest hereditary rank borne by the French nobility—always in conjunction with a title (e.g. "Duc et Pair", "Comte-Pair"). The peerage was originally awarded only to princes of the blood, some legitimised and foreign princes, often the heads of the kingdom's most ancient and powerful families, and a few bishops. Eventually it was almost always granted in conjunction with the title of duke. Gradually the peerage came to be conferred more broadly as a reward for distinguished military or diplomatic service, but also on favourites of the king (e.g. les mignons). The peers were entitled to seats in the Parliament of Paris, the most important judicial court in the kingdom. Prince
Prince
légitimé legitimised son or male-line descendant of a king. Precise rank depended upon the king's favour. Prince
Prince
étranger ("foreign prince"): members of foreign royal or princely families naturalized at the French court, such as the Clèves, Rohan, La Tour d'Auvergne, and Lorraine-Guise. Chevalier an otherwise untitled nobleman who belonged to an order of chivalry; earlier, a rank for untitled members of the oldest noble families. Later distinction was that a Knight
Knight
(Sieur) went through the dubbing ceremony (touched with a sword on the head and shoulders by the King), while the lesser rank of Chevalier or Knight
Knight
Bachelor received the rank without the ceremony. Écuyer ("Squire" and literally: "shield bearer") lowest specific rank in the nobility, to which the vast majority of untitled nobles were entitled; also called valet or noble homme in certain regions. Gentilhomme lowest non-specific rank indicating nobility Seigneur (" Lord
Lord
of the manor" and literally: "lord") term for the untitled owner of a feudal property; strictly, neither a title nor a rank, it indicated that a landlord's property had certain noble rights attached, although properly it did not indicate the owner was noble, especially after the 17th century. Bâtard Recognized bastard son of a gentleman or nobleman. They could not usually inherit a title (if any claimants of legitimate birth existed) but could be employed in their father's retinue. Bastard sons and daughters were often married off to allied or subordinate families to strengthen ties or to bind lesser families to them.

The use of the nobiliary particle de in noble names (Fr: la particule) was not officially controlled in France
France
(unlike von in the German states), and is not reliable evidence of the bearer's nobility. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the de was adopted by some non-nobles (like Honoré de Balzac) in an attempt to appear noble.[6] Each rank of nobility — royal prince, prince belonging to collateral lines of the royal family (prince du sang), duc, marquis, comte, vicomte, baron, etc. — conferred its own privileges; dukes for example could enter royal residences in a carriage, duchesses could sit on a stool (tabouret) in the queen's presence. Dukes in France
Dukes in France
— the most important group after the princes — were further divided into those who were also "peers" (Duc et Pair) and those who were not. Dukes without a peerage fell into one of two groups: those never granted peerage fiefs by the king, and those for whom the Parlement
Parlement
of Paris
Paris
refused to register the king's lettres patentes, permanently or temporarily, as a protest against the promotion. Noble hierarchies were further complicated by the creation of chivalric orders — the Chevaliers du Saint-Esprit (Knights of the Holy Spirit) created by Henry III in 1578; the Ordre de Saint-Michel created by Louis XI in 1469; the Order of Saint Louis
Order of Saint Louis
created by Louis XIV in 1696 — by official posts, and by positions in the Royal House (the Great Officers of the Crown of France), such as grand maître de la garde-robe (the grand master of the royal wardrobe, being the royal dresser) or grand panetier (royal bread server), which had long ceased to be actual functions and had become nominal and formal positions with their own privileges. The 17th and 18th centuries saw nobles and the noblesse de robe battle each other for these positions and any other sign of royal favor. Attending the ceremony of the king's waking at Versailles (the smaller and intimate petit lever du roi and the more formal grand lever du roi), being asked to cross the barriers that separated the royal bed from the rest of the room, being invited to talk to the king, or being mentioned by the king... all were signs of favor and actively sought after. Economic status[edit] Economic studies of nobility in France
France
reveal great differences in financial status. At the end of the 18th century, a well-off family could earn 100,000–150,000 livres per year, although the most prestigious families could gain two or three times that much. For provincial nobility, yearly earnings of 10,000 livres permitted a minimum of provincial luxury, but most earned far less.[7] The ethics of noble expenditure, the financial crises of the century and the inability of nobles to participate in most fields without losing their nobility contributed to their poverty. In the 18th century, the Comte de Boulainvilliers, a rural noble, posited the belief that French nobility
French nobility
had descended from the victorious Franks, while non-nobles descended from the conquered Gauls. The theory had no validity, but offered a comforting myth for an impoverished noble class.[8] Aristocratic codes[edit] The idea of what it meant to be noble went through a radical transformation from the 16th to the 17th centuries. Through contact with the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
and their concept of the perfect courtier (Baldassare Castiglione), the rude warrior class was remodeled into what the 17th century would come to call l'honnête homme ('the honest or upright man'), among whose chief virtues were eloquent speech, skill at dance, refinement of manners, appreciation of the arts, intellectual curiosity, wit, a spiritual or platonic attitude in love, and the ability to write poetry. Most notable of noble values are the aristocratic obsession with "glory" (la gloire) and majesty (la grandeur) and the spectacle of power, prestige, and luxury.[9] For example, Pierre Corneille's noble heroes have been criticised by modern readers who have seen their actions as vainglorious, criminal, or hubristic; aristocratic spectators of the period would have seen many of these same actions as representative of their noble station[verification needed]. The château of Versailles, court ballets, noble portraits, triumphal arches were all representations of glory and prestige. The notion of glory (military, artistic, etc.) was seen in the context of the Roman Imperial model; it was not seen as vain or boastful, but as a moral imperative to the aristocratic classes. Nobles were required to be "generous" and "magnanimous", to perform great deeds disinterestedly (i.e. because their status demanded it – whence the expression noblesse oblige – and without expecting financial or political gain), and to master their own emotions, especially fear, jealousy, and the desire for vengeance. One's status in the world demanded appropriate externalisation (or "conspicuous consumption"). Nobles indebted themselves to build prestigious urban mansions (hôtels particuliers) and to buy clothes, paintings, silverware, dishes, and other furnishings befitting their rank. They were also required to show liberality by hosting sumptuous parties and by funding the arts.[10] Conversely, social parvenus who took on the external trappings of the noble classes (such as the wearing of a sword) were severely criticised, sometimes by legal action; laws on sumptuous clothing worn by bourgeois existed since the Middle Ages. Traditional aristocratic values began to be criticised in the mid 17th century: Blaise Pascal, for example, offered a ferocious analysis of the spectacle of power and François de La Rochefoucauld posited that no human act—however generous it pretended to be—could be considered disinterested. By relocating the French royal court to Versailles in the 1680s, Louis XIV further modified the role of the nobles. Versailles became a gilded cage: to leave spelled disaster for a noble, for all official charges and appointments were made there. Provincial nobles who refused to join the Versailles system were locked out of important positions in the military or state offices, and lacking royal subsidies (and unable to keep up a noble lifestyle on seigneurial taxes), these rural nobles (hobereaux) often went into debt. A strict etiquette was imposed: a word or glance from the king could make or destroy a career. At the same time, the relocation of the court to Versailles was also a brilliant political move by Louis. By distracting the nobles with court life and the daily intrigue that came with it, he neutralized a powerful threat to his authority and removed the largest obstacle to his ambition to centralize power in France. Power and protest[edit] Before Louis XIV imposed his will on the nobility, the great families of France
France
often claimed a fundamental right to rebel against unacceptable royal abuse. The Wars of Religion, the Fronde, the civil unrest during the minority of Charles VIII and the regencies of Anne of Austria and Marie de Medici
Marie de Medici
are all linked to these perceived loss of rights at the hand of a centralizing royal power. Much of the power of nobles in these periods of unrest comes from their "clientèle system". Like the king, nobles granted the use of fiefs, and gave gifts and other forms of patronage to other nobles to develop a vast system of noble clients. Lesser families would send their children to be squires and members of these noble houses, and to learn in them the arts of court society and arms. The elaboration of the ancien régime state was made possible only by redirecting these clientèle systems to a new focal point (the king and the state), and by creating countervailing powers (the bourgeoisie, the noblesse de robe).[11] By the late 17th century, any act of explicit or implicit protest was treated as a form of lèse-majesté and harshly repressed. Nobility
Nobility
and the Enlightenment[edit] Many key Enlightenment figures were French nobles, such as Montesquieu, whose full name was Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

The abolition of privileges during the French Revolution[edit]

The abolition of privileges, relief by Léopold Morice
Léopold Morice
at the "Monument to the Republic", Paris

At the beginning of the French Revolution, on August 4, 1789 the dues that a peasant had to pay to the lord, such as the banalités of Manorialism, were abolished by the National Constituent Assembly; noble lands were stripped of their special status as fiefs; the nobility were subjected to the same taxation as their co-nationals, and lost their privileges (the hunt, seigneurial justice, funeral honors). The nobles were, however, allowed to retain their titles. Nevertheless, it was decided that certain annual financial payments which were owed the nobility and which were considered "contractual" (i.e. not stemming from a usurpation of feudal power, but from a contract between a landowner and a tenant) such as annual rents (the cens and the champart) needed to be bought back by the tenant for the tenant to have clear title to his land. Since the feudal privileges of the nobles had been termed droits de feodalité dominante, these were called droits de féodalité contractante. The rate set (May 3, 1790) for purchase of these contractual debts was 20 times the annual monetary amount (or 25 times the annual amount if given in crops or goods); peasants were also required to pay back any unpaid dues over the past thirty years. No system of credit was established for small farmers, and only well-off individuals could take advantage of the ruling. This created a massive land grab by well-off peasants and members of the middle-class, who became absentee landowners and had their land worked by sharecroppers and poor tenants.[12] The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
had adopted by vote of the Assembly on August 26, 1789, but the abolition of nobility did not occur at that time. The Declaration declared in its first article that "Men are born free and equal in rights; social distinctions may be based only upon general usefulness." It was not until June 19, 1790, that hereditary titles of nobility were abolished. The notions of equality and fraternity won over some nobles such as the Marquis
Marquis
de Lafayette who supported the abolition of legal recognition of nobility, but other liberal nobles who had happily sacrificed their fiscal privileges saw this as an attack on the culture of honor. Nobility
Nobility
since the Revolution[edit] See also: Nobles of the First French Empire Nobility
Nobility
and hereditary titles were abolished by the Revolutions of 1789 and 1848, but hereditary titles were restored by decree in 1852 and have not been abolished by any subsequent law. However, since 1875 the President of the Republic neither confers nor confirms French titles (specific foreign titles continued to be authorised for use in France
France
by the office of the President as recently as 1961), but the French state still verifies them; civil courts can protect them; and criminal courts can prosecute their abuse. The Bourbon Restoration
Bourbon Restoration
of Louis XVIII saw the return of the old nobility to power (while ultra-royalists clamored for a return of lost lands). The electoral laws of 1817 limited suffrage to only the wealthiest or most prestigious members (less than 0.5%) of the population, which included many of the old nobility. Napoléon Bonaparte
Napoléon Bonaparte
established his own hereditary titles during the Empire, and these new aristocrats were confirmed in legal retention of their titles even after his overthrow. In all, about 2200 titles were created by Napoleon
Napoleon
I:

Princes and Dukes:

sovereign princes (3) duchies grand fiefs (20) victory princes (4) victory dukedoms (10) other dukedoms (3)

Counts (251) Barons (1516) Knights (385)

In 1975, there were 239 remaining families holding First Empire titles. Of those, perhaps 130–140 were titled. Only one title of prince and seven titles of duke remain. Napoleon
Napoleon
also established a new knightly order in 1802, the Légion d'honneur, which still exists but is not hereditary. Between 1830 and 1848 Louis Philippe, King of the French
Louis Philippe, King of the French
retained the House of Peers established by the Bourbons under the Restoration, although he made the peerage non-hereditary, and granted hereditary titles, but without "nobility". The Second Empire of Napoleon
Napoleon
III also conferred hereditary titles until monarchy was again abolished in 1870. While the Third Republic returned once again to the principles of equality espoused by the Revolution (at least among the political Radical party), in practice the upper echelons of French society maintained their notion of social distinction well into the 20th century (as attested to, for example, by the presence of nobility and noble class distinctions in the works of Marcel Proust). French courts have, however, held that the concept of nobility is incompatible with the equality of all citizens before the law proclaimed in the Declaration of the Rights of Man of 1789, and which remains part of the Constitution of 1958. "Nobility", as a legal concept and status, has therefore been effectively abolished in France. Nonetheless, extant titles which were hereditary under one of France's monarchical regimes are considered part of the legal name which descend according to their original grants (insofar as they pass from and to males only).[13] They are incapable of becoming a legal part of the name by self-assumption or prolonged usage,[14] and are entitled to the same protections in French civil and criminal courts as the name, even though they afford neither privilege nor precedence (cf. peerage of the United Kingdom).[15] Regulation of titles is carried out by a bureau of the Ministry of Justice, which can verify and authorize the bearer to make legal use of the title in official documents such as birth certificates.[16] Symbols[edit] In France, the signet ring (chevalière) bearing the coat of arms is traditionally worn by French noblemen on the ring finger of their left hand, contrary to usage in most other European countries (where it is worn on the little finger of either the right or left hand, depending on the country); French noblewomen however wear it on their little finger. The chevalière may either be worn facing up (en baise-main) or facing toward the palm (en bagarre). In contemporary usage, the inward position is increasingly common, although for some noble families the inward position is traditionally used to indicate that the wearer is married.[citation needed] Ancien Régime[edit]

King (Roi de France)

Dauphin of France

Royal Prince
Prince
of the Blood

Prince
Prince
of the Blood

Duke
Duke
and Peer of France

Duke

Marquis
Marquis
and Peer of France

Marquis

Count
Count
and Peer of France

Count

Count
Count
(older)

Viscount

Vidame

Baron

Knight's crown

Knight's tortillon

Napoleonic Empire[edit]

Emperor

Prince
Prince
Imperial

Prince

Duke

Count

Baron

Knight

Bonnet d'honneur

July Monarchy[edit]

King of the French

Gallery[edit]

Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count
Count
of Anjou (1113-1151)

Joan II, Countess of Auvergne
Joan II, Countess of Auvergne
(1378-1424)

Jean de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam
Jean de Villiers de L'Isle-Adam
(1384-1437)

Philip I de Croÿ
Philip I de Croÿ
(1435–1511)

Louis d'Armagnac, Duke
Duke
of Nemours (1472-1503)

Charles II d'Amboise
Charles II d'Amboise
(1473-1511)

Henri I de Montmorency
Henri I de Montmorency
(1534-1614)

François de Bonne, Duke
Duke
of Lesdiguières (1543-1626)

Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart
Gabriel de Rochechouart de Mortemart
(1600-1675)

Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier
Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier
(1605-1627)

Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne
Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne
(1611–1675)

François VI, Duc de La Rochefoucauld, Prince
Prince
de Marcillac (1613–1680)

Anne Hilarion de Tourville
Anne Hilarion de Tourville
(1642–1701)

Madeleine de l’Aubespine
Madeleine de l’Aubespine
(1646-1696)

Madame de Ventadour
Madame de Ventadour
(1654-1755)

François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie
François-Marie, 1st duc de Broglie
(1671-1745)

Armand de Vignerot du Plessis
Armand de Vignerot du Plessis
(1696–1788)

Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, Count
Count
of Maurepas (1701-1781)

François-Henri d'Harcourt
François-Henri d'Harcourt
(1726-1802)

Stéphanie Félicité, comtesse de Genlis
Stéphanie Félicité, comtesse de Genlis
(1746-1830)

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord
(1754-1838)

Agenor, duc de Gramont
Agenor, duc de Gramont
(1819-1880)

Henri d'Orléans, Duke
Duke
of Aumale (1822-1897)

Prince
Prince
Jean, Duke
Duke
of Guise (1874-1940)

Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque
Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque
(1902-1947)

See also[edit]

Dukes in France
Dukes in France
and List of French dukedoms List of French marquisates List of coats of arms of French peers List of French peers List of French peerages Peerage of France Seigneurial system of New France Surviving families of the French nobility
French nobility
(in French)

Notes[edit]

^ Bluche, 84. ^ Wright, 15. ^ Viguerie, 1232. ^ Hobsbawm, 57, citing Henri Eugène Sée's Esquisse d'une histoire du régime agraire en Europe aux XVIIIe et XIXe siècles (1991). ^ some very remote but legitimate descendants of French kings were never acknowledged by the Valois or Bourbon kings as princes of the blood royal, e.g. the Princes de Carency, cadets of Jean I de Bourbon, Count
Count
of La Marche and the Princes de Courtenay, cadets of Louis VI of France ^ Lucas, Colin (August 1973). "Nobles, Bourgeois and the Origins of the French Revolution". Past & Present. Oxford University Press. 60: 90–91. doi:10.1093/past/60.1.84.  ^ Viguerie, 1233. ^ Viguerie, 781–2. ^ See Bénichou. ^ For more on this, see Elias. This kind of expenditure mandated by social status also links to the theories of sociologist Marcel Mauss on the "gift". ^ See Major. ^ See Soboul, 192–195 for information on the abolition of privileges. ^ "La transmission des titres ne se fait plus, dans le droit moderne, que de mâle à mâle." Trib. Civ. Falaise, 21 Fév 1959 ^ "si le titre nobiliaire suit, en général, les règles du nom patronymique, il ne s'acquiert pas, comme lui, par le simple usage, même prolongé; il lui faut, à l'origine, une investiture émanant de l'autorité souveraine" Civ. 11 mai 1948, Dalloz 1948 335. ^ "Les titres nobiliaires, dépouillés aujourd'hui de tout privilège féodal et même de tout privilège de rang, n'ont plus qu'un caractère personnel et honorofique et ne peuvent même plus être considérés, du point de vue juridique, que comme un complément du nom patronymique permettant de mieux distinguer l'identité des personnes, tout en perpétuant de grands souvenirs; si, en vertu de cette sorte de lien de subordination entre le titre nobiliaire et le nom patronymique, il est dû la même protection au titre qu'au nom, on ne lui doit pas une protection spéciale et privilégiée." Paris, 2 Jan 1896. Dalloz 1896 2.328 ^ Texier, Alain. Qu'est-ce que la noblesse? Paris, 1987, pp. 407-10

References[edit]

Bénichou, Paul. Morales du grand siècle. Paris: Gallimard, 1948. ISBN 2-07-032473-7 Bluche, François. L'Ancien Régime: Institutions et société. Collection: Livre de poche. Paris: Fallois, 1993. ISBN 2-253-06423-8 Chaussinand-Nogaret, Guy. The French Nobility
Nobility
in the Eighteenth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985. Ford, Franklin L. Robe & Sword: The Regrouping of the French Aristocracy after Louis XIV. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1953. Dioudonnat, Pierre-Marie. Encyclopedie de la Fauss Noblesse et de la Noblesse d’Apparence. New ed. Paris: Sedopols, 1994. Hobsbawm, Eric. The Age of Revolution. New York: Vintage, 1996. ISBN 978-0-679-77253-8 La Chesnaye-Desbois et Badier, François de (comp). Dictionnaire de la Noblesse de la France. 3d ed. 18v. Paris: Bachelin-Deflorenne, 1868–73 (Kraus-Thomson Organization, 1969). Major, J. Russell. From Renaissance Monarchy
Monarchy
to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles & Estates. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins, 1994. ISBN 0-8018-5631-0 Elias, Norbert. The Court Society. (Originally publ., 1969) New York: Pantheon, 1983. ISBN 0-394-71604-3 Pillorget, René and Suzanne Pillorget. France
France
Baroque, France Classique 1589–1715. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1995. ISBN 2-221-08110-2 Soboul, Albert. La Révolution française. Paris: Editions Sociales, 1982. ISBN 2-209-05513-X Viguerie, Jean de. Histoire et dictionnaire du temps des Lumières 1715-1789. Collection: Bouquins. Paris: Laffont, 1995. ISBN 2-221-04810-5 Wright, Gordon. France
France
in Modern Times. 4th ed. New York: Norton, 1987. ISBN 0-393-95582-6

v t e

French Revolution

Causes Timeline Ancien Régime Revolution Constitutional monarchy Republic Directory Consulate Glossary

Significant civil and political events by year

1788

Day of the Tiles
Day of the Tiles
(7 Jun 1788) Assembly of Vizille
Assembly of Vizille
(21 Jul 1788)

1789

What Is the Third Estate?
What Is the Third Estate?
(Jan 1789) Réveillon riots (28 Apr 1789) Convocation of the Estates-General (5 May 1789) National Assembly (17 Jun – 9 Jul 1790) Tennis Court Oath
Tennis Court Oath
(20 Jun 1789) National Constituent Assembly (9 Jul – 30 Sep 1791) Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille
(14 Jul 1789) Great Fear (20 Jul – 5 Aug 1789) Abolition of Feudalism (4-11 Aug 1789) Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
(27 Aug 1789) Women's March on Versailles
Women's March on Versailles
(5 Oct 1789)

1790

Abolition of the Parlements (Feb–Jul 1790) Abolition of the Nobility
Nobility
(19 Jun 1790) Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
(12 Jul 1790)

1791

Flight to Varennes
Flight to Varennes
(20–21 Jun 1791) Champ de Mars Massacre
Champ de Mars Massacre
(17 Jul 1791) Declaration of Pillnitz (27 Aug 1791) The Constitution of 1791 (3 Sep 1791) Legislative Assembly (1 Oct 1791 – Sep 1792)

1792

France
France
declares war (20 Apr 1792) Brunswick Manifesto
Brunswick Manifesto
(25 Jul 1792) Paris
Paris
Commune becomes insurrectionary (Jun 1792) 10th of August (10 Aug 1792) September Massacres
September Massacres
(Sep 1792) National Convention
National Convention
(20 Sep 1792 – 26 Oct 1795) First republic declared (22 Sep 1792)

1793

Execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
(21 Jan 1793) Revolutionary Tribunal
Revolutionary Tribunal
(9 Mar 1793 – 31 May 1795) Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
(27 Jun 1793 – 27 Jul 1794)

Committee of Public Safety Committee of General Security

Fall of the Girondists (2 Jun 1793) Assassination of Marat (13 Jul 1793) Levée en masse
Levée en masse
(23 Aug 1793) The Death of Marat
The Death of Marat
(painting) Law of Suspects
Law of Suspects
(17 Sep 1793) Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette
is guillotined (16 Oct 1793) Anti-clerical laws (throughout the year)

1794

Danton and Desmoulins guillotined (5 Apr 1794) Law of 22 Prairial
Law of 22 Prairial
(10 Jun 1794) Thermidorian Reaction
Thermidorian Reaction
(27 Jul 1794) Robespierre guillotined (28 Jul 1794) White Terror (Fall 1794) Closing of the Jacobin Club (11 Nov 1794)

1795

Constitution of the Year III
Constitution of the Year III
(22 Aug 1795) Conspiracy of the Equals
Conspiracy of the Equals
(Nov 1795) Directoire (1795–99)

Council of Five Hundred Council of Ancients

13 Vendémiaire
13 Vendémiaire
5 Oct 1795

1797

Coup of 18 Fructidor
Coup of 18 Fructidor
(4 Sep 1797) Second Congress of Rastatt
Second Congress of Rastatt
(Dec 1797)

1799

Coup of 30 Prairial VII (18 Jun 1799) Coup of 18 Brumaire
Coup of 18 Brumaire
(9 Nov 1799) Constitution of the Year VIII
Constitution of the Year VIII
(24 Dec 1799) Consulate

Revolutionary campaigns

1792

Verdun Thionville Valmy Royalist Revolts

Chouannerie Vendée Dauphiné

Lille Siege of Mainz Jemappes Namur (fr)

1793

First Coalition Siege of Toulon
Siege of Toulon
(18 Sep – 18 Dec 1793) War in the Vendée Battle of Neerwinden) Battle of Famars
Battle of Famars
(23 May 1793) Expédition de Sardaigne
Expédition de Sardaigne
(21 Dec 1792 - 25 May 1793) Battle of Kaiserslautern Siege of Mainz Battle of Wattignies Battle of Hondschoote Siege of Bellegarde Battle of Peyrestortes
Battle of Peyrestortes
(Pyrenees) First Battle of Wissembourg (13 Oct 1793) Battle of Truillas
Battle of Truillas
(Pyrenees) Second Battle of Wissembourg (26–27 Dec 1793)

1794

Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
Battle of Villers-en-Cauchies
(24 Apr 1794) Battle of Boulou
Battle of Boulou
(Pyrenees) (30 Apr – 1 May 1794) Battle of Tournay
Battle of Tournay
(22 May 1794) Battle of Fleurus (26 Jun 1794) Chouannerie Battle of Tourcoing
Battle of Tourcoing
(18 May 1794) Battle of Aldenhoven (2 Oct 1794)

1795

Peace of Basel

1796

Battle of Lonato
Battle of Lonato
(3–4 Aug 1796) Battle of Castiglione
Battle of Castiglione
(5 Aug 1796) Battle of Theiningen Battle of Neresheim
Battle of Neresheim
(11 Aug 1796) Battle of Amberg
Battle of Amberg
(24 Aug 1796) Battle of Würzburg
Battle of Würzburg
(3 Sep 1796) Battle of Rovereto
Battle of Rovereto
(4 Sep 1796) First Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(8 Sep 1796) Battle of Emmendingen
Battle of Emmendingen
(19 Oct 1796) Battle of Schliengen
Battle of Schliengen
(26 Oct 1796) Second Battle of Bassano
Battle of Bassano
(6 Nov 1796) Battle of Calliano (6–7 Nov 1796) Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
Battle of the Bridge of Arcole
(15–17 Nov 1796) The Ireland Expedition (Dec 1796)

1797

Naval Engagement off Brittany
Brittany
(13 Jan 1797) Battle of Rivoli
Battle of Rivoli
(14–15 Jan 1797) Battle of the Bay of Cádiz (25 Jan 1797) Treaty of Leoben
Treaty of Leoben
(17 Apr 1797) Battle of Neuwied (18 Apr 1797) Treaty of Campo Formio
Treaty of Campo Formio
(17 Oct 1797)

1798

French invasion of Switzerland
French invasion of Switzerland
(28 January – 17 May 1798) French Invasion of Egypt (1798–1801) Irish Rebellion of 1798 (23 May – 23 Sep 1798) Quasi-War
Quasi-War
(1798–1800) Peasants' War (12 Oct – 5 Dec 1798)

1799

Second Coalition (1798–1802) Siege of Acre (20 Mar – 21 May 1799) Battle of Ostrach
Battle of Ostrach
(20–21 Mar 1799) Battle of Stockach (25 Mar 1799) Battle of Magnano
Battle of Magnano
(5 Apr 1799) Battle of Cassano (27 Apr 1799) First Battle of Zurich
First Battle of Zurich
(4–7 Jun 1799) Battle of Trebbia (19 Jun 1799) Battle of Novi (15 Aug 1799) Second Battle of Zurich
Second Battle of Zurich
(25–26 Sep 1799)

1800

Battle of Marengo
Battle of Marengo
(14 Jun 1800) Battle of Hohenlinden
Battle of Hohenlinden
(3 Dec 1800) League of Armed Neutrality (1800–02)

1801

Treaty of Lunéville
Treaty of Lunéville
(9 Feb 1801) Treaty of Florence
Treaty of Florence
(18 Mar 1801) Algeciras Campaign
Algeciras Campaign
(8 Jul 1801)

1802

Treaty of Amiens
Treaty of Amiens
(25 Mar 1802)

Military leaders

French Army

Eustache Charles d'Aoust Pierre Augereau Alexandre de Beauharnais Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte Louis-Alexandre Berthier Jean-Baptiste Bessières Guillaume-Marie-Anne Brune Jean François Carteaux Jean Étienne Championnet Chapuis de Tourville Adam Philippe, Comte de Custine Louis-Nicolas Davout Louis Desaix Jacques François Dugommier Thomas-Alexandre Dumas Charles François Dumouriez Pierre Marie Barthélemy Ferino Louis-Charles de Flers Paul Grenier Emmanuel de Grouchy Jacques Maurice Hatry Lazare Hoche Jean-Baptiste Jourdan François Christophe de Kellermann Jean-Baptiste Kléber Pierre Choderlos de Laclos Jean Lannes Charles Leclerc Claude Lecourbe François Joseph Lefebvre Jacques MacDonald Jean-Antoine Marbot Jean Baptiste de Marbot François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Auguste de Marmont André Masséna Bon-Adrien Jeannot de Moncey Jean Victor Marie Moreau Édouard Mortier, duc de Trévise Joachim Murat Michel Ney Pierre-Jacques Osten (fr) Nicolas Oudinot Catherine-Dominique de Pérignon Jean-Charles Pichegru Józef Poniatowski Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr Barthélemy Louis Joseph Schérer Jean-Mathieu-Philibert Sérurier Joseph Souham Jean-de-Dieu Soult Louis-Gabriel Suchet Belgrand de Vaubois Claude Victor-Perrin, Duc de Belluno

French Navy

Charles-Alexandre Linois

Opposition

Austria

József Alvinczi Archduke Charles, Duke
Duke
of Teschen Count
Count
of Clerfayt (Walloon) Karl Aloys zu Fürstenberg Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
Friedrich Freiherr von Hotze
(Swiss) Friedrich Adolf, Count
Count
von Kalckreuth Pál Kray (Hungarian) Charles Eugene, Prince
Prince
of Lambesc (French) Maximilian Baillet de Latour (Walloon) Karl Mack von Leiberich Rudolf Ritter von Otto (Saxon) Prince
Prince
Josias of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Peter Vitus von Quosdanovich Prince
Prince
Heinrich XV of Reuss-Plauen Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
Johann Mészáros von Szoboszló
(Hungarian) Karl Philipp Sebottendorf Dagobert von Wurmser

Britain

Sir Ralph Abercromby Admiral Sir James Saumarez Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Prince
Prince
Frederick, Duke
Duke
of York and Albany

Dutch Republic

William V, Prince
Prince
of Orange

 Prussia

Charles William Ferdinand, Duke
Duke
of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel Frederick Louis, Prince
Prince
of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen

Russia

Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov

Spain

Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos

Other significant figures and factions

Society of 1789

Jean Sylvain Bailly Gilbert du Motier, Marquis
Marquis
de Lafayette François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt Isaac René Guy le Chapelier Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord Nicolas de Condorcet

Feuillants and monarchiens

Madame de Lamballe Madame du Barry Louis de Breteuil Loménie de Brienne Charles Alexandre de Calonne de Chateaubriand Jean Chouan Grace Elliott Arnaud de La Porte Jean-Sifrein Maury Jacques Necker François-Marie, marquis de Barthélemy Guillaume-Mathieu Dumas Antoine Barnave Lafayette Alexandre-Théodore-Victor, comte de Lameth Charles Malo François Lameth André Chénier Jean-François Rewbell Camille Jordan Madame de Staël Boissy d'Anglas Jean-Charles Pichegru Pierre Paul Royer-Collard

Girondists

Jacques Pierre Brissot Roland de La Platière Madame Roland Father Henri Grégoire Étienne Clavière Marquis
Marquis
de Condorcet Charlotte Corday Marie Jean Hérault Jean Baptiste Treilhard Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Jérôme Pétion de Villeneuve Jean Debry Jean-Jacques Duval d'Eprémesnil Olympe de Gouges Jean-Baptiste Robert Lindet Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux

The Plain

Abbé Sieyès de Cambacérès Charles François Lebrun Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot Philippe Égalité Louis Philippe I Mirabeau Antoine Christophe Merlin
Antoine Christophe Merlin
de Thionville Jean Joseph Mounier Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours François de Neufchâteau

Montagnards

Maximilien Robespierre Georges Danton Jean-Paul Marat Camille Desmoulins Louis Antoine de Saint-Just Paul Nicolas, vicomte de Barras Louis Philippe I Louis Michel le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Jacques-Louis David Marquis
Marquis
de Sade Jacques-Louis David Georges Couthon Roger Ducos Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois Jean-Henri Voulland Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville Philippe-François-Joseph Le Bas Marc-Guillaume Alexis Vadier Jean-Pierre-André Amar Prieur de la Côte-d'Or Prieur de la Marne Gilbert Romme Jean Bon Saint-André Jean-Lambert Tallien Pierre Louis Prieur Bertrand Barère
Bertrand Barère
de Vieuzac Antoine Christophe Saliceti

Hébertists and Enragés

Jacques Hébert Jacques Nicolas Billaud-Varenne Pierre Gaspard Chaumette Charles-Philippe Ronsin Antoine-François Momoro François-Nicolas Vincent François Chabot Jean Baptiste Noël Bouchotte Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Gobel François Hanriot Jacques Roux Stanislas-Marie Maillard Charles-Philippe Ronsin Jean-François Varlet Theophile Leclerc Claire Lacombe Pauline Léon Gracchus Babeuf Sylvain Maréchal

Others

Charles X Louis XVI Louis XVII Louis XVIII Louis Antoine, Duke
Duke
of Enghien Louis Henri, Prince
Prince
of Condé Louis Joseph, Prince
Prince
of Condé Marie Antoinette Napoléon Bonaparte Lucien Bonaparte Joseph Bonaparte Joseph Fesch Joséphine de Beauharnais Joachim Murat Jean Sylvain Bailly Jacques-Donatien Le Ray Guillaume-Chrétien de Malesherbes Talleyrand Thérésa Tallien Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target Catherine Théot List of people associated with the French Revolution

Influential thinkers

Les Lumières Beaumarchais Edmund Burke Anacharsis Cloots Charles-Augustin de Coulomb Pierre Claude François Daunou Diderot Benjamin Franklin Thomas Jefferson Antoine Lavoisier Montesquieu Thomas Paine Jean-Jacques Rousseau Abbé Sieyès Voltaire Mary Wollstonecraft

Cultural impact

La Marseillaise French Tricolour Liberté, égalité, fraternité Marianne Bastille Day Panthéon French Republican Calendar Cult of the Supreme Being Cult of Reason

Temple of Reason

Sans-culottes Metric system Phrygian cap Women in the French Revolution Symbolism in the French Revolution Historiography of the French Revolution Influence of the French Revolution

v t e

Royal and noble titles and honours by country

Monarchies

Commonwealth realms Spain Sweden Thailand

Former monarchies

Austria-Hungary Burma Byzantium Brazil China

Qing

Egypt

Mamluk

Ethiopia France Germany Korea

Joseon

Ottoman Portugal Poland and Lithuania Romania Russia Serbia

royal noble

Somalia Maratha

v t e

Nobility
Nobility
of Europe

Present monarchies

Belgium Denmark Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden United Kingdom Vatican

Black nobility

Former monarchies

Albania Austria Bohemia Bulgaria Croatia Estonia and Latvia Finland France Germany Hungary Iceland Italy Ireland Lithuania Montenegro Poland Portugal Romania Russia Serbia

v t e

Nobility
Nobility
by nation

(*) : state where monarchy still exists

Africa

Egypt Ethiopia Nigeria Madagascar Somalia South Africa (Zulu)

Americas

North

Canada* Mexico

pre-Columbian post-Columbian

South

Brazil Cuba

Asia

China India*

Princes British

Indonesia*

Balinese Chinese Javanese Malay

Japan*

Kuge Daimyō Meiji

Korea*

Nobility Yangban

Malaysia Mongolia Philippines Thailand Vietnam

Europe

North

Denmark* Finland Norway* Sweden*

West

Belgium* Britain*

England Ireland Scotland

France

Kingdom Empire

Iceland Ireland

Gaelic Norman

The Netherlands* Switzerland

South

Italy Malta Portugal Spain* Vatican*

Central, Eastern and Caucasus

Albania Armenia Austria Germany Baltic countries

Ritterschaft Lithuania

Bohemia Croatia Hungary Montenegro Poland Romania Russia Serbia (medieval) Ukraine (Galicia)

Oceania

Australasia

Australia*

Melanesia

Fiji

Micronesia

Marshall Islands

Polynesia

Sam

.